ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0170.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: migration; female genital mutilation; sexual health; reproductive health; communication
Online: 18 August 2016 (05:30:20 CEST)
Objectives: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a significant public health problem. It is estimated around 14,700 women affected by FGM live in Switzerland, primarily among women with a history of migration. Our qualitative research investigated the sexual health of immigrant women living with FGM in Switzerland, describing their own perception of health, reproductive life and sexuality. Methods: We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with a group of eight immigrant women of African origin living in Switzerland with Type III FGM (infibulation). Results: Seven of the women were from Somalia and one from Ivory Coast. All of the Somali women were mothers and married (two separated), and the Ivorian woman was a single mother. The women in our study reported a low level of sexual satisfaction and reproductive health. They affirmed their desire to improve, or at least change, their condition. Although they rarely talk with their husbands about sexual subject matter, they would like to include them more and improve dialogue. Conclusions: Specific socio-sexual management is recommended when caring for immigrant women living with FGM in order to respond to their specific health care needs. Multidisciplinary approaches may be able to offer more comprehensive health care, including facilitated communication to improve dialogue between women and health care professionals, and eventually between women and their husbands in discussing sexual matter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0395.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Mental Health; Primary Health Care; Collaborative Care; Health Assessment
Online: 29 June 2022 (05:05:41 CEST)
The supply of mental health processes in primary care has gaps. This study aims to analyze the association of agreement criteria and flows between primary care teams and the Family Health Support Center (NASF) for mental health collaborative care, considering the difference between capital and non-capital cities in Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted based on secondary data from the Primary Care Access and Quality Improvement Program. Agreement criteria and flows were obtained from 3883 NASF teams of the matrix support or collaborative care. The Chi-square test and multiple Poisson regression were used; p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Prevalence ratios of negative associations demonstrated protective factors for support actions: follow-up at Psychosocial Care Center, management of psychopharmacotherapy, offer of other therapeutic actions, care process for users of psychoactive substances, and offer of activities to prevent the use of psychoactive substances. Collaborative care in primary care was effective, and capital cities were a protective factor compared with non-capital cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0324.v1
Online: 31 January 2019 (08:56:46 CET)
Introduction: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major driver of health care costs, thus treatments enabling T2D reversal may reduce expenditures. We examined the impact of a T2D continuous care intervention (CCI) on health care utilization. Previous research documented that CCI, including individualized nutrition supported by remote care, simultaneously reduced hemoglobin A1c and medication use and improved cardiovascular status after two years; however, the impact on utilization is unknown. Methods: This study used four years of data (two years pre-intervention, two years post-intervention) from the Indiana Network for Patient Care (INPC) health record. Two methods estimated the impact of CCI on utilization. First, an interrupted time series (ITS) including only CCI participants (n=193) compared post-intervention utilization to expected utilization had the pre-intervention trend persisted. Deviation from the trend was estimated non-parametrically for each 6-month interval after the implementation of CCI . Second, a 1:3 matched comparator group (n=579) was constructed and used for a difference-in-differences (DiD) analysis. The primary outcome was annualized outpatient encounters. Secondary outcomes included emergency encounters and hospitalizations. Results: In two years prior to intervention, CCI participants had a mean of 5.77 annualized encounters (5.62 outpatient, 0.04 hospitalizations, 0.11 emergency). The CCI group showed a reduction in outpatient utilization after intervention. In ITS analysis, 1.6 to 1.9 fewer annualized outpatient encounters occurred in each 6-month interval post-intervention relative to expected utilization based on pre-intervention trends (p<0.01 each 6-month period; 28-33% reduction). The DiD analysis suggested a larger reduction; 5 fewer annualized outpatient encounters in the quarter after intervention, diminishing to 2.5 fewer after 2 years (p<0.01 each quarter). The study was underpowered to draw conclusions about hospitalization and emergency encounters due to the limited number of CCI patients and the rarity of encounters. Conclusions: Outpatient encounters were significantly reduced for a T2D patient population up to 2 years after receiving an individualized intervention supporting nutrition and behavior change through remote care.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0317.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: health equity; emergency care; determinants of health
Online: 18 January 2021 (11:24:42 CET)
Identifying health care equity indicators is an important first step in integrating the concept of equity into assessments of health care system performance, particularly in emergency care. We conducted a systematic review of administrative data-derived health care equity indicators and their association with socio-economic determinants of health (SEDH) in emergency care settings. Following PRISMA-Equity reporting guidelines, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PUBMED and Web of Science were searched for relevant studies. The outcomes of interest were indicators of health care equity and the associated SEDH they examine. Among 29 studies identified, 14 equity indicators were identified and grouped into four categories that reflect the patient emergency care pathway. Total emergency department (ED) visits and ambulatory care sensitive condition-related ED visits were the two most frequently used equity indicators. Despite some conflicting results, all identified SEDH (social deprivation, income, education level, social class, insurance coverage and health literacy) are associated with inequalities in access to and use of emergency care. In conclusion, the use of administrative data-derived indicators combined with identified SEDH could improve healthcare equity measurement in emergency care settings across health care systems worldwide.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: consumer health informatics; E-health; mobile Apps; outpatient follow-up; patient portal; patient-reported outcomes
Online: 2 April 2019 (12:32:10 CEST)
Replacement of fee-for-service with capitation arrangements, forces physicians and institutions to minimize health care costs, while maintaining high-quality care. In this report we describe how patients, their families (and caregivers) can work with members of the medical care team to achieve these twin goals of maintaining (and perhaps improving) high-quality care and minimizing costs. We describe how increased self-management enables patients and their families/caregivers to provide electronic patient-reported outcomes (i.e., symptoms, events) (ePROs) as frequently as the patient or the medical care team consider appropriate. These capabilities also allow greater reliance on the use of mobile technologies (mHealth) to provide ongoing assessments of physiologic measurements/phenomena. Remote surveillance of these communications allows longer intervals between (fewer) visits of patients to the medical-care team when this is appropriate and earlier interventions when that is appropriate. Systems are now available that alert medical care providers to situations when interventions might be needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0016.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: patient engagement; consumer health; recommendation; consensus conference; guidelines; health services research
Online: 3 February 2020 (05:31:43 CET)
Patient engagement is receiving a growing attention in the healthcare context. However, although worldwide healthcare stakeholders agree that patient engagement is a priority for quality and effective care, no shared recommendations on how to promote patient engagement are currently available. Based on these premises, a Consensus Conference (CC) was promoted to address four main issues: What is the definition of Patient Engagement? How measuring Patient Engagement? What are the most recommended methodologies and the tools to promote Patient Engagement? What is the role of new technologies in promoting of Patient Engagement? The consensus was obtained through an iterative process that began with a systematic synthesis of the available literature in each domain followed by plenary expert discussions. This CC - including the systematic analysis of internationals scientific evidences (2749 sources across the major international scientific databases) together with experiences of a multi-disciplinary consortium of investigators and key stakeholders - attempted to provide the first evidence-based Expert Consensus Statement for the promotion of Patient Engagement in chronic care. These recommendations should be envisaged as inspirational principles to promote a real eco-system of engagement and might orient health services research and interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0124.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: primary health care; family health strategy; health personnel; adaptation; psychological
Online: 8 February 2022 (16:23:26 CET)
The aim was to analyze the coping strategies used by primary health care (PHC) professionals. A cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study was conducted with professionals working in primary health care units in São José do Rio Preto, a large city in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil. For data collection we used an instrument developed by the researchers, containing sociodemographic and professional variables, as well as the Problem Coping Modes Scale (EMEP). We evaluated 333 PHC professionals. A difference was observed between the scores of the four coping strategies (p<0.001), with the highest score for the problem-focused strategy (3.8) and the lowest score for the emotion-focused strategy (2.4). Physicians had the lowest scores in coping strategies focused on religious practices/fantastical thinking (p<0.001) and pursuit of social support (p=0.045), while community health agents had the highest scores in these coping strategies). Professionals working in PHC have different coping strategies for the problems and stressful situations experienced in the work environment. These strategies can involve more positive attitudes focused on confrontation and problem solving, to emotional responses that involve attitudes of avoidance and denial that involve attitudes of avoidance and denial of the problem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0081.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Migration; Health; Electronic health records
Online: 5 October 2021 (11:40:07 CEST)
International migrants comprised 14% of the UK population in 2020, but migrant health in the UK has rarely been studied at a population level using primary care electronic health records (EHRs). Given the difficulty of determining migration status using EHRs, this study developed a migration phenotype and assessed its validity. We developed a phenotyping algorithm using codes for country of birth, visa status, non-English main/first language and non-UK origin. It was applied to a Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) GOLD database of 16,071,111 primary care patients between 1997 and 2018. We compared the completeness and representativeness of the identified migrant population to Office for National Statistics (ONS) country of birth and 2011 census data by year, age, sex, geographic region of birth and ethnicity. Between 1997-2018, 403,768 migrants (2.51% of the CPRD GOLD population) were identified using the phenotype. 178,749 (1.11%) of these migrants were identified by codes indicating foreign country of birth or visa status, 216,731 (1.35%) a non-English main/first language, and 8,288 (0.05%) non-UK origin. The cohort was similarly distributed compared to ONS migration statistics in terms of sex and region of birth. Recording of migration improved from identifying approximately one-tenth of the expected proportion of migrants according to the ONS in 2004 to a quarter in 2018. Younger migrants were better represented than those aged 50 and over. The migration phenotype identified a large number of migrants and can be used to undertake large-scale migration health research in CPRD GOLD to inform healthcare policy, practice and action. While the cohort was representative of the UK migrant population in terms of sex and region of birth, migration status was under-recorded in earlier years and older ages, and future studies for these groups should therefore be interpreted with caution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0363.v2
Online: 18 July 2018 (11:28:15 CEST)
In 2014, a whistleblower reported that many U.S. veterans died while waiting for care at the Phoenix VHA. Problems with veteran’s care through 2018 reveal ongoing and systematic problem. In March 2018, the VA Inspector General identified critical deficiencies at the Washington, DC VA Medical Center including failures to track patient safety events accurately, ineffective sterile processing, and more than 10 thousand open or pending prosthetic / sensory aid consults. The VHA clearly has problems with access and quality in a budget-constrained environment. In this policy analysis, four separate interventions that address the gap between the magnitude as well as the use of the VHA’s fixed budget versus access and cost expectations are explored. These policy interventions include maintaining the status quo, returning to a “VHA-only” option, transitioning to a CMS central payer system, and consolidating care under the DoD TRICARE insurance plans. An objective evaluation suggests that extending TRICARE to veterans while phasing out the VHA’s care responsibilities, while politically unpalatable, would likely provide the best of four possible solutions under various criterion weighting schemes. A central payer solution under the CMS would also be viable consideration. A Friedman’s test with Wilcoxon rank sum post-hoc tests suggests that TRICARE patient perceptions of quality are superior to VHA and non-VHA / non-DoD (p<.001), that access provided by the TRICARE program is ranked second in terms of venue acceptance only to the CMS solution set based on primary provider acceptance, and that the cost per beneficiary of a TRICARE solution ($6.5K / beneficiary) is far better than a VHA-only solution ($14.0 K / beneficiary), the CMS central payer solution ($12.2K / beneficiary), or the status quo (between $12.2K and $14.0K / beneficiary). The intent of this paper is to provoke thoughtful consideration of solutions for providing access to high-quality healthcare for veterans within our outside of the VHA. In this policy analysis, separate interventions that address the gaps between cost, quality, and access are explored. These policy interventions include maintaining the status quo, returning to a VHA-only option, transitioning to a CMS central payer system, and consolidating care under TRICARE.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0011.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Elderly with dementia; needs; utilization; essential care service package; long-term care system; health policy
Online: 1 February 2021 (11:24:37 CET)
Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD) remain a public health challenge in developing counties. We developed a needs-based essential care service package (ECSP) for care planning of persons living with dementia (PLWD) using a cross-sectional survey among PLWD in institutions in six cities in China (n= 1,299). Face-to-face interviews were conducted with caregivers of PLWD by trained staff between 2018 and 2019. Care service needs and utilization by the level of cognitive impairment were summarized. The average age of PLWD was 80.7 years. 76% of participants had severe cognitive impairment. The needs-based ECSP with 30 service items would be sufficient in supporting care services of PLWD in China, of which seven items are core care. The selection plan for ECSP at different levels is designed as “General Care Services + Selective Care Services”, in which service items for low-, mid-and high-level care for PLWD are 7+3, 7+6, and 7+10, respectively. The findings provide the first large-scale data on service needs and utilization of PLWD in mainland China. The ECSP for PLWD advanced in the paper was a practicable and effective quantitative management means. It is deserved to application in a large scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0432.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Consumption; Health care expenditure; Luxury good hypothesis; Permanent income hypothesis; Panel cointegration
Online: 27 December 2021 (14:09:29 CET)
A wide range of research has been developed in the empirical literature regarding income and price elasticities of health care expenditure (HCE). The results are mixed, as researchers employ different methodologies and data sources. The benefits of the panel data method, such as greater data variation, less collinearity, and more degrees of freedom, made it attractive among economists. However, the pooled mean group (PMG) method provides robust estimates compared to conventional methods, such as the mean group estimator and dynamic fixed-effects estimator. As such, this paper applies the PMG method to scrutinize the effect of income and price on U.S. health care consumption using a panel of 46 states. The income and price elasticities were found to be 0.85 and -0.48, respectively, which partially describes the recessionary decline in health care consumption following the Great Recession. In addition, the model reveals that the short-run income elasticity is smaller than the long-run. This confirms that U.S. health care consumption follows the permanent income hypothesis. Consequently, the short-run efficacy of public policies targeting HCE remains limited. The results of this paper suggest reconsidering and adjusting health care policies during a recession so as to avoid probable long-run adverse effects on HCE.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0277.v1
Online: 10 June 2021 (08:08:00 CEST)
In Rwanda, more than 90% of the population is insured for health care. Despite the comprehensiveness of health insurance coverage in Rwanda, some health services at partner institutions are not available, causing insured patients to pay unintended cost. We aimed to analyze the effect of health insurance on health care utilization and factors associated with the use of health care services in Rwanda. This is an analysis of secondary data from the Rwanda integrated living condition survey 2016-2017. The survey gathered data from 14580 households, and decision tree and multilevel logistic regression models were applied. Among 14580 households only (20%) used health services. Heads of households aged between [56-65] years (AOR=1.28, 95% CI:1.02-1.61), aged between [66-75] years (AOR=1.52, 95% CI: 1.193-1.947), aged over 76 years (AOR=1.48, 95% CI:1.137-1.947), households with health insurance (AOR=4.57, 95% CI: 3.97-5.27) displayed a significant increase in the use of health services. This study shows evidence of the effect of health insurance on health care utilization in Rwanda: a significant increase of 4.57 times greater adjusted odds of using health services compared to those not insured. The findings from our research will guide policymakers and provide useful insights within the Rwanda context as well as for other countries that are considering moving towards universal health coverage through similar models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0754.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: ME/CFS; dentistry; interdisciplinary care; oral health
Online: 31 July 2020 (14:02:48 CEST)
Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a disabling condition affecting millions of adults and children worldwide. Despite the development of multiple criteria sets for defining this disorder, agreement on the core symptoms and other implications of ME/CFS point to the importance of understanding their role in oral health care. Overall, care for the homebound and bedbound population with ME/CFS issues has been under-addressed in the literature to date and there has been little consideration of the oral health needs of this population. Evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of dental concerns may be hindered by many of the diverse symptoms of ME/CFS. The present paper utilizes the International Consensus Criteria (ICC) in discussing treatment considerations for the most severely affected patients with ME/CFS, both in oral evaluation and active care. While no specific dental pathology is linked to ME/CFS, proper care for the patient so affected must take into account the disorder’s symptoms and severity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0039.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Chronic conditions; diabetes; older adults; race or ethnicity; health care access; home health care; social determinants of health; inequalities or inequities
Online: 1 February 2021 (14:03:38 CET)
Racial and ethnic disparities exist in diabetes prevalence, health services utilization, and out-comes including disabling and life-threatening complications. Home health care may especially benefit older adults with diabetes through individualized education, advocacy, care coordina-tion, and psychosocial support for patients and their caregivers. This study examined factors as-sociated with hospital discharge to home health care and subsequent utilization of home health care among a cohort of Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes, age 50 and older, living in the United States. The cohort (n=786,758) was followed for 14 days after a diabetes-related index hospitalization, using linked Medicare administrative, claims, and assessment data (2014-2016). Multivariate logistic regression models included patient demographics, comorbidities, hospital length of stay, geographic region, neighborhood area deprivation, and rural/urban setting. In ful-ly adjusted models, hospital discharge to home health care was significantly less likely among Hispanic (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.8-0.8) and American Indian (OR 0.8, CI 0.8-0.8) compared to white patients. Among those discharged to home health care, all racial/ethnic minority patients were less likely to receive services within 14-days. Further work should focus on eliminating systemic racism in home health care referral and systemic barriers to receiving home health care services.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0287.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: integration of sports and health care; sports; health; community
Online: 23 February 2022 (07:06:51 CET)
(1) Background: With continuous globalization and modernization of people's lives, lifestyle has changed dramatically, with decreased physical activity and increased unhealthy eating patterns in many nations throughout the world. With the COVID-19 pandemic and changes taking place in people’s health and lifestyles around the world, the need for rehabilitation is expected to rise in the coming years.(2)Methods: This paper analyzes the integration model of sports and health care using theoretical analysis, literature reviews, logical reasoning, and other methods.(3)Results: The integration of sports and health care in China has entered the stage of practical implementation after many years of development, forming a few representative integration patterns. Governments, communities, community hospitals, hospitals, and third-party institutions are the main participants, with the community playing an important role in the integration. Pharmacies, sports venues, and schools with sufficient staff have a relatively low participation rate.(4)Conclusion: The grading treatment has been applied in health management and sports rehabilitation, based on the development of digital medicine, a government-led grading treatment model of "health management center" can promote the participation of multiple subjects in the integration of sports and health care, solving the problems existing in the current integration process to a certain extent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0156.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Health care risk waste, home-based caregivers
Online: 8 October 2018 (16:02:59 CEST)
The quadruple burden of diseases, early discharge from hospital and hospital at home have resulted in home-based care services becoming a requirement in South Africa. The home-based care services generate a significant amount of health care risk waste that is mismanaged. However, more attention is given to the health care risk waste generated in hospitals and clinics than to health care risk waste generated by home-based caregivers. Therefore, this study investigates the health care risk waste management practices by home-based caregivers. The study adopted a mixed research approach, qualitative and quantitative methods, using a literature review, interviews, and questionnaires as means of data collection. Results show that there are different types of health care risk waste generated as a result of different activities performed by home-based caregivers, but that the waste was found to be managed in an unsafe manner. The majority of households receiving home-based care did not have basic sanitation facilities such as toilets, running water and waste removal services, aggravating the issue of health care risk waste mismanagement. The study recommends a new policy framework that will lead to safe management practices of generated health care risk waste to be adopted by home-based caregivers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0425.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: digitization; digitalization; digital health; hospital; nursing; nurses; vignette experiment
Online: 30 June 2022 (09:34:45 CEST)
(1) Background: The usage of digital technologies in hospital nursing provides potential solutions to the shortage of qualified nurses and current pandemic challenges. The process involves changes and requires willingness to learn. In this respect, leaders can motivate nurses. Therefore, this vignette study examined which motives and values leaders must address in order to promote nurses’ motivation to use different digital technologies. (2) Methods: We asked hospital nurses in an online vignette study to assess fictitious situations about the imminent introduction of a digital technology. The situations differed regarding the devices (tablet/smart glasses), addressed motives (extrinsic/intrinsic), and values (efficiency/patient orientation). (3) Results: We included 299 responses in the analysis. The tablet vignettes caused especially high motivation, more than the vignettes of the smart glasses (Z = -6.653, p = <0.001). The leader was more motivating when emphasizing effi-ciency rather than patient orientation (Z = -2.995, p =0.003). The dataset did not give significant re-sults regarding extrinsic and intrinsic motives. (4) Conclusions: The results suggest efficiency as a motive for using known digital technologies. Management actions can provide the structural framework and training so that responsible leaders can ensure their staff’s engagement to also use unknown devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0145.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: obesity; breast screening; mammograms; health service utilization;
Online: 15 January 2019 (09:10:11 CET)
Obesity in Australia is rapidly rising, and is a major public health concern. Obesity increases risk of breast cancer and worse associated outcomes, yet breast screening participation rates in Australia are suboptimal and can be lower in higher risk, obese women. This study qualitatively explored barriers to breast screening participation in obese women in Australia. In-depth interviews (n=29), were conducted with obese women (BMI 30) and key health stakeholders. A disconnect between stakeholders’ and women’s perceptions was found. For women, low knowledge around a heightened need to screen existed, they reported limited desire to prioritize personal health needs, reluctance to screen due to poor body image and prior negative mammographic experiences due to issues with weight. Stakeholders perceived few issues in screening obese women beyond equipment limitations, and health and safety issues. Overall, weight was a taboo topic among our interviewees, indicating that a lack of discourse around this issue may be putting obese women at increased risk of breast cancer morbidity and mortality. Consideration of breast screening policy in obese women is warranted. Targeted health promotion on increased breast cancer risk in obese women is required as is a need to address body image issues and encourage screening participation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0449.v1
Online: 20 August 2020 (08:36:03 CEST)
Objectives: to assess the knowledge level of parents from the central region of Saudi Arabia about oral health and care of preschool children and its relation with sociodemographic variables, parents‟ self-perception toward their dental health, importance of teeth and frequency of dental visits. Methods: a random sample of 754 parents participated in this cross-sectional study and completed an internationally accepted questionnaire. Chi square test and logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the data (p<0.05). Results: mean knowledge score of the parents was 4.8 (out of 11). Less than 20% of the parents were knowledgeable about the best position for tooth brushing, the concentration of fluoride in a child‟s toothpaste, timing of first dental check-up, and best time to give a sugary snack. Mothers, parents with high educational level and family income, parents with positive attitude towards teeth and excellent self-perception of their dental health were significantly more likely to score higher (p<0.05). Conclusions: knowledge of parents about oral health and care of preschool children in the central region of Saudi Arabia was deficient. Gender, education level of parents, family income, attitude about teeth and self-perception of parents‟ own dental health were factors which influenced their knowledge. To improve parents‟ knowledge, role of health professionals should be improved and TV commercials directed toward the areas which had gaps in knowledge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0428.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Roma minority, legal constrains, health care utilization, health status, geographical inequality
Online: 23 July 2018 (14:27:34 CEST)
Roma is the largest ethnic minority of Europe with poor health status, which is poorly explored due to legal constrains of ethnicity assessment. We aimed to elaborate health-indicators for adults living in segregated Roma settlements (SRS) representing the most vulnerable Roma subpopulation. SRSs were mapped in a study area populated by 54682 adults. Records of all adults living in the study area were processed in the National Institute of Health Insurance Fund Management. Aggregated, age-sex standardized SRS-specific and non-SRS-specific indicators on healthcare utilization and premature death along with the ratio of them (RR) were computed with 95% confidence intervals. The rate of GP appointments was significantly higher among SRS inhabitants (RR=1.152, 95%CI: 1.136–1.167). The proportion of subjects hospitalized (RR=1.286, 1.177–1.405), and the reimbursement for inpatient care (RR=1.060, 1.057–1.064) were elevated for SRS. Premature mortality was significantly higher in SRSs (RR=1.711, 1.085-2.696). Our study demonstrated that it is possible to compute the SRS-specific version of the routine healthcare indicators without violating the protection of personal data by converting a sensitive ethical issue to a non-sensitive small area geographical analysis; there is an SRS-specific healthcare utilization pattern, which is associated with elevated costs and increased risk of premature death.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0140.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Literature Review; Elderly Health Problems; ; Elderly Care; Nursing Homes
Online: 5 April 2021 (14:06:36 CEST)
Bacground, the increasing number of elderly is a new challenge for health care systems around the world. The phenomenon of the complex health problems experienced by the elderly encourages families to bring the elderly to a nursing home. The purpose of this study was to describe the condition of the elderly living in nursing homes and their care needs. Methodology, this research design is a literature review, article search using 5 databases, namely Scopus, ProQuest, Pubmed, CINAHL and Scient Direct. Articles reviewed from 2019 to 2021. Protocol and evaluation of literature review using the PRISMA checklist, and the assessment guide using the Joanna Briggs Institute Guideline. Results, the health conditions of the elderly who live in the orphanage are mostly aged 60 years and over, physically experiencing disturbances in their daily activities and dependence. Psychologically experiencing anxiety, depression, loneliness and even mental disorders and socially need family support. The care needs of the elderly in nursing homes include services by competent and culturally sensitive staff and nurses, safe and comfortable nursing home environmental services, privacy needs and social interactions, spiritual needs services, social guidance services, and skills guidance services. Conclusion, based on the literature review, it can be seen that nursing services should be provided in a humanistic and holistic manner, the elderly are clients who have both bio-psycho-socio-cultural and spiritual needs. So that nursing services are aimed at meeting the needs of the elderly in a comprehensive manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0126.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Afghan; Andersen Model; health services; medications; migrant; Turkey; utilization
Online: 26 December 2016 (09:57:20 CET)
(1) Background: There is insufficient empirical evidence on the correlates of health care utilization of irregular migrants currently living in Turkey. The aim of this study was to identify individual level determinants associated with health service and medication use. (2) Methods: 155 Afghans completed surveys assessing service utilization including encounters with primary care physicians and outpatient specialists in addition to the use of prescription and nonprescription medicines. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed to examine associations between service use and a range of predisposing, enabling, and perceived need factors. (3) Results: Health services utilization was lowest for outpatient specialists (20%) and highest for nonprescription medications (37%). Female gender and higher income predicted encounters with primary care physicians. Income, and other enabling factors such as family presence in Turkey predicted encounters with outpatient specialists. Perceived illness-related need factors had little to no influence on use of services; however, asylum difficulties increased the likelihood for encounters with primary care physicians, outpatient services, and the use of prescription medications. 4) Conclusion: This study suggests that health services use among Afghan migrants in Turkey is low considering the extent of their perceived illness-related needs, which may be further exacerbated by the precarious conditions in which they live.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci1010030
Subject: Keywords: health insurance coverage; determinants; the Affordable Care Act; Obamacare; partial implementation; full implementation
Online: 10 June 2019 (00:00:00 CEST)
The Affordable Care Act (ACA) is at the crossroads. It is important to evaluate the effectiveness of the ACA in order to make rational decisions about the ongoing healthcare reform, but existing research into its effect on health insurance status in the United States is insufficient and descriptive. Using data from the National Health Interview Surveys from 2009 to 2015, this study examines changes in health insurance status and its determinants before the ACA in 2009, during its partial implementation in 2010–2013, and after its full implementation in 2014 and 2015. The results of trend analysis indicate a significant increase in national health insurance rate from 82.2% in 2009 to 89.4% in 2015. Logistic regression analyses confirm the similar impact of age, gender, race, marital status, nativity, citizenship, education, and poverty on health insurance status before and after the ACA. Despite similar effects across years, controlling for other variables, youth aged 26 or below, the foreign-born, Asians, and other races had a greater probability of gaining health insurance after the ACA than before the ACA; however, the odds of obtaining health insurance for Hispanics and the impoverished rose slightly during the partial implementation of the ACA but somewhat declined after the full implementation of the ACA starting in 2014. These findings should be taken into account by the U.S. government in deciding the fate of the ACA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0391.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Emigrants and Immigrants; Somatization disorders; Stress, Psychological; Primary Health Care; Vulnerable populations
Online: 13 November 2020 (16:20:01 CET)
The process of international migration causes a situation of vulnerability in people's health and greater difficulty in coping with disease. Furthermore, the adversities suffered during migration can trigger reactive signs of stress and cause anxious, depressive, confusional and somatic symptoms. This article studies the relationships between psychosocial risk, psychological distress and somatization in immigrants from 4 communities: Maghrebis, Sub-Saharans, South Americans and South Asian. A cross-sectional study was carried out with questionnaires on 602 immigrants who were surveyed in the Primary Care Centres of an urban area of Catalonia. The instruments used were the Demographic Psychosocial Inventory (DPSI), the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and the Somatic Symptom Inventory (SSI). The average psychosocial risk obtained was 0.35, with the highest values in the sub-Saharan community. Psychological distress showed a mean value of 0.66, with the sub-Saharan community scoring the lowest in all dimensions except depression. The average somatization values were 1.65, with the sub-Saharan community scoring the least. The female gender is a risk factor for somatization and psychological distress. Perceived psychosocial risk is a predictor of psychological distress, but not somatization, suggesting that the use of more adaptive coping strategies could minimize the effect of the migration process on somatizations.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: chronic conditions; diabetes; older adults; race or ethnicity; social determinants of health; in-equalities or inequities; policy; health care access; home health care
Online: 6 April 2021 (14:40:37 CEST)
Older adults with diabetes are at elevated risk of complications following hospitalization. Home health care services mitigate the risk of adverse events and facilitate a safe transition home. In the United States, when home health care services are prescribed, federal guidelines require they begin within two days of hospital discharge. This study examined the association between timing of home health care initiation and 30-day rehospitalization outcomes in a cohort of 786,734 Medicare beneficiaries following a diabetes-related index hospitalization. Of these patients, 26.6% were discharged to home health care. To evaluate the association between timing of home health care initiation and 30-day rehospitalizations, multivariate logistic regression models including patient demographics, clinical, geographic variables, and neighborhood socio-economic variables were used. Inverse probability-weighted propensity scores were incorporated into the analysis to account for potential confounding between the timing of home health care initiation and the outcome in the cohort. Compared to patients who received home health care within the recommended first two days, patients who received delayed services (3-7 days after discharge) had higher odds of rehospitalization (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.25-1.32). Among patients who received late services (8-14 days after discharge), the odds of rehospitalization were four times greater than for patients receiving services within 2 days (OR 4.12, 95% CI 3.97-4.28). Timely initiation of home health care following diabetes-related hospitalizations is one strategy to improve outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0598.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Zambezi; Health Care Workers; cigarette smoking; Cigarettes; Gender differences; Prevalence; Tobacco use; Vulnerable populations; Risk factors
Online: 23 December 2020 (16:28:15 CET)
Smoking is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases and remains a significant public health challenge in many lower- and middle-income countries (LMIC) including Namibia. The purpose of the study was to estimate the prevalence of smoking and its associated risk factors among HCWs and non-HCWs in Zambezi region. An exploratory cross-sectional survey was conducted between March and October 2020 among residents of the eight (8) constituencies of Zambezi region. Four hundred and sixty-one (461) respondents who had been residents of the selected constituencies for over five years and aged between 17-60 years were selected for the study. The main outcome measure was current cigarette smoking status. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents. We stratified data analysis by individual being health workers or non-health workers. A bivariate Pearson Chi-square test was used to determine the association between socio-demographic characteristics and the smoking status. Statistically significant variables in the bivariate analysis were used as predictors in the univariate and multivariate models. The response rate of potential participants was 95% (n=434). The mean (±SD) age of participant’s was 32.5 (± 11.34 years). Significant relationships were observed between smoking status and area of residency (constituency), gender, age category, level of education, age of onset of smoking and the daily smoking frequency. The majority of smokers (n=108) were none-HCWs with males being the majority (n=62). Age (p=0.001), education levels (p=0.001) and area of residency (p=0.022) were highly associated with smoking among none-HCW while marital status was associated with smoking among HCWs (p=0.013). In the final multivariate model, the odds of smoking among female non-HCWs were significantly lower (OR: 0.386; 95% CI: 0.228 – 0.655). Furthermore, the odds of smoking among this same group were lower among those who had secondary level education (OR: 0.178; 95% CI: 0.0659 – 0.483), post-secondary (OR: 0.117, 95% CI: 0.0412 – 0.330) and first stage tertiary (OR: 0.306: 95% CI: 0.106 – 0.881) compared to those who had primary school education. In conclusion, smoking prevalence among none HCWs and HCWs working in Zambezi included in the study was similar to that of the general Namibian population but higher than other neighboring countries within SADC. The results showed a need for the establishment of specific smoking related strategies that target HCWs to address smoking use parallel to the running of none HCWs which would ultimately decrease the smoking prevalence and improve health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0379.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: compassion fatigue; nurse practitioners; critical care nursing; occupational health
Online: 25 January 2022 (11:02:39 CET)
The aim was to evaluate levels of compassion fatigue in nursing professionals working in complex care units of a Brazilian university hospital. A cross-sectional, descriptive, and correlational study was carried out with nursing workers from complex care units of a University Hospital. Data were collected in the second half of 2019, in the pre-pandemic period of COVID-19, using the Brazilian version of the Professional Quality of Life Scale (ProQoL-BR). A total of 146 individuals partici-pated, including 41 (28.1%) nurses, 92 (63.0%) nursing technicians and 13 (8.9%) nursing assis-tants. It was observed that 26.1% presented high level of compassion satisfaction. For 17.5% there was level of burnout and 49.7%, medium level of burnout; and 22.0% with high and 46.1% with medium level of secondary traumatic stress. Twenty-eight (19.2%) professionals had compassion fatigue, of which 16 (57.1%) were nursing technicians. There is a high percentage of professionals with medium and high rates of burnout and secondary traumatic stress, a fact that is reinforced by the presence of compassion fatigue in almost one fifth of the studied individuals. These results highlights how much the health of these workers can be affected by living with traumatic patient experiences.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0357.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: coronavirus; COVID-19; SARS-CoV2; dentistry; oral health; transmission
Online: 20 April 2020 (02:14:36 CEST)
On March 11th 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV2) as a pandemic. Until an effective treatment or a vaccine is developed, the current recommendations are to contain the disease, and control its transmission. It is now clear that the primary mode of SARS-CoV2 transmission is aerosol/droplet spread, and by contacting virus contaminated surfaces acting as fomites (inanimate vectors). Furthermore, recent data indicate that the live virus particles are present in saliva, and, more alarmingly, asymptomatic individuals may transmit the infection. By virtue of the nature of the practice of dentistry where intrinsically, a high volume of aerosols are produced, as well as the close proximity of dentists and patients during treatment, dentists and allied dental staff are considered the highest risk health professional group for acquiring SARS-CoV2 during patient management. Therefore, several organizations and specialty associations have proposed guidelines and recommendations for limiting the transmission of SARS-COV2 from carriers to dentists and vice versa. This paper aims to provide a review of these guidelines, and concludes with a brief look at how the practice of dentistry may be impacted by COVID-19, in the post-pandemic era.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0406.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: universal health coverage; health insurance claims; administrative data; claims database
Online: 19 July 2021 (11:38:35 CEST)
Although the universal health coverage (UHC) is pursued by many countries, not all countries with UHC include dental care as their benefits. Japan, with its long-held tradition of UHC, has covered dental care as essential benefit and majority of dental care services are provided to all patients with minimal copayment. Being under the UHC, the scope of services as well as prices are regulated by the uniform fee schedule and dentists submit claims according to the uniform format and fee schedule. The author analyzes the publicly available dental health insurance claims data as well as a sampling survey on dental hygiene and illustrates how Japan’s dental care is responding to the challenges of the population ageing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0124.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: dental care; immigrants; inequalities; health survey; economic crisis
Online: 10 April 2019 (09:44:49 CEST)
This study evaluates inequalities in the use of dental services according to place of birth before and after the economic crisis in Spain. A cross-sectional study was performed in the population aged 18 to 65 years in Spain. We used data from three Spanish National Health Surveys for years 2006 (before the crisis), 2014 and 2017 (after the crisis). Log-binomial regression was used to quantify the association between region of origin and use of dental care services before and after controlling for the selected covariates. In 2006, we found a greater probability of not using dental care services in immigrants from Asia (PR:1.36, 95% CI:1.10–1.67) and Africa (PR:1.16; 95% CI:1.05–1.28) compared to the natives. For 2014, the probability of not using dental care services was greater for all immigrants compared to the natives, with the greatest odds for those from Africa (PR:1.71; 95% CI:1.46–2.01) and Asia (PR:1.3; 95% CI:1.23–1. 47). The associations for 2017 were weaker in magnitude than the ones observed for 2014, although stronger than for 2006. This study suggests that the economic recovery did not have the same impact for natives and immigrants regardless of regions of origin, given the observed inequalities in use of dental services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0291.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Yoga of Immortals (YOI); depression; healthcare workers; insomnia; anxiety; PHQ-8 (Pa-tient Health Questionnaire-8); ISI (Insomnia Severity Index); digital health
Online: 24 May 2022 (04:49:45 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant medical and psychological challenges worldwide, and not only exceeded the capacity of hospitals and intensive care units but also an individuals’ ability to cope with life. Health-care workers have continued to provide care for patients despite exhaustion, fear of transmission to themselves and their family, illness or death of friends and colleagues, and losing many patients. They have also faced additional stress and anxiety due to long shifts combined with unprecedented population restrictions, including personal isolation. In this study, we study the effect of an app-based Yoga of Immortals (YOI) intervention on mental health of healthcare workers. In this study, the health care workers were digitally recruited, and their psychological parameters were measured using validated questionaries. The participants were randomly grouped into control and test groups. The validated psychological measures were the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD-7) scales. The digital YOI intervention significantly reduced the anxiety, depression symptoms, and insomnia in healthcare workers of all age groups. In contrast, there was no improvement in the control group. This study details the effectiveness of an app-based YOI intervention in healthcare workers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0029.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: blood stream health care associated infections; neonates; risk factors, antibiotic use, antibiotic resistance; neonatal intensive care unit; India
Online: 30 January 2018 (08:03:04 CET)
Very little is known about laboratory confirmed blood stream infections (LCBIs) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in resource-limited settings. The aim of this cohort study was to determine the incidence, risk factors, and causative agents of LCBIs in a level-2 NICU in India. The diagnosis of LCBIs was established using the Centre for Disease Control, USA criteria. A predesigned questionnaire containing risk factors associated with LCBIs was filled-in. A total of 150 neonates (43% preterm) were included in the study. The overall incidence of LCBIs was 31%. The independent risk factors for LCBIs were: preterm neonates (relative risk (RR) 2.23), duration of NICU stay more than 14 days (RR 1.75), chorioamnionitis in the mother (RR 3.18), premature rupture of membrane in mothers (RR 2.32), neonate born through meconium-stained amniotic fluid (RR 2.32), malpresentation (RR 3.05), endotracheal intubation (RR 3.41), umbilical catheterization (RR 4.18), and ventilator-associated pneumonia (RR 3.17). The initiation of minimal enteral nutrition was protective from LCBIs (RR 0.22). The predominant causative organisms were gram-negative pathogens (58%). The results of the present study can be used to design antibiotic interventions to reduce LCBIs in resource-limited settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0423.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: palliative and end-of-life care; older adults; advance care planning (ACP); health care professionals.
Online: 20 September 2018 (16:59:45 CEST)
This paper reports the findings from a pilot study designed to explore the barriers, facilitators and similarities with the delivery and implementation of two distinct models of Advance Care Planning (ACP) documentation for older adults in their last year of life used by health care professionals in their clinical practice. PACe (Proactive Anticipatory Care Plan): a GP led model and PEACE (Proactive Elderly Persons’ Advisory CarE): a nurse led model with community geriatrician oversight were used by participants in their clinical practice. Telephone interviews were conducted with general practitioners (GPs) to explore their views of using the PACe tool. Hospital admission avoidance matrons took part in face to face interviews and care staff employed in private residential care homes took part in individual telephone interviews to explore their views of using the PEACE tool. GPs and admission avoidance matrons were employed by Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs) and all study participants were recruited from the South East of England where data collection took place in 2015. Nine telephone interviews and two face-to-face interviews (one joint and one individual) were conducted with twelve participants. The data was analysed thematically. Participants highlighted the similarity of both tools in providing focus to ACP discussions to inform individual end-of-life care preferences. The importance of relationships was a pivotal theme-established, trusting inter-professional relationships to enable multidisciplinary teamwork and a prior relationship with the older person (or their proxy in the case of cognitive impairment) to enable conversations of this nature. Using both tools enabled participants to think critically and reflect on their own practice was another theme identified. Notwithstanding participants’ views to improve the layout of both tools, using a paper-based approach to deliver streamlined ACP and end-of-life care was a theme to emerge as a barrier which focused on the problems with access to paper-based documentation, accuracy and care co-ordination in the context of multidisciplinary team working. The value of technology in overcoming this barrier and underpin ACP as a means to help simplify service provision, promote integrated professional practice and provide seamless care was put forward as the solution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0092.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; health practices; stress; self-care; cross-cultural study
Online: 2 February 2021 (15:09:40 CET)
The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to analyze the differential impact of the first COVID-19 lockdown (3rd April 2020) on stress, health practices, and self-care activities across different Hispanic countries, age range and gender groups. 1082 participants from Spain, Chile, Colombia, and Ecuador took part in this study. Irrespective of the country, and controlling for income level, young people, especially females, suffered a greater level of stress, perceived the situation as more severe, showed less adherence to health guidelines and reported lower levels of health consciousness, in comparison to their male peers and older groups. However, in the case of self-care, it seems that older and female groups are generally more involved in self-care activities and adopt more healthy daily routines. These results are mostly similar between Colombia, Ecuador, and Spain. However, Chile showed some different tendencies, as males reported higher levels of healthy daily routines and better adherence to health guidelines compared to females and people over the age of 60. Differences between countries, genders and age ranges should be considered in order to improve health recommendations and adherence to guidelines. It would also be crucial to identify vulnerable groups to promote the adoption of health behaviors that may help in the development of effective public health strategies. Future studies should be addressed to explore the possible causations of such differences in more cultural-distant samples and at later stages of the current outbreak.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0046.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: health care, innovation, resistance, staff behavior, employment relationship, strategy, organizational climate
Online: 4 January 2021 (13:25:12 CET)
Frequent employee resistance to innovation is one of the main barriers of change failure in a health care organization and one of the negative stimuli of employment relationships. Identifying the reasons of resistance is a topical issue for every organization, as the speed of change can affect their competitiveness. Consequently, it is helpful not only to know the causes of potential resistance but also to be ready to control any implicit opposition. The organizational climate and the attitude of the staff play an important role in understanding and accepting innovation. Purpose of the study is to develop a model, which would facilitate the choice of an appropriate strategy necessary to enable the health care organization to eliminate or at least to reduce resistance to often essential innovative changes. The article analyses the root causes of resistance and identifies strategies that help to mitigate or eliminate staff resistance for innovation. Use of suggested model can make easier reducing staff resistance to change processes and thus speed up the implementation of innovations. This methodology can be used to eliminate the reasons for staff resistance to change in health care institutions of different countries, but it was tested in Lithuania and achieved good enough results.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0009.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Great Recession; health care expenditures; long-term; convergence analysis; Phillips-Sul
Online: 2 December 2019 (10:15:40 CET)
This paper examines whether the Great Recession has altered the disparities of the US regional health care expenditures. We test the null hypothesis of convergence for the US real per capita health expenditure for the period 1980-2014. Our results indicate that the null hypothesis of convergence is clearly rejected for the total sample as well as for the pre-Great Recession period. Thus, no changes are found in this regard. However, we find that the Great Recession has modified the composition of the estimated convergence clubs, offering a much more concentrated picture in 2014 than in 2008, with most of the states included in a big club, and only 5 (Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Colorado and Georgia) exhibiting a different pattern of behavior. These two estimated clubs diverge and, consequently, the disparities in the regional health sector have increased.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0616.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; general population; students; health care workers
Online: 25 July 2020 (17:31:08 CEST)
Background: The COVID-19 among humans is spreading heavily and is largely impacting the mental health of the general population, students, and health care workers worldwide. Hence, this review aims to summarize the literatures addressing the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of the general population, students, and health care workers. Methods: Published articles concerning mental health of the general population, students, and health care workers related to the COVID-19 outbreak have been considered and reviewed. Results and Discussion: Mental health symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression are common psychological reactions to the COVID-19 pandemic in the general population, students, and health care workers. This collectively influences daily behavior, economy, prevention strategies and decision making from policy makers and health organizations, weakening the strategies of COVID-19 control leading to more morbidity and mental health needs at the global level. Conclusion: There is a need for more evidence-based research from other affected countries, particularly in vulnerable populations such as children and adolescents, people of lower socioeconomic status, and those residing in rural areas, so that valid strategies can be developed and COVID-19 and outbreaks of similar types in the near future can be prevented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0079.v1
Subject: Keywords: adult mortality; disparity; political instability; universal health coverage; cross-country study
Online: 8 August 2016 (12:01:28 CEST)
Background: Disparity in adult mortality (AM) with reference to social dynamics and health care has not been sufficiently examined. This study aimed to identify the gap in the understanding of AM in relation to religion, political stability, economic level, and universal health coverage (UHC). Methods: A cross-national study was performed with different sources of data, using the administrative record linkage theory. We created a new data set using data from the 2013 World Bank data catalogue by region, The Economist (Political instability index 2013), Stuckler David et al. (Universal health coverage, 2010), and religious categories of all UN country members. Descriptive statistics, a t-test, an ANOVA followed by a post hoc test, and a linear regression were used where applicable. Result: The average AM rate for males and females was 0.20 ± 0.10 and 0.14 ± 0.10, respectively. AM was significantly higher in economically weak countries, countries with political instability, countries with traditional religion, without achievement of UHC, and Sub-Saharan Africa (p<0.01). There was high disparity of AM between countries with and without UHC (F = male: 61.89, female: 51.85, p<0.001) and between groups with low and high income (F = male: 36.33, female: 42.39, p<0.001). UHC and political stability would significantly reduce AMR by > 0.41 in both sexes and high economic status would reduce male AMR by 0.44, and female AMR by 0.70, in relation to countries without UHC, with political instability, and low economic status. Conclusions: Disparities in AM can be reduced after the achievement of UHC and economically productive activities for those adults affected by conflict and political unrest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0310.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Home health care; Routing and scheduling; Nurse downgrading; Epsilon-constraint method; Bi-objective optimization.
Online: 10 November 2020 (12:20:43 CET)
In recent years, the management of health systems is a main concern of governments and decision makers. Home health care is one of the newest methods of providing services to patients in developed societies that can respond to the individual lifestyle of modern age and the increase of life expectancy. The home health care routing and scheduling problem is a generalized version of the vehicle routing problem, which is extended to a complex problem by adding special features and constraints of health care problems. In this problem, there are multiple stakeholders such as nurses for which an increase of their satisfaction level is very important. In this study, a mathematical model is developed to expand traditional home health care routing and scheduling models to downgrading cost aspects by adding the objective of minimizing the difference between the actual and potential skills of the nurses. Downgrading can lead to a dissatisfaction of the nurses. In addition, skillful nurses have higher salaries and high-level services increase equipment costs and need more expensive trainings and nursing certificates. Therefore, downgrading can enforce hidden huge costs to the managers of a company. To solve the bi-objective model, an -constraint based approach is suggested and the model applicability and its ability to solve the problem in various sizes are discussed. A sensitivity analysis on the Epsilon parameter is conducted to analyze the effect of this parameter on the problem. Finally, some managerial insights are presented to help the managers in this field, and some directions for future studies are mentioned as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0038.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: community health psychology; primary care; disadvantaged populations; well-being; integrated care
Online: 4 January 2023 (02:13:58 CET)
Background: The importance of community health psychology in providing complex bio-psycho-social care is well-documented. We present a mixed-method study monitoring the efficacy of health psychology services in the Public Health Focused Model Program for Primary Care Development (2012-2017) in four disadvantaged micro-regions in North-East Hungary. Methods: Study 1 assessed the availability of the services using a sample of 17003 respondents. Study 2 applied a follow-up design to measure the efficacy of the health psychology services in a sample of 132 clients. In Study 3, we conducted focus group interviews to assess clients’ lived experiences. Results: More mental health issues and higher education predicted a higher probability of service use. Follow-up showed that individual and group-based psychological interventions resulted in lower depression and (marginally) higher well-being. Thematic analysis of the focus group interviews indicated that participants deemed topics like psychoeducation, a greater acceptance of psychological support, and heightened awareness of individual and community support important. Conclusions: The results of the monitoring studies demonstrate the important role health psychology services can play in primary health care in disadvantaged regions. Community health psychology can improve well-being, reduce inequality, support the population’s health awareness, and address unmet social needs in disadvantaged regions in Hungary.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome; diagnosis; Health services; clinical care
Online: 16 October 2020 (08:58:18 CEST)
Designed by a group of ME/CFS researchers and health professionals, the European Network on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (EUROMENE) has received funding from the European Cooperation is Science and Technology (COST) (https://www.cost.eu/cost-actions/what-are-cost-actions/ ) - COST action 15111 - from 2016 to 2020. The main goal of the Cost Action was to assess the existing fragmented knowledge and experience on health care delivery for people with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) in European countries, and to enhance coordinated research and health care provision in this field. We report on the recommendations for clinical diagnosis, heath services and care for people with ME/CFS in Europe, as prepared by the group of clinicians and researchers from 22 countries and 55 European health professionals and researchers, who have been informed by people with ME/CFS (https://www.cost.eu/actions/CA15111/#tabs|Name:overview).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0170.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Integrated Care; Social Care; Health Care; Older People; Comorbidity: Person Centered Care
Online: 9 July 2020 (06:23:49 CEST)
Introduction Older people with complex, chronic conditions often receive insufficient or inefficient care provision. And few instruments are able to measure their perception on care provision. The "User Reported Measure of Care Coordination" instrument has been satisfactorily used to evaluate chronic care provision and integration. The aim of this study is to validate this instrument into Spanish. Methods The questionnaire was adapted and validate in two phases: translation and cultural adaptation of the questionnaire, and psychometric property measurement. Study population were chronic care conditions patients. Results A total of 332 participants completed test re-test as part of the questionnaire validation process. The final version of the questionnaire had 6 domains: Health and Well-being (D1), Health day to day (D2), Social Services (D3), Planned Care (D4), Urgent Care (D5) and Hospital Care (D6). Cronbach's alpha for the overall questionnaire was 0.86, indicating good internal consistency. When analysing each domain, only Planned Care (D4) and Urgent Care (D5) had Cronbach’s Alphas slightly lower than 0.7, although this could be related to the low number of items in each domain. A good temporal stability was observed for the distinct subscales and items, with intraclass correlation coefficients varying from 0.412 to 0.929 (p < 0.05). Conclusion The adapted version of the “User Reported Measure of Care Coordination” into Spanish proved to be a practical tool for use in our daily practice and an efficient instrument for assessment of care coordination in chronic, complex conditions in older people across services and levels of care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0585.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: activism; discrimination; mental health; Obertament; primary care; participation; stigma
Online: 23 December 2020 (11:11:53 CET)
Although it may seem paradoxical, primary care and mental health professionals develop prejudices and discriminatory attitudes towards people with mental health problems in a very similar way to the rest of the population. The main objective of this project was to design, implement and evaluate two awareness interventions respectively tailored to reduce stigma and discrimination beliefs and attitudes towards persons with a mental health diagnosis among primary care (PC) and mental health (MH) professionals. These interventions were developed by Obertament, the Catalan alliance against stigma and discrimination in mental health. The TLC3 (Targeted, Local, Credible, Continuous Contact) methodology was adapted to the Catalan PC and MH professional contexts. Activists with lived experience of mental health diagnosis carried out awareness-raising interventions in PC and MH health centres. The efficacy of these interventions was evaluated using two prospective double-blind cluster-wait-list-randomized-controlled trial experimental designs. Stigmatizing beliefs and behaviours were measured with the Opening Minds Stigma Scale for Health Care Providers in primary care centres and with the Beliefs and Attitudes towards Mental Health Service users’ rights in mental health centres. Positive reductions in both PC and MH professionals’ stigmatising beliefs and attitudes were found in the 1-month follow-up, although a ‘rebound effect’ at the 3-month follow up was also detected. This emphasizes the importance of the continuity of the presence of anti-stigma activities and messages. Attrition rates where high, which can hamper the reliability of the results. Further follow-up studies should enquiry effects of long-term interventions aimed at reducing stigmatising beliefs and attitudes among primary care and mental health professionals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0127.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: comorbidities; congestive heart failure; health informatics; Bayes networks; clustering; risk assessment; clinical decision making
Online: 9 July 2019 (04:16:43 CEST)
Comorbidities can have a cumulative effect on hospital outcomes of care, such as the length of stay (LOS), and hospital mortality. This study examines patients hospitalized with Congestive Heart Failure (CHF), a life-threatening condition, which, when it coexists with a burdened disease profile, the risk for negative hospital outcomes increases. Since coexisting conditions co-interact, with a variable effect on outcomes, clinicians should be able to recognize these joint effects. In order to study CHF comorbidities, we used medical claims data from CMS. After extracting the most frequent cluster of CHF comorbidities, we: (i) Calculated, step-by-step, the conditional probabilities for each disease combination inside this cluster (ii) Estimated the cumulative effect of each comorbidity combination on the LOS and hospital mortality (iii) Constructed (a) Bayesian, scenario-based graphs and (b) Bayes-networks to visualize results. Results show that, for CHF patients, different comorbidity constructs have variable effect on the LOS and hospital mortality. Therefore, dynamic comorbidity risk assessment methods should be implemented for informed clinical decision making in any ongoing effort for quality of care improvements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0651.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Ageing; Qualitative Research; Primary Health Care; Loneliness; Social Capital.
Online: 25 December 2020 (10:38:50 CET)
Loneliness is a frequent negative feeling among older people. A programme aimed at alleviating loneliness among older people by promoting social capital, i.e. social support and participation, was conducted in primary health care centres in Spain. We aimed to explore participants’ experiences of loneliness and social participation before the programme, perceived programme effects and contextual influences. A descriptive-interpretative qualitative design was used. 41 persons were included comprising older people, health and social care professionals, and volunteers. Data were collected through three focus groups, 36 semi-structured interviews and participant-observation of the intervention. A thematic content analysis was applied. Older persons with diverse profiles of loneliness and participation decreased their loneliness, increased their knowledge and participation in local community assets, and developed companionship, a sense of belonging, peer support and friendship. Their mental wellbeing increased and participants could deal better with health or family problems. An empowerment process was observed. However, loneliness persisted among some widowed participants and health and social vulnerabilities hampered some impacts. Conflicts and exclusion were occasional unintended effects. The promotion of social capital in ageing to alleviate loneliness involves complex processes interrelated with health and socio-economic factors. Future programmes should be adapted to local contexts and participants’ characteristics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0239.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: long-term care; healthcare workers; mental health; moral distress; resilience; COVID-19
Online: 12 August 2022 (12:43:46 CEST)
Healthcare workers (HCWs) in long-term care (LTC) faced and continue to experience significant emotional and psychological distress throughout the pandemic. Despite this, little is known about the unique experiences of LTC workers. This scoping review synthesizes existing research on the experiences of HCWs in LTC during the COVID-19 pandemic. Following Arksey and O’Malley’s framework, data were extracted from six databases from inception of the pandemic to June 2022. Among 3,808 articles screened, 40 articles were included in the final analysis. Analyses revealed three interrelated themes: carrying the load (moral distress); building pressure and burning out (emotional exhaustion); and working through it (a sense of duty to care). Given the impacts of the pandemic on both HCW wellbeing and patient care, every effort must be made to address the LTC workforce crisis and evaluate best practices for supporting HCWs experiencing mental health concerns during and post-COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0210.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: telemedicine; Questionnaires and Surveys; validation studies; health personnel
Online: 12 March 2020 (09:58:12 CET)
Background: Telemedicine is both effective and can provide efficient care at lower costs. It also enjoys a high acceptance rate among users. The Technology Acceptance Model proposed is based on the two main concepts of ease of use and perceived usefulness and comprises three dimensions: the individual context, the technological context and the implementation or organizational context. There is not a short and validated questionnaire to check the acceptance of telemedicine services amongst health care professionals using a technology acceptance model. Objective To translate and validate a telemedicine acceptance questionnaire based in the technology acceptance model. Methods The study included the following phases: adaptation and translation of the questionnaire into Catalan and psychometric validation which include construct (exploratory factor analysis), consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) and stability (test-retest). Factor analysis was used to describe variability amongst observed variables. Results After removing incomplete responses 144 responses where considered for analysis. The internal consistency measured with the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was good with an alpha coefficient of 0.84 (95%, CI: 0.79-0.84). The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.93 (95% CI: 0.852-0.964). The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test of sampling was adequate (KMO = 0.818) and the Bartlett test of sphericity was significant (Chi-square 424.188; gl=28; P < .001), indicating that the items were appropriate for a factor analysis. Conclusions The questionnaire validated with this study has robust statistical features that make it a good predictive model of professional’s satisfaction with telemedicine programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0058.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: pediatric patient with T1DM; physical activity; muscle strength exercise; self-rated health
Online: 5 June 2018 (10:00:16 CEST)
Background: Even though a number of studies have verified the positive effect of physical activity (PA) on self-related health (SRH) no previous research has examined this association among pediatric patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between regular physical activity (PA) and self-rated health (SRH) in pediatric patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) who lacked diabetes care. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study among pediatric patients with T1DM who lacked diabetes care and were enrolled in a diabetes education program between January 2011 to January 2015 at the endocrinology clinic of Seoul National University Children’s Hospital in South Korea. The eligible participants for this study were 37 pediatric patients with T1DM aged 9 to 17 years. PA was divided into regular PA and muscle strength exercise to analyze the relationship with SRH using binomial logistic regression analysis. Results: The results showed SRH of pediatric patients with T1DM who did not engage in regular PA was significantly lower than those who did (OR in regular PA = .199 [95% CI: .040, .995]; OR in regular muscle strength exercise = .097 [95% CI: .023, .825]). Conclusions: In conclusion, regular PA and muscle strength exercise in pediatric patients with T1DM who lacked diabetes care were effective in improving their SRH. A systematic plan is required to enhance regular PA for pediatric patients with T1DM.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: self-care; self-care monitoring; quality of life; stoma care; health promotion; nurse – patient interaction
Online: 12 January 2021 (17:32:17 CET)
The current article examined stoma self-care and health-related quality of life in patients with drainage enterostomy, describe clinical and sociodemographic variables and analyze the relations between all of them. Trained interviewers collected data using a standardized form that queried sociodemographic and clinical variables, collected from the electronic medical record, in addition to the Specific Self-Care for Ostomized Patients Questionnaire (CAESPO) and Stoma Quality of life (S-QoL) from January 2016 to January 2017. This was a multicenter, cross sectional study conducted in four hospitals of the province of Castellon (Spain) where 120 participants were studied. Significant differences were found in Self Care according to sex (p = .043); married participants show higher score (p < .01); also, significant differences according to work activity were observed (p < .01). Regarding the clinical variables, differences were observed according to the autonomy of care, the presence of complications in the stoma, the use of irrigation and the type of effluent (p < .01). We can highlight the importance of the skills related to self-care by ostomized patients has for a good level of quality of life related to health. In this learning process, the figure of the stoma therapist plays a very important role.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: oral health; dental checkup; Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES); dental care; dental service utilization
Online: 15 March 2021 (10:57:43 CET)
To identify gender- and age-related associations between adult dental checkups and unmet dental care needs, we analyzed data of 14,000 participants, ages ≥ 19, from the 7th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2016–2018) (KNHANES VII). Data was collected via self-report questionnaires and interviews. Complex sample chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis indicated 31.7% of participants had unmet dental care needs; in the prior 12months, 67.1% had not utilized dental services, and 43.3% had not received dental checkups. Odds ratios (ORs) for dental checkups and unmet dental needs were 8.87 (CI:7.80–10.09, p < 0.001) for those who used dental services and 1.28 (CI: 1.13–1.44, p < 0.001) for those who had not. Significant age-dependent associations between those not receiving dental checkups and the rate of unmet dental care include men and women aged 50–59 years (OR: 1.77; CI = 1.22–2.58 and OR: 1.43; CI: 1.02–2.02; p = 0.040, respectively) and women ≥ 70 years (OR = 1.79, CI = 1.20–2.66, p = 0.004). Reducing unmet dental care needs requires greater public health promotion and education regarding regular dental checkups; additional practical strategies could enhance dental checkup compliance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0270.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: cost analysis; health technology assessment; provider-to-provider telemedicine; telehealth; economic analysis
Online: 23 January 2020 (16:19:31 CET)
Background: Telemedicine (interconsultation between primary and hospital care teams) has been operating in the counties of Central Catalonia Bages, Moianès and Berguedà since 2011 in the specialties of teledermatology, teleulcers, teleeyelids and teleaudiometries. For the period until the end of 2019, a total of 52,198 visits have been recorded. Objective: To analyse the differential costs between telemedicine and usual care in a semi-urban environment. Methodology: A cost-minimization evaluation, including direct and indirect costs from a societal perspective, distinguishing healthcare and user’s costs, within a three-month period. Results: Telemedicine saved € 780,397 over the period analysed. A differential cost favourable to telemedicine of about € 15/visit has been observed, the patient being the largest beneficiary of this saving (by 85%) in terms of shorter waiting times and travel costs. From the healthcare system perspective, moving the time spent in a hospital care consultation to primary care is efficient in terms of the total time devoted per patient. In social terms and in this context, telemedicine is more efficient than usual care. Conclusion: Users’ saving of time in terms of consultation and travel is the main driver of interconsultation between primary and hospital care savings in a semi-urban context. The telemedicine service is also economically favourable for the healthcare system, enabling it to provide a more agile service, which also benefits the healthcare professionals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0462.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: paediatrics; pediatrics; delivery of care; health technology; digital poverty; confidentiality; usage guidelines; continuity of care; technology to supplement; personalised approach and user design.
Online: 22 February 2021 (11:52:50 CET)
Background: The use of technology in paediatrics is increasing, and new health technology will change the way in which paediatric care is delivered in the future. This review is part of the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health Paediatrics 2040 project, which is developing a credible vision for the future of paediatrics in the UK. Aims: To summarise the impact of health technology on the delivery of paediatric care over the last ten years. To learn from existing technology use and make recommendations for future implementation. Methods: A search strategy was developed and two databases (Cochrane Library and PubMed) were systematically searched in August 2019 for relevant publications in English. Searches were limited to papers published between January 2009 and August 2019 (with further rapid review of papers published between September 2019 and November 2020). We included papers that studied young people up to the age of 24 or on those providing care for this population. A thematic synthesis of the data from the included studies was undertaken using seven domains of paediatric care. Results: 128 studies were included, grouped by domain of care. Most included studies were defined as digital (n=55) or communication (n=37). Studies looked at the different types of health technology used within different domains of care, including secondary and tertiary care (n=39), public health and prevention (n=29), and community (n=20). Studies were assessed on delivery of care outcomes using positive, negative, mixed and no effect. The most common outcomes reported were adherence and satisfaction. Discussion: This review highlights the growing importance of technology in delivering paediatric care. Six themes emerged: the importance of clear guidelines, continuity of care, confidentiality and privacy, digital poverty, using a personalised approach, and using technology to supplement rather than replace. In future, technology development should involve the end user throughout the design process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0287.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Women; Knowledge; Non-health sector; Safe abortion; Addis Ababa; Ethiopia
Online: 11 February 2021 (14:03:17 CET)
Background: Health-related knowledge is among the essential factors to enable women to be aware of their rights to seek health services. However, little is known about knowledge of safe abortion care services among women of reproductive age in Ethiopia. The main purpose of the study was to assess knowledge of safe abortion care services and associated factors among women of reproductive age in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April-June 2019 among 432 respondents. Bivariate statistics including correlation coefficients, student t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and linear regressions, and multiple linear regression analyses were used. A significant statistical test was determined at a 95% confidence interval and p-value <0.05. Results: About 65.5% had heard about safe abortion care services; media being the main source of information for 79.5%. The finding from an independent-sample t-test shows that the place where the respondents grew up (p< 0.006), history of past miscarriage, and previous information of abortion care service were significantly associated with the knowledge about safe abortion care services (p< 0.001). Conclusions: Women without prior health experiences and those with rural origin could be targeted for reproductive health information interventions including safe abortion care provision.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0052.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Somali; conflict; health system; resilience; fragile; access; government; NGO
Online: 12 June 2017 (06:26:20 CEST)
Background: Human Immnodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to take a heavy toll on the lives of many people with worst impact on health and wellbeing for the affected individuals in fragile states. The HIV situation in Somalia is not clearly known and experiences of the people living with HIV in this war-torn region unexpressed. This pilot qualitative study sought to explore the experiences of people living with diagnosed HIV in Mogadishu and their resilience in access to care and social support. Method: Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted in Somali in May 2013 among patients who were receiving Antiretroviral therapy (ART) from the HIV clinic in Mogadishu. Participants were recruited through drug dispensers at the HIV clinic in Benader Hospital. These were tape recorded, transcribed and translated for content analysis. Results: Three women and four men who were living with HIV shared the following narratives. Their perception was that they had either got HIV from their spouces or through health care contamination. They were very knowledgable about the realities of HIV, how the medication works, nutritional requirements and drug adherence. They were always willing to go an extra mile to secure a good life for themselves. However the external HIV stigma impacted their access to care. They faced challenges in their homes and at work which compelled them to seek support from non-governmental organisations (NGOs) or close family members. This stigma often affected their disclosure to the wider community due to the uncertainity of the repercussions, leading to a life of extreme loneliness and financial difficulties. The participants’ coping mechansms included living together and starting their own NGO for support with very strong optimism about their prognosis. Conclusions: The people living with diagnosed HIV in Mogadishu are highly knowledgeable about HIV transmission, the realities of living with diagnosed HIV infection and efficacy of HIV treatment. Our small sample suggests adequate access to ART through NGOs. However, widespread HIV stigma limits HIV status disclosure to the families and communities which creates a risk of self isolation and ill health. But affected individuals have developed resilient mechanisms of managing the risks. They strive to remain employed for economic security, adhere to HIV treatment, engage in support groups and maintain utmost optimism about their prognosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0072.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Caesarean section, free maternal health care, inequality, Nigeria
Online: 7 May 2019 (10:21:13 CEST)
Background User fee exemption for maternal and child health care service policy was introduced with a focus on providing free caesarean sections (CS) in Nigeria from 2011 to 2015. This policy had a positive impact on access to facility-based delivery, but its effect on socioeconomic and geographical inequality remains unclear. This study’s main objective is to examine access to birth by CS in the context of free maternal health care. Specifically, the study examines socio-demographic and geographical inequality in access to birth by CS among women who gave birth between 2011 and 2015 under the free maternal health care policy using a population-based survey data obtained from two of the six main regions of the country. Methods Data were obtained from 1227 women who gave birth during the period the policy was in operation selected using cluster random sampling between May and August 2016. Adjusted and unadjusted binary logistic regression models were used to examine whether there is socio-demographic and geographical inequality in access to birth by caesarean section. Results The overall caesarean section rate of 6.1% was found but varies by income (14.1% in monthly income of over $150 versus 4.9% in income of $150 and below), education (11.8% in women with higher education versus 3.9% among women with secondary education and less) and place of residence (7.8% in urban areas versus 3.6% in rural areas). Women who earn a monthly income of $150 or less were 48% less likely to have a birth by CS compared to those who earn more. Compared to women who were educated to tertiary level, women who had secondary education or less were 54% less likely to have birth by caesarean section. Conclusion This study shows that inequality in access to CS persists despite the implementation of free maternal health care services. Given the poor access to facilities with capabilities to offer CS in most rural areas, free maternal healthcare policy is not enough to make birth by CS universally accessible to all pregnant women in Nigeria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0069.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Healthcare Disparities; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2; Vascular Diseases; Primary Health Care; Cohort
Online: 3 September 2021 (14:58:59 CEST)
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity, mortality, and hospital admissions. There is variability in clinical practice. The objectives are to analyze the variability in the control of Blood Pressure (BP), HbA1c, and LDL-C in T2D patients and its influence on admissions due to cardiovascular events (CVE) Methods: We analyzed the electronic records in Primary Care Health centers in Navarra (Spain) and hospital admission for CVE. We follow 480637 people from 2012 to 2016. We calculated indicators of control of patients with T2D for each year, percentage with: HbA1c < 7%; HbA1c >= 9%; BP <140/90 mmHg; LDL-C <100 mg/dl. We used logistic and Cox regression. Results: Patients in the best control GP practices cluster are 2.5 times more likely to have HbA1c <7% [OR: 2.46 (95% CI: 2.29-3.64)]. Poor HbA1c control ≥ 9% is more likely in the worst control cluster [OR: 1.73 (95% CI:1.63-1.83)]. The probability of admission for CVE increases with age, being male, low income, obesity, history of CVE, having HbA1c ≥ 9%, and belonging to a GP practice in the cluster of HbA1C ≥ 9% worst control. In contrast, it decreases in patients with HbA1c <7%, BP<140/90 mmHg and LDL <100 mg/dl.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0413.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Hospital-acquired infections; infection control; standard precautions; health-care workers; Saudi Arabia
Online: 27 October 2021 (13:32:09 CEST)
Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) contribute to increased length of hospital stay, high mortality and higher health-care costs. Prevention and control of HAIs is a critical public health concern. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 213 hospital health-care workers in Qassim, Saudi Arabia. We assessed Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) of standard infection control precautions using a structured questionnaire. Predictors of KAP were investigated using multivaraible logistic regression analyses and independent sample t tests. Prevalence of good (≥80% correct response) knowledge, attitude and practice were 67.6%, 61.5% and 73.2%, respectively. Predictors of good knowledge included age over 34 years (adjusted odds ratio: 30.5, p<0.001), and receiving training (13.3, p<0.001). Predictor of positive attitude was having >6 years of experience (5.5, p<0.001). While, the predictors of good practice were having >6 years of experience (2.9, p<0.01), previous exposure to HAIs (2.5, p<0.05) and training (3.5, p<0.01). However, being female (0.22, p<0.001) and older (>34 years) (0.34, p<0.01) were negatively associated with knowledge. Results indicate that older academic programs might not have adequately covered infection crontrol. Arranging training for HCWs might be useful in improving their knowledge of standard infection control precautions and is also expected to facilitate positive attitude and practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0369.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Covid-19; health literacy; cancer screening; cancer care; cancer prevention
Online: 25 October 2022 (02:02:04 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to numerous delays in cancer-related care and cancer-specific screening, but the extent is not fully understood. For those that experience a delay or disruption in care, health related self-management is required to re-engage in care pathways and the role of health literacy in this pathway has not been explored. The purpose of this analysis is to (1) report the frequency of self-reported delays in cancer treatment and preventative screening services at an academic, NCI-designated center during the COVID-19 pandemic and (2) investigate cancer-related care and screening delays among those with adequate and limited health literacy. A cross-sectional survey was administered from an NCI-designated Cancer Center with a rural catchment area during November 2020 through March 2021. Nearly 19 percent of participants were categorized as having limited health literacy. Twenty percent of those with a cancer diagnosis reported a delay in cancer-related care; and 23-30% of the sample reported a delay in cancer screening. In general, the proportions of delays among those with adequate and limited health literacy were similar with the exception of colorectal cacner screening. There was also a notable difference in the ability to re-engage in cervical cancer screening among those with adequate and limited health literacy. Thus, there is a role for those engaged in cancer-related education and outreach to offer additional navigation resources for those at risk to cancer-related care and screening disruptions. Future study is warranted to investigate the role of health literacy on cancer care engagement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0009.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Intensive care unit; percutaneous tracheostomy; COVID-19; early tracheostomy; late tracheostomy; ICU length of stay; health care workers; mechanical ventilation.
Online: 1 July 2021 (11:04:34 CEST)
(1) Background: Benefits and timing of percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) COVID-19 patients are still controversial. PDT is considered a high risk procedure for transmission of SARS CoV-2 to health care workers (HCWs). The present study analyzed optimal timing of PDT, clinical outcomes of patients undergoing PDT and safety of HCWs performing PDT. (2) Methods: 133 COVID-19 patients underwent PDT in our ICU from April 1, 2020 to March 31, 2021, 23 patients were excluded and 110 patients were enrolled. A trained medical team was dedicated to the PDT procedure. Demographic, clinical history and outcome data were collected. Patients who underwent PDT were stratified into two groups: early group, PDT ≤ 12 days from orotracheal-intubation (OTI) and late group, >12 days from OTI; HCW surveillance program was performed. (3) Results: Early group included 57 patients and late group included 53 patients. Early group patients showed shorter ICU length of stay and fewer days of mechanical ventilation than the late group (p<0.001). At day 7 after tracheostomy, early group patients required fewer intravenous anesthetic drugs and experienced an improvement of ventilation parameters, PaO2/FiO2-Ratio, PEEP and FiO2 (p<0.001). No difference in case fatality ratio between the two groups was reported. No SARS-CoV-2 infection was reported in HCWs performing PDT. (4) Conclusions: PDT was safe and effective for COVID-19 patients, since it improved respiratory support parameters, reduced ICU length of stay and duration of mechanical ventilation, and optimized the weaning process. The procedure was safe for all HCWs involved in the dedicated medical team. The development of standardized early PDT protocols should be implemented and PDT procedure could be considered as first line approach in ICU COVID-19 requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0240.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: patient satisfaction; quality of care; private healthcare provider; public private mix model; tuberculosis control; health system
Online: 20 September 2019 (15:42:47 CEST)
Objective: The private healthcare providers (PHCP) are believed to improve access to healthcare services in Public-Private Mix (PPM) projects, as they are considered first point of contact for healthcare. The purpose of this study was to know the satisfaction level of TB patients. Design: A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study was carried out during November and December 2017 for 572 under-treatment patients registered with PHCPs in the PPM project. Lot quality assurance sampling technique was used to randomly select 19 districts from sample frame of 75 districts. In each selected district, data collector retrieved TB register of 8 months (Jan – Aug 2017) and systematically selected patients by fixed periodic interval. SPSS (version 24.0) was used to analyze the data. Results: Study included 53% (n=301) of males and 47% (n=271) of females, with mean age of 38 years (SD, ±18). Almost half of the participants were illiterate (51%, n=289) and 64% (n=365) were non-earning members of the family. In practice, most of the participants visit private providers (71%, n=407), including private hospital/clinic (44%) and traditional practitioners (27%; n=153). 55% of participants visited the current doctor because of clinic’s proximity to residence. 82% of the participants (n=469) were satisfied with the TB care services and 85% (n=488) said that they would recommend this clinic to others. Conclusion: PHCPs are preferred providers for individuals, which is consistent with findings of other studies. Though they are satisfied with TB care and services, interventions should be introduced to reduce the financial burden on the patient. Partnering PHCP is a way forward to ensure universal health coverage, health system strengthening and better health outcomes of the population.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0056.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; Impacts; Nurturing Care; Early Childhood Development (ECD); Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health; Child Growth Development; Early Brain Development; Vulnerable Children and Families
Online: 3 September 2020 (04:54:37 CEST)
In Kenya, millions of children have limited access to nurturing care. With the COVID-19 pandemic, it is anticipated that vulnerable children will bear the biggest brunt of the direct and indirect impacts of the pandemic. This review aimed to deepen understanding of the effects of COVID-19 on nurturing care from conception to four years of age, a period where the care of children is often delivered through caregivers or other informal platforms. The review has drawn upon the empirical evidence from previous pandemics and epidemics, and anecdotal and emerging evidence from the ongoing COVID-19 crisis. Multifactorial impacts fall into five key domains: direct health; health and nutrition systems, economic, social and child protection, and child development and early learning. The review proposes program and policy strategies to guide the re-orientation of nurturing care, prevent the detrimental effects associated with deteriorating nurturing care environments, and support the optimal development of the youngest and most vulnerable children. These include the provision of cash transfers and essential supplies for vulnerable households, and strengthening of community-based platforms for nurturing care. Further research on COVID-19 and the ability of children’s ecology to provide nurturing care is needed, as is further testing of new ideas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0345.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: action planning; coping planning; health education; oral care behavior; periodontal disease; theory of planned behavior
Online: 30 September 2019 (08:15:24 CEST)
Background: Strengthening adherence to self-care behaviors in patients with periodontal disease (PD) and reducing plaque index is crucial for improving PD treatment. We evaluated the effectiveness of a theory of planned behavior (TPB)-based health education intervention involving planning strategy on self-care behaviors in patients with PD. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted; 158 and 139 patients comprised the experimental group (EG) and control group (CG), respectively. Both groups received a leaflet, and the EG also received a planning intervention, which was a brief one-on-one counseling session with a planning sheet. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Between-group comparisons of TPB measures revealed significant differences in all domains when controlling for baseline covariates. The EG exhibited significantly higher levels of action and coping planning than the CG at 2-week follow-up (effect size (ES) = 5.54 and 5.57, respectively) and 6-week follow-up (ES = 5.66 and 5.66, respectively). Between-group differences in changes of brushing behaviors increased significantly. More frequent use of dental floss was observed in the EG than in the CG at 2-week and 6-week follow-ups (24.7% and 22.8%, respectively). Conclusions: The intervention involving planning strategy effectively promoted adherence to self-care behaviors in patients with PD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0588.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: retrospective cohort study; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; health care workers; risk of infection
Online: 27 August 2020 (03:25:18 CEST)
Purpose: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the health care workers (HCWs) at the frontline have been largely exposed to infected patients, running an high risk of being infected by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This study investigates the epidemiological, clinical and lifestyles characteristics that might play roles in the susceptibility of HCWs to COVID-19 in a hit Italian hospital. Methods:Demographic, lifestyle, work-related and comorbidities data of 1447 HCWs which underwent a nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 were retrospectively collected. For the 164 HCWs positive for SARS-CoV-2, data about safety in the workplace, symptoms and clinical course of COVID-19 were also collected. Cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was estimated. Risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection were assessed using a multivariable Poisson regression. Results: The cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among the screened HCWs was 11.33 (9.72-13.21). Working in a COVID-19 ward, being a former smoker (vs being a person who never smoked) and BMI were positively associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, whereas being a current smoker was negatively associated with this variable. Conclusions: Assuming an equal accessibility and proper use of PPE of all the HCWs of our Hospital, the great and more prolonged contact with COVID-19 patients remains the crucial risk factor for SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, increased and particular care needs to be focused specifically on the most exposed HCWs groups, which should be safeguarded. Furthermore, in order to limit the risk of asymptomatic spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the HCWs mild symptoms of COVID-19 should be considered when evaluating the potential benefits of universal staff testing
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0553.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Nutrition; family day care; intervention; implementation science; ECEC; child day care centres; RE-AIM; Public Health
Online: 27 January 2021 (10:49:48 CET)
Objective: To highlight opportunities for future nutrition intervention research within early childhood and education care (ECEC) settings, with a focus on generating evidence that has applicability to real-world policy and practice. Methods: An overview of opportunities to progress the field was developed by authors using a collaborative writing approach and informed by recent research in the field. The group developed a list of recommendations aligned with the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation and maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. Pairs of authors drafted individual sections of the manuscript, which was then reviewed by a separate pair. The first and senior author consolidated all sections of the manuscript and sought critical input on draft iterations of the manuscript. Results: Interventions that employ digital platforms (Reach) in ECEC settings, as well as research in the family day care setting (Effectiveness) were identified as areas of opportunities. Research understanding the determinants of and effective strategies for dissemination (Adoption), implementation of nutrition programs, in addition to de-implementation (Implementation) of inappropriate nutrition practices, is warranted. For maintenance, there is a need to better understand sustainability and sustainment of interventions, in addition to undertaking policy-relevant research. Conclusions: The ECEC setting is prime for innovative and practical nutrition intervention research.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: school health; child/adolescent health; health education; health promotion; school nutrition; school health; policy
Online: 22 April 2019 (11:57:43 CEST)
Supporting the implementation of school food and nutrition policies (SFNPs) is an international priority to encourage healthier eating among children and youth. Schools are an important intervention setting to promote childhood nutrition, and many jurisdictions have adopted policies, guidelines, and programs to modify the school nutrition environment and promote healthier eating. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between perceived adequacy and capacity for SFNP implementation on food availability and policy adherence in the province of Nova Scotia (NS), Canada, one of the first regions in Canada to launch a comprehensive SFNP. A cross sectional online survey was conducted in 2014-15 to provide a current-state of policy implementation and adherence. Adequacy and capacity for food policy implementation was used to assess policy adherence through the availability of prohibited ‘minimum’ nutrition foods. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted on a selected of available foods and ‘slow’ and ‘quick’ service food composition measures were dichotomized for food availability. Schools with above perceived average adequacy and capacity for policy implementation had more than three times (3.62) greater odds of adhering to a lunch policy, while schools that adhered to a snack and lunch policy had 52% and 82% lower odds of serving quick service foods, respectively. This study identified the need for appropriate adequacy and capacity for policy implementation to ensure policy adherence and improve the school food environment. These findings highlight the potential of SFNPs to have a positive impact on childhood nutrition, but adequately supporting their implementation is critical to ensure their impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0514.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: COVID-19; health care; learning health systems; health serives; public health
Online: 30 August 2022 (08:23:26 CEST)
Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic overwhelmed health systems globally, and affected delivery of other health services. We conducted a study in Uganda to describe interventions for continuity of access to other health services. Methods: We reviewed documents and interviewed 21 key informants. Thematic analysis was conducted to identify themes using the World Health Organization health system building blocks as a guiding framework. Results: Governance strategies included establishment of coordination committees and development and dissemination of guidelines. Infrastructure and commodities strategies included review of drug supply plans and allowing emergency orders. Workforce strategies included provision of infection prevention and control equipment, recruitment and provision of incentives. Service delivery modifications included designation of facilities for COVID-19 management, patient self-management, dispensing drugs for longer periods and leveraging community patient networks to distribute medicines. However, multi-month drug dispensing led to drug stock-outs while community drug distribution was associated with stigma concerns. Conclusions: Health service maintenance during emergencies requires coordination to harness existing health system investments. The service continuity committee coordinated efforts to maintain services and should remain a critical element of emergency response. Self-management and leveraging patient networks should address stigma to support service continuity in similar settings and strengthen service delivery beyond the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0038.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: migrant; public health; health education; health records; China
Online: 15 July 2017 (00:36:36 CEST)
Background: Internal migrants had obstacles in accessing local public health services in China. This study aimed to estimate the utilization of local public health services and its determinants among internal migrants. Methods: Data were from the 2014 and 2015 nationally representative cross-sectional survey of internal migrants in China. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to estimate the relationship between socioeconomic, migration, demographic characteristics and public health services utilization. Results: Internal migrants in more developed eastern regions used less public health services. Those with higher socioeconomic status were more likely to use public health services. The broader and shorter they migrated, the less they used public health services. Compared to migration within the city, migration across provinces is negatively associated with health records (OR=0.88, 95% CI: 0.86-0.90), health education (OR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.94-1.00), and health education on NCDs (OR=0.92, 95% CI: 0.89-0.95) or through Internet channel (OR=0.96, 95% CI: 0.94-0.99). Conclusion: Public health services coverage for internal migrants has seen great improvement due to government subsides. Internal migrants with lower socioeconomic status and across provinces need to be targeted. More attention should be given to the local government in the developed eastern regions in order to narrow the regional gaps.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0300.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: health service managers; competency frameworks; capacity building; digital health; health informatics; health workforce; health management degrees
Online: 20 September 2022 (09:47:29 CEST)
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has sped up digital health transformation across the health sectors to enable innovative health service delivery. Such transformation relies on competent managers with the capacity to lead and manage. However, the health system has not adopted a holistic approach in addressing the health management workforce development needs, with many hurdles to overcome. The objectives of this paper are to present the findings of a three-step approach in understanding the current hurdles in developing a health management workforce that can enable and maximise the benefits of digital health transformation, and to explore ways of overcoming such hurdles. Methods: A three-step, systematic approach was undertaken, including an Australian digital health policy documentary analysis, an Australian health service management postgraduate program analysis, and a scoping review of international literatures. Results: The main findings will guide the formulation of strategies in developing a digitally enabled health management workforce in the digital health era. Conclusions: With the ever-changing landscape of digital health, being able to lead and manage in times of system transformation requires a holistic approach to develop the necessary health management workforce capabilities and system-wide capacity. The evidence would support that this can be achieved with the required system, policy, educational and professional organizational enablers, which drive a digital health focused approach across all the healthcare sectors, in a coordinated and contextual manner.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0095.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: health; climate change; communication; health promotion; health education; perception
Online: 5 October 2020 (14:31:37 CEST)
The negative implications of climate change for human health are now well-established. Yet these have not been fully considered into climate change communication strategies. Research suggests that reorienting climate change communication with a health frame could be a useful communication strategy. We conducted a long-term and broad overview of existing scientific literature in order to summarize the state of research activity in this area, by extent and by nature. The methodology is based on a scoping review of scientific articles published on climate change communication and health between 1990 and mid-2016 indexed in the PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science databases. The screened citations were reviewed for inclusion and data were extracted and coded in order to conduct quantitative (e.g. frequencies) and qualitative (i.e. content analysis) analyses.Out of 2,866 identified published papers, only 24 articles were eligible for analyses. The main themes identified were effective communication of climate change (n=10, 41.7%), the role of health professionals (n=10, 41.7%) and the perception of climate change (n=4, 16.7%). We identified a large proportion of secondary research articles (n= 15, 62.5%) including reviews (n=5, 20.8%) and opinion articles (n=10, 41.7%). A significant share - 37.57% (n=9) - of the identified articles were classified as original research articles, suggesting that the number of publications in this area - particularly original research - has not grown rapidly.This scoping review identified several themes including effective communication of climate change, the role of health professionals, and the perception of climate change in the selected articles on the subject. The research literature on the communication of climate change and health is relatively recent and emerging: the first articles on the subject were published from 2008 onward only.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0450.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: workplace; health promotion; public health; health checks; education; construction
Online: 20 August 2020 (09:42:29 CEST)
Interprofessional learning (IPL) is essential to prepare healthcare trainees as the future public health workforce. WHIRL was an innovative IPL intervention that engaged multi-professional teams of volunteer healthcare trainees (n=20) to deliver health checks (n=464), including tailored advice and signposting, to employees in the UK construction industry (across 21 events, 16 sites, 10 organisations) as part of an ongoing research programme called Test@Work. Volunteers undertook a four-part training and support package of trainer-led education, observations of practice, self-directed learning and clinical supervision, together with peer mentoring. In a one-group post-test only design, IPL outcomes were measured using the Inventory of Reflective Vignette - Interprofessional Learning (IRV-IPL), and the psychometric properties of the IRV-IPL tool were tested. WHIRL demonstrably improved healthcare trainees’ interprofessional skills in all five areas of collaboration, coordination, cooperation, communication, and commendation. The IRV-IPL tool was found to be a valid and reliable measure of interprofessional competencies across three scenarios; before and after health promotion activities, and as a predictor of future health promotion competence. This industry-based workplace IPL programme resulted in attainment of health check competencies, and bridged the gap between research, education and clinical practice.
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: mental health; health service research; burnout; public health; physicians
Online: 14 July 2020 (03:43:43 CEST)
This observational study was ordered by the Medical Practitioners’ Chamber in Warsaw. The objective of the study was to evaluate the health status of physicians in relation to their occupational duties. Professional burnout was considered relative to different features of personality. This study was initially carried out from 2005–2008, but further analysis of burnout and personality was carried out from 2017–2018. The research tools were anonymous, validated questionnaires. The sample size was based on the size of the population— the registry of the Regional Chamber of Medical Practitioners— and literature on burnout prevalence. The respondents’ work places were randomly selected from the Mazovian District register. The test on burnout was completed by 378 respondents, while 62 subjects completed a personality test. Results showed that burnout syndrome was an occupational problem for healthcare workers. Professional burnout affected as many as 42% of respondents(n = 158). It affected two age groups in particular: physicians up to 31 years old and individuals aged 41-50. Moreover, neuroticism was found to be significantly related to burnout syndrome. In conclusion, burnout syndrome is common among medical practitioners, and neuroticism may be correlated with burnout syndrome.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0057.v1
Online: 5 July 2022 (04:36:30 CEST)
Zoonoses are diseases transmitted from (vertebrate) animals to humans. Control and prevention of these diseases require an appropriate way to measure health for prudent and well-balanced decisions in public health. We propose a framework that aims to explore, understand and open up a conversation about the non-monetary value of animals through environmental and normative ethics. As an example of its application, participants can choose what they are willing to give in exchange for curing an animal in hypothetical scenarios selecting a human health condition to suffer, the amount of money, and lifetime as a tradeoff. We believe that considering animals beyond their monetary value in public health decisions will contribute to a more rigorous assessment of the burden of zoonotic diseases, among other health decisions. This method might help us complement the existing metrics in health, adding more comprehensive values for animal and human health for the “One Health” approach.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Nutritional Surveillance; Public Health; Community Health Nursing; Public Health Nursing; Children’s health; Community Participation
Online: 17 August 2020 (10:08:36 CEST)
Effectively responding to children’s nutritional status and eating behaviors in Mozambique requires a community-based care approach grounded in sound nursing research that is evidence-based. The Community Assessment, Intervention, and Empowerment Model (MAIEC) is a nursing theoretical model that bases clinical decision-making for community health nurses using communities as a unit of care. We used the MAIEC to identify a community-based nursing diagnosis to address children’s nutritional status and eating behaviors in Mozambique. Objectives: (1) To conduct a descriptive study of children’s nutritional status and eating behaviors in a school community in Mavalane, Mozambique, and (2) to identify a community-based nursing diagnosis using the MAIEC clinical decision-making matrix in the same school community. Method: A cross-sectional, quantitative study was conducted to assess the nutritional status of children using anthropometric data, including brachial perimeter and the tricipital skinfold, and standard deviation for the relation of weight-height, in a sample of 227 children. To assess community management of the problem and identify a community-based nursing diagnosis, we surveyed 176 parents/guardians and 49 education professionals, using a questionnaire based on the MAIEC clinical decision matrix as a reference. Results: Malnutrition was identified in more than half of the children (51.3%). We also identified a community-based nursing diagnosis of impaired community management related to the promotion of child health and healthy eating as evident by lack of community leadership, participation, and processing among more than 70% of the community members (parents/guardians and education professionals). Conclusion: A nursing diagnosis and diagnostic criteria for nutritional status and community management were identified. The need to intervene using a multidisciplinary public health approach is imperative, with the school community as the unit of care. In addition, reliable anthropometric data were used to complement the nursing diagnosis and guide future public health interventions.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0323.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: rural health: urban health; health status; cancer survivors; United Kingdom
Online: 24 May 2022 (05:13:59 CEST)
Objective: To explore the effect of rural-urban residence on self-reported health status with UK cancer survivors. Design: A cross-sectional postal questionnaire that collected data on demographics, post-code and self-reported health status. Methods: Independent Samples t test was used to detect differences in health status between rural and urban respondents. Pearson’s χ2 was used to control for confounding variables and multivariate analysis was conducted using Stepwise linear regression. Setting: East Midlands of England. Participants: Adult cancer survivors who had undergone primary treatment in the last five years. Participants were excluded if they had recurrence or metastatic spread, started active oncology treatment in the last twelve months and were in receipt of palliative or end of life care. Main Outcome: Residence was measured using the UK ONS RUC2011 Rural-Urban Classifications and Health Status via the UK ONS self-reported health status measure. Results: 227 respondents returned a questionnaire. Forty-five per cent (N=103) were resident in a rural area and fifty-three per cent (N=120) in an urban area. Rural (4.11±0.85) respondents had significantly (p<0.001) higher self-reported health status compared to urban (3.65±0.93) respondents (MD 0.47; 95% CI 0.23, 0.70). Conclusion: Rural respondents had significantly higher self-reported health status compared to their urban counterparts. It is hoped that the results will stimulate further work in this area and that researchers will be encouraged to collect data on rural-urban residency where appropriate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0167.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: mental health; mental health literacy; psychological vulnerability; health promotion; adult
Online: 11 February 2022 (21:40:28 CET)
Resumo: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a Saúde Mental Positiva (SPM) e a sua relação com características sociodemográficas, literacia em saúde mental e escala de vulnerabilidade psicológica (PVS) em estudantes universitários portugueses com idades compreendidas entre os 17 e os 62 anos. Foi realizado um estudo descritivo-correlacional. Uma pesquisa online foi realizada para avaliar variáveis demográficas, e vários questionários foram aplicados para avaliar saúde mental positiva, vulnerabilidade psicológica e alfabetização em saúde mental. Os dados foram coletados de 1º de novembro de 2019 a 1º de setembro de 2020. No geral, 3.405 alunos participaram do estudo. Os resultados mostram que 67,8% dos alunos revelaram um alto nível de PMH, 31,6% apresentaram um nível médio de PMH e 0,6% apresentaram um nível baixo de PMH. Os estudantes do sexo masculino relataram maior satisfação pessoal (t (3170) = -2,39, p=0,017) e autonomia (t (3170) = -3,33, p=0,001), no PMH em relação ao sexo feminino. Alunos sem bolsa pontuaram mais alto (t (3.127) = -2,04, p=0,42) no PMH do que alunos com bolsa. Estudantes que não foram deslocados de casa relataram maior (t (3170) = -1,99, p=0,047) Autocontrole em PMH do que aqueles deslocados de sua casa. Estudantes universitários com resultados de PMH mais altos têm resultados de PVS mais baixos e resultados de Alfabetização mais altos. Os achados deste estudo contribuirão para identificar as necessidades de intervenção dos alunos na PMH. Estudantes universitários com resultados de PMH mais altos têm resultados de PVS mais baixos e resultados de Alfabetização mais altos. Os achados deste estudo contribuirão para identificar as necessidades de intervenção dos alunos na PMH. Estudantes universitários com resultados de PMH mais altos têm resultados de PVS mais baixos e resultados de Alfabetização mais altos. Os achados deste estudo contribuirão para identificar as necessidades de intervenção dos alunos na PMH.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0075.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Consumers' consciousness for health; companies’ health-friendly activities; health-friendly products and services; health status
Online: 7 May 2019 (11:14:55 CEST)
Although health policy resides mainly with the government, industry can play an important role in building a health ecosystem. From March to May, we administered questionnaires to 1,200 individuals from the general Korean population asking about their perception of health-friendly labels, and if they would purchase such labeled products (foods, pharmaceuticals, etc.) and services (purifying water, preventing air pollution, etc.) at extra cost. The participants placed a high value on the importance of mental, social, spiritual, and physical health factors in terms of company’s products and services with a score of about 8 out of 10 (range, 7.74-8.33). Most respondents (72.4%) said they were interested in adopting health-friendly labels. When a health-friendly label is introduced (such as one by the Business for Social Responsiveness), 65.1% of the respondents said they intended to purchase the product or service, while 6.8% said they did not, and 75.0% said they were willing to pay extra for the health-friendly product or service. Multivariate logistic regression models showed urban residence, high education level, and good social health to be significantly associated with positive attitudes toward health-friendly labels. People with high income, no religion, or normal weight were more likely to say they intend to purchase products and services with health-friendly labels. They also had a more positive attitude toward paying more for such products and services, as did people with good spiritual health. This study provides data that illustrate the importance of health-friendly products and services to the general population and companies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0168.v1
Online: 10 May 2020 (14:48:23 CEST)
Trees provide key ecosystem services, but the health and sustainability of these plants is under increasing biotic and abiotic threat, including from the growing incidences of non-native invasive plant pests (including pathogens). The island of Ireland (Ireland and Northern Ireland) is generally accepted to have a high plant health status, in part due to its island status and because of the national and international regulations aimed at protecting plant health. To establish a baseline of the current pest threats to tree health for the island of Ireland, the literature and unpublished sources were reviewed to produce a dataset of pests of trees on the island of Ireland. The dataset contains 396 records of pests of trees on the island of Ireland, the majority of pests being arthropods and fungi, and indicating potentially more than 44 non-native pest introductions. The reliability of many (378) of the records was judged to be high, therefore the dataset provides a robust assessment of the state of pests of trees recorded on the island of Ireland. We analyse this dataset and review the history of plant pest invasions, including (i) discussion on notable native and non-native pests of trees, (ii) pest interceptions at borders and (iii) pests and climate change. The dataset establishes an important baseline for the knowledge of plant pests on the island of Ireland, and will be a valuable resource for future plant health research and policy making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0147.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Decentralization; National Health Service; Regional Health Administration; Primary Health Care; Portugal
Online: 11 July 2022 (03:46:45 CEST)
The Portuguese health system has a universal, public, general National Health Service (NHS), tending towards free healthcare access. Created in 1979, this delivery model developed from the integration and complementarity between the different response levels (primary, hospital, continuing, and palliative care). However, over these 40 years, the initially centralized system underwent a decentralization process with the creation of Regional Health Administrations in the five mainland administrative regions. Since then, the entire NHS has settled around this new organization. The most recent step started in 2018 with decentralizing primary health care skills to 190 municipalities. This paper presents the various critical issues involved in the latest gradual decentralization process in health, intending to bring services closer to the citizens, and more focused on their needs. The article identifies and discusses the implications of this experience based on the steps foreseen in the already published legal texts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0421.v1
Subject: Keywords: urban morphology; physical activities; health; public health; public space; urban health
Online: 29 March 2020 (06:02:59 CEST)
Along with environmental pollutions, urban planning has been connected to public health. The research indicates that the quality of built environments plays an important role in reducing mental disorders and overall health. The structure and shape of the city are considered as one of the factors influencing happiness and health in urban communities and the type of the daily activities of citizens. The aim of this study was to promote physical activity in the main structure of the city via urban design in a way that the main form and morphology of the city can encourage citizens to move around and have physical activity within the city. Functional, physical, cultural-social, and perceptual-visual features are regarded as the most important and effective criteria in increasing physical activities in urban spaces based on literature review. The environmental quality of urban spaces and their role in the physical activities of citizens in urban spaces were assessed by using the questionnaire tool and analytical network process (ANP) of structural equation modeling. Further, the space syntax method was utilized to evaluate the role of the spatial integration of urban spaces on improving physical activities. Based on the results, the consideration of functional diversity, spatial flexibility and integration, security, and the aesthetic and visual quality of urban spaces plays an important role in improving the physical health of citizens in urban spaces. Further, more physical activities, including motivation for walking and consequently, the sense of public health and happiness, were observed in the streets having higher linkage and space syntax indexes with their surrounding texture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0473.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Indigenous; First Nations; Health Services Accessibility; Health Services Administration; Trust; Communication; Primary Health Care; Health Policy
Online: 22 February 2021 (13:22:45 CET)
Background: Australia’s healthcare system is complex and fragmented which can create challenges in healthcare, particularly in rural and remote areas. Aboriginal people experience inequalities in healthcare treatment and outcomes. This study aimed to investigate barriers and enablers to accessing healthcare services for Aboriginal people living in rural and remote Australia. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with healthcare delivery staff and stakeholders recruited through snowball sampling. The communities were selected for their high proportion of Aboriginal people and geographical representation (coastal, rural, and border). Thematic analysis identified barriers and enablers. Results: Thirty-one interviews were conducted (n =5 coastal, n=13 remote, and n=13 border) and six themes identified: 1) Improved coordination of healthcare services; 2) Better communication between services and patients; 3) Trust in services and cultural safety; 4) Importance of prioritizing health services by Aboriginal people; 5) Importance of reliable, affordable and sustainable services; 6) Distance and transport availability. These themes were often present as both barriers and enablers to healthcare access for Aboriginal people. They were also present across the healthcare system and within all three communities. Conclusions: This study describes a pathway to better healthcare outcomes for Aboriginal Australians by providing insights into ways to improve access.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0478.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: health literacy; media health literacy; ehealth literacy; social environment; health apps; social support; digital health; empowerment
Online: 31 May 2018 (11:45:44 CEST)
Health literacy describes skills and competencies that enable people to gain access to, understand and apply health information to positively influence their own health and the health of those in the social environment. In an increasingly media saturated and digitized world, these skill sets are necessary for accessing and navigating sources of health information and tools, such as television, the Internet, and mobile apps. The concepts of Media Health Literacy (MHL) and eHealth Literacy (eHL) describe the specific competencies such tasks require. This article introduces the two concepts, and then reviews findings on the associations of MHL and eHL with several contextual variables in the social environment such as socio-demographics, social support, and system complexity, as a structural variable. As eHL and MHL are crucial for empowering people to actively engage in their own health, a growing body of literature reports of the potential and the effectiveness of intervention initiatives to positively influence these competencies. From an ethical standpoint, equity is emphasized, stressing the importance of accessible media environments for all - including those at risk of exclusion from (digital) media sources. Alignment of micro and macro contextual spheres will ultimately facilitate both non-digital and digital media to effectively support and promote public health.
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: catastrophes; COVID-19; civil unrests; inflation; public health; Health safety; Health crisis
Online: 28 January 2023 (04:52:49 CET)
Aim: Shockwaves have been felt all over the world as a result of war, inflation, food shortages, and the COVID-19 pandemic's long tail. The aim of the study is to correlate present global conflicts, pandemic and socio-economic crises with present healthcare sustainability, identifying possible threats and visualize future global health crises if all these catastrophes persist for long. Materials and Methods: PubMed, ALTAVISTA, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Registers were prioritized to collect public health issues. Results: The global economic slowdown, sharp decline in financial asset values, decline in imports and exports, contraction of industrial production, rise in inflation, decrease in wages, rise in unemployment, damage to the social security caused by numerous natural calamities, human displacement due to pandemic and ongoing conflicts tear down not only the economic sector but also the health sector. It is already late for taking corrective measure by the participation every country, community or intelligence. Only healthcare issues, highlighted in this study, if focused in the highest platforms, could compel global leaders to forego conflicts and work together. Conclusion: The global health sector will be collapsed soon, if proper initiatives are not taken right now, which has already been grossly mistreated by the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0026.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: online health information; digital literacy; e-Health; e-Health solutions; Dr. Google
Online: 5 October 2022 (03:55:03 CEST)
The investment in digital e-Health services is a priority direction in the development of global health care systems. While people are increasingly using the Web for health information, it is not entirely clear what is the physicians’ attitude towards digital transformation, and the acceptance of new technologies in healthcare. The aim of this cross-sectional survey study was to investigate physicians’ self-digital skills, and their opinions on obtaining online health knowledge by patients, as well as the recognition of physicians’ attitudes towards e-Health solutions. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed to emerge the variables from self-designed questionnaire, and cross-sectional analysis comparing descriptive statistics and correlations for dependent variables using the one-way ANOVA (F-test). 307 physicians participated in the study, reported using the internet mainly several times a day (66.8%). Most participants (70.4%) were familiar with new technologies and rate their e-Health literacy high, although 84.0% reported the need for additional training in this field, and reported a need to introduce a larger number of subjects shaping digital skills (75.9%) in medical studies 53.4% of physicians perceived Internet-sourced information as sometimes reliable, and in general assessed the effects of using it by their patients negatively (41.7%). Digital skills increased significantly with frequency of internet use (F = 13.167; p = 0.0001), and decreased with physicians’ age, and the need for training. Those who claimed that patients often experienced health benefits from online health showed higher digital skills (-1.06). Physicians most often recommended their patients to obtain laboratory test results online (32.2%), and to arrange medical appointments via the Internet (27.0%). Along with the deterioration of physicians’ digital skills, the recommendation of e-Health solutions decreased (r = 0.413), and lower the assessment of e-Health solutions for the patient (r = 0.449). Physicians perceive digitization as a sign of the times, and frequently use its tools in daily practice. The evaluation of Dr. Google’s phenomenon and online health is directly related to their own e-Health literacy skills, but there is still a need for practical training to deal with digital revolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0045.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Reproductive Health; Sexual Health; Women’s Health; Nursing Curriculum; Nursing Education; Undergraduate Education
Online: 2 September 2021 (14:45:22 CEST)
Background: It is very important that nurses receive adequate training in Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH). In this study, the contents of the SRH subject in the undergraduate nursing curricula of 77 Spanish universities were examined in order to determine what SRH training nursing students are receiving. Methods: The contents of the SRH subject of all the curricula that were available online were reviewed. The distribution of the contents (topics) in the two areas (reproductive health and sexual health) was analyzed, and the prevalence of each topic was established. It was also determined whether there were differences in topics between public (n=52) and private universities (n=25). Results: The training of nursing students focuses mainly on the area of Reproductive Health (15 topics). Most of the topics of this area had a prevalence greater than 50%. Although the area of Sexual Health had 14 topics, most of these topics had a low prevalence (<20%), especially in private universities. Conclusions: It was found that there is considerable variation in the distribution and prevalence of SRH topics between universities. The contents of the area of Reproductive Health are usually prevalent in most of the curricula, however the contents of the area of Sexual Health are very limited in most of the universities. An organizational effort is required to determine and standardize the contents of SRH that nursing students should receive in Spain to avoid inequalities in their training.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0190.v2
Subject: Keywords: built environment; health equity; insect vectors; public health; social determinants of health
Online: 29 February 2020 (11:01:03 CET)
Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are primary vectors of dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and Zika viruses. Ae. aegypti is highly anthropophilic and relies nearly exclusively on human blood meals and habitats for reproduction. Socioeconomic factors may influence the spread of Ae. aegypti due to its close relationship with humans. This paper describes and summarizes the published literature on how socioeconomic variables influence the distribution of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes in the mainland United States. A comprehensive search of PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and EBSCO Academic Search Complete through June 12, 2019 was used to retrieve all articles published in English on the association of socioeconomic factors and the distribution of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. Additionally, a hand search of mosquito control association websites was conducted in an attempt to identify relevant grey literature. Articles were screened for eligibility using the process described in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Initially, 3,493 articles were identified through the database searches and previously known literature. After checking for duplicates, 2,145 articles remained. 570 additional records were identified through the grey literature search for a total of 2,715 articles. These articles were screened for eligibility using their titles and abstracts, and 2,677 articles were excluded for not meeting the eligibility criteria. Finally, the full text for each of the remaining articles (n = 38) was read to determine eligibility. Through this screening process, 11 articles were identified for inclusion in this review. The findings for these 11 studies revealed inconsistent relationships between the studied socioeconomic factors and the distribution and abundance of Ae. aegypti. The findings of this review suggest a gap in the literature and understanding of the influence of anthropogenic factors on the distribution of Ae. aegypti that could hinder efforts to implement effective public health prevention and control strategies should a disease outbreak occur.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0635.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: health literacy; healthcare; disease prevention; health promotion.
Online: 25 March 2021 (15:24:34 CET)
Health literacy is an indicator of a society’s ability to make better health judgement for themselves and the people around them. This study investigates the prevalence of health literacy among Malaysian adults and provides an overall picture of the current health literacy state of the society. The study also highlights socio-demographics markers of communities with limited health literacy which may warrant future intervention. A population based self-administered survey using the Health Literacy Survey Malaysian Questionnaire18 (HLS-M-Q18) instrument was conducted as part of the National Health Morbidity Survey 2019 in Malaysia. The nationwide survey utilized two-staged stratified random sampling method. A sample of 9478 individuals aged 18 and above participated in the study. The health literacy score was divided into three levels; limited, sufficient and excellent. Findings showed that majority Malaysian population has sufficient health literacy level, albeit leaning towards the lower end of the category with an average score of 35.5. The limited health literacy groups are associated with respondents with older age, lower education level and lower household income. Overall health literacy state for Malaysia is categorized at a lower sufficient level. Health literacy improvements should focus on communities with limited health literacy level.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0489.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: overweight; obesity; health behaviour; health status; adulthood
Online: 18 November 2020 (23:35:44 CET)
The study aimed to estimate the prevalence and correlates of overweight and obesity among adults in Iraq. Data from a 2015 nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 3,916 persons 18 years and older were analysed that responded to a questionnaire, physical and biochemical measures. Multinomial logistic regression was utilized to predict determinants of overweight and obesity relative to under or normal weight. Results indicate that 3.6% of the participants were underweight (BMI <18.5 kg/m²), 30.8% had normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m²), 31.8% were overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m²), and 33.9% had obesity (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m²). In adjusted multinomial logistic regression, aged 40-49 years (Adjusted Relative Risk Ratio-ARRR: 4.47, Confidence Interval-CI: 3.39-5.91), urban residence (ARRR: 1.28, CI: 1.14-2.18), hypertension (ARRR: 3.13, CI: 2.36-4.17) were positively, and male sex (ARRR: 0.47, CI: 0.33-0.68), having more than primary education (ARRR: 0.69, CI: 0.50-0.94), and larger household size (≥5 members) (ARRR: 0.45, CI: 0.33-0.60) were negativey associated with obesity. About two in three adult participants were overweight/obese, and sociodemographic and health risk factors were found that can be utilized in targeting interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0332.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: anxiety; psychological health; public health; COVID-19
Online: 15 October 2020 (16:21:47 CEST)
The epidemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) has brought many changes to people's life. This study aims to analysis Chinese people's psychological change and life after quarantining Wuhan and explore the influencing factors. Based on data from a web-survey after quarantining Wuhan (N=3268), the principal-component-analysis (PCA), multiple-linear-regression (MLR), propensity-score-matching (PSM) were used to explore the psychological change of people in China and the influencing factors. 83.3% of the respondents said that the impact of the epidemic on their life had increased after quarantining Wuhan. A considerable proportion of people's anxiety increased, being reflected in negative emotion, behavioral response and physiological response. The proportion of people who said their anxiety had increased in Wuhan was higher than that in other regions (p <0.05). The anxiety of people who were in medical isolation increased less than those who were not (p <0.05). All three aspects of people’s anxiety were positively related with time of medical isolation and degree of the attention on the epidemic (p＜0.05) except the effect of attention degree on the physiological response (p＝0.06). The measure of medical isolation at home should be advocated. Yet people should reduce the concern for the epidemic while paying attention to self-protection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0535.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: COVID-19; Pandemic; Global health; Health inequalities
Online: 23 September 2020 (04:13:51 CEST)
The COVID-19 crisis has brought unprecedented strain on healthcare systems around the world. It has perhaps taught us some key lessons that are worth considering and addressing to help build more sustainable health systems as well as improve our ability to combat future epidemics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0212.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: 5G; health risks; EMP exposure; health hazards
Online: 8 August 2020 (17:56:06 CEST)
Recently there is a growing concern regarding potential health hazards linked with 5G deployment and radio frequency emitted by these stations. It becomes fundamentally important to scientifically address these concerns. In this paper, the health risks incorporated with 5G are discussed critically in the light of scientific work and debunk these tittle-tattles where required. We confute scientifically the “5G appeal”, discuss effects of 5G on health, its implications on privacy, pandemics, ecosystem and role of world health organization in fighting these narratives. Finally, we provide future direction to negate these false claims linked with 5G.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0128.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: men's sheds; men's health; health promotion; evaluation; community based health promotion; physical activity
Online: 9 March 2022 (09:36:03 CET)
Abstract Issue Addressed: Men’s Sheds (‘Sheds’) have been identified as inherently health promoting and as potential settings to engage ‘hard-to-reach’ men in more structured health promotion initiatives. However, little is known about the sociodemographic or health and wellbeing characteristics of Shed members (‘Shedders’) on which such initiatives might be based. This study captures a baseline cross sectional analysis of Shedders (n=384) who participated in ‘Sheds for Life’, a health promotion initiative tailored to Sheds. Methods: Objective health measure, (body composition, blood pressure, blood lipids) captured via health screening as well as sociodemographic and health and wellbeing measures (physical activity, subjective wellbeing, mental health, social capital, cooking and diet) via questionnaires were assessed. Results: Participants were mostly over 65 years, retired with limited educational attainment. The majority were in the ‘at-risk’ categories for objective health measures, with most being referred to their GP following health screening. Older Shedders were also more likely to meet physical activity guidelines. Mental wellbeing was positively correlated with life satisfaction and increased social capital and these were also positively correlated with physical activity. Conclusions: Findings highlight the potential of Sheds in reaching a ‘hard-to-reach’ and ‘at-risk’ cohort of men. Despite a high prevalence of ‘at-risk’ objective health measures, participants report their health in positive terms. Future health promotion initiatives should capitalise on the inherent health promoting properties of Sheds. So what? Findings raise important implications for prioritising and designing health promotion initiatives in Shed settings.
Subject: Keywords: health innovation; technological innovation; social innovation; public health; global health; Ebola; Covid-19
Online: 30 March 2021 (10:29:41 CEST)
Health innovations are generally oriented on a techno-economic vision. In this perspective, technologies are seen as an end in themselves, and there is no arrangement between the technical and the social values of innovation. This vision prevails in sanitary crises, in which management is carried out based on the search for punctual, reactive, and technical solutions to remedy a specific problem without a systemic/holistic, sustainable, or proactive approach. This paper attempts to contribute to the literature on the epistemological orientation of innovations in the field of public health. Taking the Covid-19 and Ebola crises as examples, the primary objective is to show how innovation in health is oriented towards a techno-economic paradigm. Second, we propose a repositioning of public health innovation towards a social paradigm that will put more emphasis on the interaction between social and health dimensions in the perspective of social change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0336.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: health literacy; patient health engagement model; Health Care Climate Questionnaire; patient autonomy; PHE-s; Patient Health Engagement Scale; health communication; patient centered communication; patient engagement
Online: 28 January 2020 (10:29:43 CET)
Individuals with low health literacy (HL) are known to have poorer health outcomes and to have higher mortality rates compared to individuals with higher HL: hence, the improvement of HL is a key outcome in modern healthcare systems. Healthcare providers are therefore asked to support patients’ literacy skills by encouraging the implementation of autonomy-supportive patient centered communication (PCC), which in turn requires the enhancement of patient engagement. Our main hypothesis is that the well-known relationship between autonomy-supportive PCC and HL is mediated by patient engagement which is known to play a role in HL promotion and that is related to PCC as well. The purpose of this study was to formulate a hypothetical structural equation model (SEM) linking PCC to patient engagement and HL. A cross-sectional survey design was employed involving 1007 Italian chronic patients. The hypothetical model was tested using SEM to verify the hypothesized mediation of patient engagement between PCC and HL. Results show that the theoretical model has a good fit indexes and that patient engagement fully mediates the relationship between PCC and HL. This finding suggests healthcare systems to implement a new paradigm where patients are supported to play an autonomous role in their own healthcare.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0457.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: ethical; legal; artificial intelligence; health; equity; public health
Online: 24 November 2022 (09:59:55 CET)
Background: The potential of Artificial intelligent (AI) models to process and interpret large health datasets at scale could revolutionize public health and epidemiology, providing a foundation for public health. Ethics has been recognized as a priority concern in the development and deployment of AI. Because AI technology can jeopardize patient safety, privacy, and posing a new set of ethical problems that must be addressed. Objectives: We aim to provide a holistic view on what are the different ethical and legal principles that was addressed in the included studies regarding the use of AI in public health and what are the ethical challenges that can arise.Methods: Following PRISMA guideline, five bibliographic databases were used in our search: PubMed, Scopus, JSTOR, IEEE Xplore, and Google Scholar from 2015 to February 2022. Four reviewers carried out study selection and data extraction, and the data extracted was synthesized by a narrative approach. Results: This review included 23 unique publications out of a total of 1123 items that were initially identified. Different ethical principles regarding the uses of AI in public health and community health were identified and discussed distinctly in the current review. The common ethical and legal themes that this review focused on are equity, bias, privacy and security, safety, transparency, confidentiality, accountability, social justice, and autonomy. In addition, five ethical challenges were mentioned. Conclusion: Research regarding ethical and legal principles and challenges about using AI in public health specifically consider a new filed, because all previous themes are concerning the physical and patients’ area where it focuses only on the clinical settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0237.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: AMR; agriculture; One Health; health economics; policy; modelling
Online: 12 August 2022 (11:28:08 CEST)
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an increasingly pressing threat to human, animal, and environmental health. Reducing the use of antibiotics in agriculture has been identified as a key way to curb the spread of AMR. However, the effect of such policies on AMR prevalence, and their broader impacts on agricultural, health, and economic outcomes at the population level have proven very difficult to estimate and compare. This paper draws on and formalises ideas presented at the JPIAMR New Perspectives on Bacterial Drug Resistance workshop in June of 2022. With reference to emerging literature on the topic, it proposes a quantitative framework for estimating the relevant causal relationships needed to quantify the cross-sectoral impacts of AMR policies in agriculture, and for comparing these outcomes in like terms in a way which can feed directly into policy decision-making, notably without prohibitive data requirements. The ability of researchers to apply frameworks such as this will be increasingly necessary in order to holistically capture the impacts of AMR policies and to situate them in the broader policy context; especially where the mechanisms of transmission are opaque or complex, where data availability is limited; and where policymakers must allocate scarce resources among many competing objectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0391.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: occupational health; leadership; mental health; workplace climate; worksite
Online: 29 June 2022 (03:27:08 CEST)
Objectives: This study validated the Japanese version of O’Donovan et al.’s (2020) composite measure of psychological safety scale and examined the associations of psychological safety with mental health and job-related outcomes. Methods: Online surveys were administered twice to Japanese employees with teams of more than three members. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability was tested using Cronbach’s α and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Structural validity was examined using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Convergent validity was tested. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between psychological safety and psychological distress, work engagement, job performance, and job satisfaction. Results: Two hundred healthcare workers and 200 non-healthcare workers were analyzed. The Cronbach’s alpha of the total score was 0.92 - 0.96 and ICC was 0.88 - 0.92. CFA demonstrated poor fit, and EFA yielded a two-factor structure, suggesting one factor combined with peers and team. The scale showed good convergent validity. The total score of the scale showed significant associations with all outcomes in adjusted model in all workers. Conclusions: The Japanese version of the measure of the psychological safety scale presented good reliability and validity. Psychological safety is important for employees’ mental health and performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0115.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Health Status; National Survey; KSA; School Health; Students
Online: 7 September 2021 (09:59:44 CEST)
The Ministry of Health (MOH) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) established a National School-based Screening Program (NSBSP) for health screening of school-going children. Students from specific grades were systematically screened for several health problems including obesity, visual and auditory problems, dental cavities, scoliosis, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of these health problems among primary school students based on secondary data obtained from the NSBSP. We included 444,259 screened school children from the 1st and 4th grades of 50% of the selected schools (both private and public) across the KSA during the academic year 2018-2019. Among them, the most prevalent health problems identified were dental cavities (38.7%), eye refractory errors (10.9%), and overweight and obesity (10.5%); the less prevalent problems included ADHD (2.81%), auditory problems (0.6%), and scoliosis (0.48%). A greater prevalence of most health problems was observed in girls than boys. The NSBSP successfully aided the detection of health conditions with high and low prevalence among primary school students in the KSA, and thus, identification of health problems of specific concern. Implementation of effective school health services for the prevention, early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of these health problems is imperative.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0329.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19; Geospatial Regression; Health Disparities; Public Health
Online: 11 September 2020 (09:48:57 CEST)
COVID-19 is a potentially fatal viral infection. This study investigates geography, demography, socioeconomics, health conditions, hospital characteristics, and politics as potential explanatory variables for death rates at the state and county levels. Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Census Bureau, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid, Definitive Healthcare, and USAfacts.org were used to evaluate regression models. Yearly pneumonia and flu death rates (state level, 2014-2018) were evaluated as a function of the governors’ political party using repeated measures analysis. At the state and county level, spatial regression models were evaluated. At the county level, we discovered a statistically significant model that included geography, population density, racial and ethnic status, three health status variables along with a political factor. State level analysis identified health status, minority status, and the interaction between governors’ parties and health status as important variables. The political factor, however, did not appear in a subsequent analysis of 2014-2018 pneumonia and flu death rates. The pathogenesis of COVID-19 has greater and disproportionate effect within racial and ethnic minority groups, and the political influence on the reporting of COVID-19 mortality was statistically relevant at the county level and as an interaction term only at the state level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0570.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: occupational health services; mining; primary health clinics; labour
Online: 24 July 2020 (05:02:16 CEST)
Only 15% of the global population has access to occupational safety and health services. In Africa only 5% of employees working from major establishments, have access to occupational health services (OHS). Access to primary health care (PHC) services is addressed in many settings and inclusion of OHS in these facilities might increase efficiency in preventing occupational diseases. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four SADC countries aiming at assessing the availability of OHS at PHC facilities and the organization of OHS. We conducted a literature review to assess the provision and organization of OHS services. In addition to the review, a total of 23 doctors from PHC facilities were interviewed using questionnaires in order to determine the availability of OHS and training. Consultations with heads of ministries were done in four SADC countries. Results showed that in the SADC region, OHS are fragmented and lack a comprehensive approach. In addition, out of 23 PHC facilities only two (13%) provided occupational health and PHC. However, OHS provided at PHC facilities were limited to TB screening and audiometric testing. Our study showed a huge inadequacy of trained occupational health practitioners. This study supports the World Health Organization’s advocacy of integrating OHS at PHC level.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0602.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Dust; Mining; Environment; Sustainability; community health; occupational health
Online: 27 November 2018 (12:10:56 CET)
Dust inhalation is a huge concern in the mining environment and within all its operations. In fact, dust to be one of the most serious occupational hazards in the mining industry. Coal and crystalline silica dust are the causes of serious, sometimes fatal lung diseases such as pneumoconiosis, which affects coal miners, as well as silicosis, tuberculosis, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and chronic renal disease, which affect coal and other types of miners. The resulting effects both affect workers and nearby communities. The mining industry has in the past, employed several approaches to reduce effects of dust. But these strategies have often been ineffective because the grass withers during the dry season and sprayed water is rapidly absorbed or evaporates. This paper endeavors to review information on dust in the mining environment and how it is a nuisance to workers and communities and establish what strategies exist for this.