Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Smoking Among Health Care Workers and Non-Health Care Workers in Zambezi Region, Namibia: A Cross-Sectional Study

Version 1 : Received: 22 December 2020 / Approved: 23 December 2020 / Online: 23 December 2020 (16:28:15 CET)

How to cite: Mahoto, S.K.; Mitonga, K.H.; Oladimeji, O. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Smoking Among Health Care Workers and Non-Health Care Workers in Zambezi Region, Namibia: A Cross-Sectional Study. Preprints 2020, 2020120598 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202012.0598.v1). Mahoto, S.K.; Mitonga, K.H.; Oladimeji, O. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Smoking Among Health Care Workers and Non-Health Care Workers in Zambezi Region, Namibia: A Cross-Sectional Study. Preprints 2020, 2020120598 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202012.0598.v1).

Abstract

Smoking is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases and remains a significant public health challenge in many lower- and middle-income countries (LMIC) including Namibia. The purpose of the study was to estimate the prevalence of smoking and its associated risk factors among HCWs and non-HCWs in Zambezi region. An exploratory cross-sectional survey was conducted between March and October 2020 among residents of the eight (8) constituencies of Zambezi region. Four hundred and sixty-one (461) respondents who had been residents of the selected constituencies for over five years and aged between 17-60 years were selected for the study. The main outcome measure was current cigarette smoking status. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents. We stratified data analysis by individual being health workers or non-health workers. A bivariate Pearson Chi-square test was used to determine the association between socio-demographic characteristics and the smoking status. Statistically significant variables in the bivariate analysis were used as predictors in the univariate and multivariate models. The response rate of potential participants was 95% (n=434). The mean (±SD) age of participant’s was 32.5 (± 11.34 years). Significant relationships were observed between smoking status and area of residency (constituency), gender, age category, level of education, age of onset of smoking and the daily smoking frequency. The majority of smokers (n=108) were none-HCWs with males being the majority (n=62). Age (p=0.001), education levels (p=0.001) and area of residency (p=0.022) were highly associated with smoking among none-HCW while marital status was associated with smoking among HCWs (p=0.013). In the final multivariate model, the odds of smoking among female non-HCWs were significantly lower (OR: 0.386; 95% CI: 0.228 – 0.655). Furthermore, the odds of smoking among this same group were lower among those who had secondary level education (OR: 0.178; 95% CI: 0.0659 – 0.483), post-secondary (OR: 0.117, 95% CI: 0.0412 – 0.330) and first stage tertiary (OR: 0.306: 95% CI: 0.106 – 0.881) compared to those who had primary school education. In conclusion, smoking prevalence among none HCWs and HCWs working in Zambezi included in the study was similar to that of the general Namibian population but higher than other neighboring countries within SADC. The results showed a need for the establishment of specific smoking related strategies that target HCWs to address smoking use parallel to the running of none HCWs which would ultimately decrease the smoking prevalence and improve health.

Subject Areas

Zambezi; Health Care Workers; cigarette smoking; Cigarettes; Gender differences; Prevalence; Tobacco use; Vulnerable populations; Risk factors

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