ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0059.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Self-employment; household determinants; financial Crisis
Online: 7 June 2019 (12:48:50 CEST)
While some researchers have suggested that the self-employment (SE) sector is a haven during a financial Crisis, others believe that SE is not necessarily the desired outcome, but an indicator that the labor market is tightening for some groups. Few researchers have compared the SE sector before and after the occurrence of a significant financial Crisis, especially in developed countries. This paper analyzes the determinants of entry into self-employment during the 2008 Spanish Crisis. Using data from the Encuesta de Presupuesto Familiar (EPF), results show that although the rate of SE did not experience a significant change during this time the Crisis affected people differently based on gender, with being females more affected than males. Results also suggest differences between Comunidades Autonomas in how the self-employment sector behaved during the Crisis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0221.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: financial crisis; management information system; financial system; confidence level
Online: 19 July 2019 (07:59:58 CEST)
There has been rampant fold-ups, merger and acquisitions occurring in the Ghanaian banking industry. Then, the questions arise: Is the Ghanaian Financial System in Crisis? This study was conducted to find answers to these problems unsolved with prior literature. A sample of seventy customers of the Royal Bank, 8 employees of the Royal Bank and 2 managers of the Royal Bank were selected for a case-survey. The study also monitored the Trend of the Ghanaian Financial System through the reading and monitoring of daily news on the Financial System and reports of banks. The data from the field and the secondary data from news and reports were analysed symmetrically. The study drew on Minsky’s Financial Crisis Theory to explain the phenomenon in the Ghanaian economy and to draw predictions of what would happen in other developing economies. The study found out that: (1) The Ghanaian financial system is fragile and it holds true for most developing economies; (2) The financial system suffers greatly when the confidence level of customers falls significantly; (3) Management information systems raises the confidence level of customers (borrowers and lenders) such that there is a greater fall and impact in times of instability in the economy; (4) The higher the level of MIS adoption in an unstable economy, the more fragile the Financial System becomes and (5) A higher adoption of Management Information Systems in a Fragile Financial System indirectly contributes to Financial Crisis of the Financial System.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0455.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: collective behavior; vicsek model; financial crisis
Online: 20 July 2020 (07:34:29 CEST)
According to its inner property, a crisis in the financial market can be considered as a collective behavior phenomenon. Through the prism of collective behavior, the crisis does not happen if the companies are independent of each other. In this work, cooperative movement processes in a stock market are investigated in a manner similar to that Vicsek first described collective behavior for self-propelled entities. To this end, a phase space is defined as the one in which the return of volume of transactions versus return of price is represented with each share in each day corresponding to a unique point in the space. The findings of the observation show that during times of crisis, the phase space is limited with the vector velocity of shares in the same direction. In contrast, on a regular day, the phase space is entirely accessible, with vector velocity aligned randomly. Moreover, in line with the Vicsek model, an order parameter is introduced, which evaluates the cooperative effects for the shares so that the higher the value of this parameter, the stronger the collective behavior of the shares.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0501.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Crude oil; Global financial crisis; COVID-19; Stock; Returns; Persistence
Online: 31 May 2020 (20:15:29 CEST)
This study investigates the impact of global financial crisis and the present COVID-19 pandemic on daily and weekly Crude oil futures using four variants of ARMA-GARCH models: ARMA-sGARCH, ARMA-eGARCH, ARMA-TGARCH and ARMA- aPARCH with dummy variables We also investigated the persistence, half-life and backtesting of the models. This study therefore seeks to contribute to the body of literature on the impact of global financial crisis and the present COVID-19 pandemic on crude oil futures market. This investigation of the impact of global financial crisis and the COVID-19 on crude oil futures has not been much studied at present. We obtained and analyzed the daily and weekly crude oil futures from secondary sources. Daily crude oil futures used in this study covers the period from the 4th January 2000 to 27th April 2020 while the weekly crude oil futures covered from 2ndJanuary 2000 to 26th April 2020 . The global financial crisis period covered from 2nd July 2007 to 31st March 2009 and the current COVID-19 pandemic covered from 1st January 2020 to 27th April, 2020. The study used both student t and skewed student t innovations with AIC, goodness-of-test fit and backtesting to select the best model. Most of the estimated ARMA-GARCH models are supported by skewed student t distribution while most of the ARMA-GARCH models exhibited high persistence values in the presence of global financial crisis and the COVID-19 pandemic. In the overall, the estimated ARMA(1,0)-eGARCH(2,1) and ARMA(1,0)-eGARCH(2,2) model for daily crude oil futures and weekly crude oil futures respectively have been significantly impacted by the global financial crisis and the Present COVID-19 pandemic while the preferred estimated models also passed the goodness-of-test fit and backtesting.This study recommends shareholders and investors should think outside the box as crude oil futures tend to be affected by global financial crisis and COVID-19 pandemic while countries also that depend mostly on crude oil are encouraged to diversify their economy in other to survive and be sustained during financial and health crisis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0590.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: healthcare companies; financial performance; crisis periods; economic crisis; COVID-19
Online: 8 September 2023 (04:33:25 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the financial performances of the publicly held healthcare companies in crisis periods in Türkiye. The 2018 Economic Crisis and the COVID-19 pandemic crisis were included in the study as the crisis periods. We collected the financial data of the publicly held healthcare companies and calculated three liquidity, three turnover, three leverage and three profitability ratios by ratio analysis to use as financial performance indicators. We then conducted Wilcoxon signed-rank tests and we did separate analyses for the 2018 Economic Crisis and the COVID-19 pandemic crisis. The results of the analyses showed that there were no statistically significant differences between the publicly held healthcare companies’ liquidity, turnover, leverage, profitability ratios and thus their financial performances before the crises and after the crises. While the results are reassuring and give valuable insights to managers and policy makers to determine the areas that needs to be strengthened to be better prepared for possible future crises, our sample was limited. Therefore, this study presents an exploratory foundation for future studies which are needed to make a case of financial stability for the publicly held healthcare companies before and after the crisis periods.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0690.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: pandemic; monetary theory; financial sustainability; Wellbeing Economics; Political Economy.
Online: 29 March 2021 (12:43:54 CEST)
This paper analyses the COVID-19 crisis and its management, under the Austrian Economics. The attention is focused in the States’ coercive intervention, to evaluate the positive or negative effects of pandemic, according to the Principles of Political Economy and the theory of capital and economic cycles. The paper examines the specific case of massive intervention by governments and, especially, central banks in monetary and financial markets to deal with the pandemic by seeking to lessen its effects. Also, it is offered a critical analysis on simultaneous government policies involving taxes and an increase in public spending which are presented as the panacea and universal remedy for the evils that afflict the society, instead of promoting the transit to Wellbeing Economics. To conclude the review, there is a proposal of paradigm review, in the way to offer a sustainable model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0090.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: performance appraisal; management; financial crisis; covid-19; banking sector; Lebanon
Online: 6 April 2023 (10:45:48 CEST)
The Covid-19 health crisis and its related confinement measures and policies has had a significant impact on the telework adoptions rates, where many businesses were affected abruptly without being prepared, resulting in numerous ad-hoc applications especially while assessing employee’s performance and productivity while working remotely. The difficulties that have emerged with the pandemic have revealed the fragility of the traditional performance appraisal process and the unintentional existence of proximity bias. The Lebanese liquidity crisis is an ongoing financial crisis affecting Lebanon that became fully apparent toward late-2019 when large demonstrations erupted amid acute political instability and economic challenges. In light of the compounded simultaneous occurrence of recurring episodes of COVID-19 outbreaks and the ongoing country’s financial liquidity crisis, the standing of the Lebanese banking sector – who played key roles in the Lebanese economy and were long considered as financially sound and stable – has drastically changed. Faced with such a situation, Lebanese commercial banks started contracting both their branch network and human capital base, and thus they been forced to rethink their human capital strategies by implementing new practices allowing them to adapt to this context of crisis. It is in this perspective that the present research work is inscribed, where we explore the main managerial practices and processes implemented within top Lebanese banks to assess their employee’s performance during the compounded simultaneous crises. A thematic qualitative analysis method of an exploratory nature was adopted, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with senior managers from top Lebanese commercial banks. Results were processed using a deductive approach for themes identifications. Accordingly, it was concluded that in such times of acute crisis, Lebanese banks have altered the purpose of their Performance Appraisal Review (PAR) process and have implicitly or explicitly adopted a Forced Ranking method to primarily focus on retaining just the top performers, while placing those at the bottom on probation with the risk of termination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0118.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Adult Population; Economic Growth; Financial Exclusion; Financial Inclusion; Financial Institutions; Financial Inclusion Strategy
Online: 10 October 2022 (10:07:47 CEST)
It has been observed that most adult citizens, globally, are not enjoying financial services. They are financially excluded, especially rural dwellers. Monetary authorities initiated financial inclusion, with the aim of including all adult population who are excluded from financial services into the financial system at an affordable cost to meet their basic needs. Studies have shown that it encourages household savings and affects growth positively. Central Bank of Nigeria initiated financial inclusion in 2012 and commenced implementation in 2014. Given the short period of its implementation, this study ascertained the effect on economic growth in Nigeria. The study used time series data ranging from 2004 to 2021. The study covered the pre-inclusion period, through its implementation period. Ordinary Least Square technique was adopted for data estimation. Preliminary and post-estimation tests were also conducted. Despite the short period of the implementation of financial inclusion strategy, the OLS result affirmed that it positively affects economic growth. It was concluded that financial inclusion is a growth driver. It was recommended that Central Bank of Nigeria, in collaboration with commercial banks and microfinance banks, continue to enforce inclusion exercise in all rural communities, ensuring that women, youths, farmers, traders in the informal sector, are captured by the financial system. Also, Central Bank Nigeria should set up financial inclusion compliance committee at the Local Government levels, with a State Monitoring unit to ensure compliance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0658.v1
Online: 29 October 2018 (06:51:35 CET)
This study explores the impact of financial inclusions on financial resilience. In doing so, we utilize the World Bank’s data on global financial inclusions. Our study confirms that the respondents with financial accounts are more resilient than those without accounts. The chances of being financially resilient are around 1.4 times higher for the account holders than their counterparts. We find a significant relationship between gender and financial resilience; males are 1.4 times more resilient than females when other covariates are considered in the regression model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0259.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Financial constraints; corporate social responsibility; financial performance
Online: 15 September 2021 (12:43:05 CEST)
This study focuses on a sample of Chinese listed companies from 2019 to 2020 to explore the relationships among corporate social responsibility, financial constraints, and financial performance. In addition, we discuss five factors affecting financial constraints. We also analyze the types of enterprises that can improve their financial performance by implementing corporate social responsibility keeping in mind the factors that lead to a high degree of financial constraint. The results indicate that: 1. The degree of financial constraints has a negative and significant impact on financial performance; 2. There is a reverse relationship between the degree of financial constraints and the effectiveness of corporate social responsibility measures; 3. Enterprises with high financial constraints (due to lower financial slack and revenue growth rates) can significantly improve their financial performance through the implementation of effective corporate social responsibility programs. 4. Enterprises with high financial constraints, caused by financial slack and revenue growth rate, can significantly improve their financial performance by implementing corporate social responsibility programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0334.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: CSR; non-financial reporting; non-financial disclosures
Online: 14 July 2021 (12:53:02 CEST)
Reporting on CSR activities has become the essence of reporting for modern business entities. In this regard, particular attention is paid to public interest companies. Therefore, the following paper aims to answer the question of whether there are differences in the linguistic structure of the studied CSR reports in three selected industry indices on the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE) in Poland, i.e. WIG-energy index, WIG-fuel index, WIG-mining index and their relationship with the performance of selected companies. The study was conducted on a purposely selected sample of companies between 2013 and 2018. A total of 138 CSR reports and 138 annual separate financial statements prepared in accordance with international balance sheet law were collected. The study was carried out based on a panel regression model. It was found that CSR reports contained similar average percentages of parts of speech such as nouns and adjectives. When linking the economic performance of companies, expressed with selected indices, to the information on the implementation of CSR concepts, it was revealed that the results are more likely to describe business performance when it is satisfactory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0305.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: financial literacy; financial knowledge; household finance; young people
Online: 23 December 2019 (12:30:54 CET)
Financial literacy is a path to sustainability and has an important role in ensuring the financial sustainability of individuals, families, enterprises and national economies. The level of these economic indicators such as debt, payment discipline, savings and financial management all translate into prosperity or insolvency and bankruptcy and result partially from financial literacy. The higher the level of financial literacy, especially of young people, the more favorable the level of economic indicators, which translates into the economy and sustainable development. However, despite many years of research, there is still a lack of a uniform and coherent definition of financial literacy, as well as methods for measuring it. This study offers a small step forward, presenting the authors’ own view of the concept of financial literacy, the conceptualizations of financial literacy and methods used for investigating. Moreover, they present the results of a survey conducted on the financial behaviour, financial attitudes, and financial knowledge of the Polish youth and compare this to a PISA study on 15-year-old students. Results demonstrate a good, and partially very good, level of financial literacy among young Poles, showing that they are rational in their financial decision making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0167.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Market risk, Financial performance, Non-financial firms, Morocco
Online: 16 January 2019 (13:10:11 CET)
This study examines the effect of market risk on the financial performance of 31 non-financial companies listed on the Casablanca Stock Exchange (CSE) over the period 2000-2016. We utilize three alternative variables to assess financial performance, namely return on assets, return on equity and profit margin. Next, we use the degree of financial leverage, the book-to-market ratio, and the gearing ratio as market risk variables. Besides, we employ the pooled OLS model, the fixed effects model, the random-effects model, the difference GMM and the system GMM models. The results show that market risk indicators have a negative and significant influence on the companies' financial performance. The elasticities are greater following the book-to-market ratio compared to the degree of financial leverage and the gearing ratio, respectively. In most cases, the firm size, the tangibility ratio, and the cash holdings ratio have a positive effect on financial performance, whereas the firms' age, the debt-to-income ratio, stock turnover, and leverage hurt the performance of these non-financial companies. Therefore, decision-makers and managers should mitigate market risk through appropriate strategies of risk management, such as derivatives and insurance techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0511.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: financial behavior; financial reasoning; cryptocurrencies; fin-tech; psychological factors
Online: 28 February 2023 (06:53:11 CET)
This research paper aims to examine the various aspects of cryptocurrencies, from their inception to their current status in the financial market, using a multidisciplinary approach that incorporates mathematical and psychological methods to explore the factors that contribute to the success of celebrity endorsements and the potential risks associated with them. The first section (1.1) of this research paper will provide an overview of cryptocurrencies, exploring their history, functionality, and impact on the global financial market. This will involve examining the technical details behind cryptocurrencies, such as blockchain technology, and the differences between various types of virtual assets. The research will also discuss the potential advantages and disadvantages of investing in cryptocurrencies, as well as the regulatory challenges they face. The second section (2.1) of the research paper will focus on the psychological aspect of cryptocurrency investing, analyzing the connection between personality traits and the likelihood of purchasing a cryptocurrency based on a celebrity endorsement. This will involve investigating Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences to understand the qualities that make people more susceptible to investing in a cryptocurrency without prior knowledge (Gardner, 1983). The third section (3.1) of the research paper will delve into the mathematical side of cryptocurrency investing, examining the factors that contribute to the success of celebrity endorsements and the artificial growth of cryptocurrencies. This will involve developing software to calculate the artificial growth of a cryptocurrency over a 24-hour period and analyzing the data to understand the underlying factors driving its value. By taking a multidisciplinary approach, this research will shed light on the complexities of investing in virtual assets and help inform investors of the potential risks and benefits of investing in cryptocurrencies through qualitative and quantitative analyses and through the use of a Multi-Level Latent Class Analysis (LCA).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0004.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: financial analysis; coefficient of variation; sectoral ratios; financial ratios
Online: 1 March 2019 (08:02:20 CET)
Aim: The aim of the paper is to assess the usefulness of sectoral means in financial analyses of enterprises. Research methods: The article uses an inductive-deductive approach to assess the suitability of sectoral means used in analyses of financial standings of enterprises. The method of analysis and logical construction was used for literature review. The methods of descriptive statistics such as, arithmetic means, standard deviation and coefficient of variation were used in order to analyze the data and draw conclusions based on the results. Contribution: The assessment of the usefulness of sectoral means in the context of their variability seems to be a crucial aspect for the analysis of a company’s financial situation. When assessing the financial standing of an enterprise, it is necessary to use a comparative analysis method, based on, inter alia, a comparison in space. This type of comparison requires the use of sectoral means, whose assessment is extremely important to drawing reliable and correct conclusions of the financial situation of a company.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0274.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: Marketing Communication; Islamic Financial Literacy; Islamic Financial Inclusion; MSMEs Performance
Online: 5 May 2023 (02:33:13 CEST)
Development of Halal Tourism in Indonesia is the focus of the Indonesian government and MSMEs have an important role in supporting the development of halal tourism in Indonesia. This study aims to examine the relationship between marketing communication and Islamic financial literacy on Islamic financial inclusion and MSMEs performance in the halal tourism sector. A covariance-based SEM technique utilizing LISREL software was used to analyze the data from this investigation. Non-probability sampling was employed to collect the data, and the sample consists of 152 halal tourism entrepreneurs. We find that positive and significant association between Islamic financial inclusion and business performance. We also find that there are a positive and significant association between Islamic Financial Literacy and Islamic Financial Inclusion. Marketing communication and Islamic financial inlcuon a positive relationship but insignificant. This studi implies that to establish a halal tourist ecosystem for long-term development in Indonesia, commercial actors must lend their full support. This study demonstrates that they can thrive when MSMEs in the halal tourist ecosystem are backed by Islamic banking and Islamic rural banks. As a result, a more accommodating approach from Islamic banking is required to provide access to halal finance for business actors in Indonesia’s halal tourism ecosystem.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Quantum Science And Technology Keywords: education; neuroscience; nano-robots; financial markets; financial options; security; computation; optimization
Online: 25 September 2020 (03:03:07 CEST)
Of course, now we know that quantum mechanics has been a fundamental structure of our world since our universe came into being. However, it has been only a century since the experimental and theoretical discovery of quantum mechanics and its extensions into many implications and applications. In particular, there are implications across many disciplines that most likely will affect education, health, security, etc. Examples are given of the need for starting education as early as possible in schools, the use of nano-robots to deliver drugs targeted to specific molecular sites, to developing new cryptographic systems to safeguard our privacy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0035.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: healthcare; sustainability; financial performance
Online: 2 October 2023 (04:17:09 CEST)
The medical sector is of the utmost importance in every country for well-known reasons such as their economic development, national security, quality of life, and so on. Many researchers were dedicated to this topic, however, in Romania there are limited studies on this subject. One reason is that most of the businesses in this sector are individual enterprises or small family businesses. In our research paper we deploy several analysis methods to see the financial sustainability of companies operating in the medical industry. By analyzing a sample of 23931 companies and we have concluded that their performance has increase in the peak of the pandemic and that the financial stability is high. Our results are in line with other similar studies that were conducted in other regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0795.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Stock Prices; Financial Performance
Online: 14 May 2021 (16:27:12 CEST)
The authors propose in this study to evaluate financial performance applications for stock prices of the Indonesian Stock Exchange in manufacturing companies. The method of research used here is a quantitative descriptive method. In that statement, Indonesian Stock Exchange manufacturing companies between 2016 and 2018 are the population use in this research, using the sampling technique Purpose Sampling. This research uses secondary data from 2016 to 2018, the financial reports of Indonesian Stock Exchange manufacturing companies. The Indonesian stock exchange web site has been provided with all data sources at https://www.idx.co.id, and searching for www.google.id. Our analysis shows that book value prices and the net profit margin affect stock prices. The value of financial performance at the Indonesian Stock Bourses manufacturing companies' cost amounts to 64.5 percent, while other factors not listed in this study account for 35.4 percent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1499.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Financial inclusion; Financial access; Unbanked; Motivational Workshop; Village Defense Party; Randomized Controlled Trial.
Online: 22 September 2023 (06:39:12 CEST)
Despite the expansion of financial institutions and proliferation of mobile financial services, reaching the unbanked and bringing them under formal financial services has become a policy concern in many developing countries. Due to the lack of financial accounts, unbanked people prefer informal, risky, and inconvenient mechanisms for receiving, sending and transferring money. Previous studies rely much on common intervention like no account maintenance and opening fees, easy documentation processes and money subsidies for opening financial accounts. This study aims to examine the impact of the motivational workshop on opening savings accounts through causality among the unbanked people in a setting where the respondents are unbanked despite having all the requirements and many institutional offers for opening savings accounts. We encouraged the unbanked people through a one-hour-long motivational workshop to open saving account. Based on our cross-sectional data and randomized controlled trial experiment among 505 unbanked Village Defense Party (VDP) members at Dhubil Union under Sirajganj in Bangladesh, we have the evidence that motivational workshop positively impacts opening ac-counts by 32.33 percent. However, the account opening rate differs in terms of respondent’s pref-erence for financial institutions. Our study also finds that unbanked people have the highest pref-erence for mobile financial services for opening accounts resulting in 15.33 percent. The result of the study has some policy implications for adopting effective strategies of financial access in many developing countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0353.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Accounting; Financial Reports; Online Store.
Online: 22 December 2021 (11:44:00 CET)
This study aims to determine the cash sales accounting information system that is suitable for online store applications. Using qualitative methods with the object of research, namely the online stores. Sources of data obtained from several online stores. Data collection methods used are semi-structured interviews, observation, and document analysis. From the analysis and design of the buying and selling cycle information system in online business development, it was found that the development of information systems is a very important stage in the efficiency and effectiveness of the buying and selling cycle. By implementing a good and correct accounting information system design on an online store, it can facilitate the recording and minimize the occurrence of errors/loss of data. In addition, with a good information system design, the division of tasks between various sections becomes clear.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0145.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: banking; financial performance; sustainability performance
Online: 15 January 2020 (07:23:42 CET)
Banking sector is generally taken out of sample while the sustainability performance, and the financial performance are compared with each other. The core aim of this study is to analyze the effect of the declarations made in the cope of sustainability reports on the financial performance in the banking sector. Seven banks were included in the study which were placed at least one time in BIST Sustainability Index in between 2010-2017 years. Environment, human resources, product liability and community involvement were determined as sustainability criteria and return on assets, return on equity and net interest margin were determined as financial performance criteria. Non-Parametric Statistic Tests and Panel Data Analysis were used for analysis and types, and the sizes of banks were selected as dummy variables. As a result, it is found that the declarations of sustainability reports have a significant effect only on return on assets and have no significant effect on return on equity and net interest margin. And also, when we analyzed the relationship of sustainability criteria and return on assets, we found that the declarations about environment and human resources have negative effects on return on assets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0012.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: financial anxiety; insurance behavior; economic security of the person; financial confidence after COVID-19
Online: 2 August 2020 (11:01:34 CEST)
In the context of the economic and political uncertainty associated with the 2019-nCoV pandemic, it is necessary to determine the socio-psychological factors involved in the transformation of the behavior of insurance consumers under the influence of a biogenic threat. This study measures financial anxiety and its impact on the insurance behavior of Russian citizens. The correlation, comparative, and regression analyses of the financial anxiety of Russian citizens cover three stages of observation: before the start of the 2019 nCoV pandemic (“FA up to 19 nCoV; N = 766), during the period of quarantine measures announced in Russia in March 2020 (“FA 19-nCoV-1”; N = 856), and after the relaxation of quarantine measures at the end of April 2020 (“FA 19-nCoV-2”; N = 963).Psychological analysis data were obtained from the online survey “Financial anxiety (in the context of insurance)”. The questionnaire is psychometrically reliable and easy to use. It includes five measurement scales: MR1—Physical manifestations of financial incentive anxiety, MR2—With money shortages and financial uncertainty, MR3—The value of insurance coverage, MP4—Financial Confidence, and MR5—Perception of insurance and investment risks. It was found that Russian citizens consider it important to have insurance coverage for a “rainy day”, and they showed confidence in the insurance market during the biogenic crisis. However, unfortunately, during the 19-nCoV-1 and 19-nCoV-2 periods, Russian citizens did not feel financially secure, unlike in the period before 19-nCoV. Women showed high scores for physical manifestations of financial anxiety and low financial confidence in the future, in contrast to men, regardless of the observation period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0617.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: financial anxiety; insurance behavior; economic security of the person; financial confidence after COVID-19
Online: 25 July 2020 (17:39:46 CEST)
In the context of economic and political uncertainty associated with the 2019-nCoV pandemic, it is necessary to determine the socio-psychological factors in the transformation of the behavior of insurance consumers under the influence of the biogenic threat. This study is devoted to measuring financial anxiety and its impact on the insurance behavior of Russian citizens. Correlation, comparative and regression analyzes of financial anxiety of Russian citizens cover three stages of observation: before the start of the 2019 nCoV pandemic (“FA up to 19 nCoV; N = 766), during the period of quarantine measures announced in Russia in March 2020 (“ FA 19- nCoV-1 "; N = 856) and after the relaxation of quarantine measures at the end of April 2020 (" FA 19-nCoV-2 "; N = 963). Psychological analysis data were obtained from the online survey "Financial anxiety (in the context of insurance)". The questionnaire is psychometrically reliable and easy to use, including 5 measurement scales: MR1. Physical manifestations of financial incentive anxiety, MR2. With money shortages and financial uncertainty, MR3. The value of insurance coverage, MP4. Financial Confidence, MR5. Perception of insurance and investment risks. Russian citizens considered it important to have insurance coverage on a “rainy day” and showed confidence in the insurance market during the biogenic crisis. But, unfortunately, Russian citizens during the 19-nCoV-1 and 19-nCoV-2 periods did not feel financially secure in the future, unlike the period before 19-nCoV. ”Women showed high scores for physical manifestations of financial anxiety and low financial confidence in the future, in contrast to men, regardless of the observation period.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Foreign Exchange Market, Volatility Spillover, Return Spillover, VAR Framework, Variance Decomposition, Financial Crisis, Financial Interdependence
Online: 8 June 2021 (13:03:39 CEST)
In this paper, we investigate the “statics and dynamics” return and volatility spillovers transmission across developed and developing countries. Quoted against the U.S. dollar, we study twenty-three global currencies over 2005 – 2016. Focusing on the spillover index methodology, the generalised VAR framework is employed. Our findings indicate no evidence of bi-directional return and volatility spillovers between developed and developing countries. However, a unidirectional volatility spillover from developed to developing countries is highlighted. Furthermore, our findings document significant bi-directional volatility spillovers within the European region (Eurozone and non-Eurozone currencies) with the British Pound (GBP) and the Euro (EUR) as the most significant transmitters of volatility. The findings reiterate the prominence of volatility spillovers to financial regulators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0214.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: corporate social responsibility; environment; employment; R&D; annual reports; financial and non-financial statements; competition.
Online: 8 November 2018 (12:06:32 CET)
The commitment of the EU to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is projected in the EU law about annual reporting by businesses. Since EU member states further develop this framework by their own domestic laws, annual reporting with CSR information is not unified and just partially mandatory in the EU. Do all European businesses report CSR information and what public declaration to society do they provide with it? The main dual purpose of this paper is identifying the parameters of this annual reporting duty and studying the CSR information provided by the ten largest Czech companies in their annual statements for 2013-2017. Based on legislative research and the teleological interpretation, the current EU legislative framework with Czech particularities is presented and, via a case study exploring 50 annual reports, the data about the type, extent and depth of the CSR is dynamically and comparatively assessed. It appears that, at a minimum, large Czech businesses satisfy their legal duty and e-report on CSR in a similar extent, but in dramatically different quality. Employee matters and adherence to international standards are used as a public declaration to society more than the data on environmental protection, while social matters and R&D are played down.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1542.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Independent board member; financial performance; ESG
Online: 22 August 2023 (10:14:55 CEST)
This paper examines the relationship between the ratio of independent board member to the financial performance of the company under the mediation of the three pillars of environment, society, and governance (ESG) in Taiwan. The study addresses a research gap between independent directors and corporate financial performance, an issue that is rarely discussed today. The author develops the hypotheses and tests them by applying panel data regression to the data tables taken from the Thomson Reuters Eikon database to analyze data on 173 Taiwanese companies that reported ESG from 2009 to 2021. The results show that the relationship between the ratio of independent directors and financial performance has a positive relationship. At the same time, the 3 pillars of ESG also clearly show the intermediary role in this relationship. Finally, this study provides additional insights into the relationship between the ratio of independent directors and financial performance in the Taiwan context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0769.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Basic Materials; Financial Recilince; F&B
Online: 19 June 2023 (02:46:06 CEST)
Rising raw material prices can have a significant impact on the financial performance of the food and beverage (F&B) business. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of rising prices of staples onfinancial resilience F&B business in Indonesia. This study uses a quantitative approach with bivariate correlation analysis and secondary data from the financial reports of F&B companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange for the 2020-2022 period. The results showed that the increase in the price of basic commodities had a significant positive impact onfinancial resilience F&B company. This can be seen from the decline in the profitability and liquidity of F&B companies as a result of the increase in the price of basic commodities. Therefore, F&B companies must pay attention to and manage the risk of rising prices of basic commodities to maintainfinancial resilience and sustainable business continuity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0294.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computational Mathematics Keywords: Financial Investment; Machine Learning; Artificial Intelligence.
Online: 20 September 2022 (05:45:26 CEST)
To support the decision making process of new investors, this paper aims to implement Machine Learning algorithms to generate investment indications. Three artificial intelligence techniques were implemented, namely: Multilayer Perceptron, Logistic Regression and Decision Tree, which performed the classification of investments. The results of the different algorithms were compared to each other using the metrics: accuracy, precision, recall, and F1-score. The Decision Tree was the algorithm that obtained the best classification metrics and an accuracy of 77%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0358.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: healthcare sector; financial performance; public hospitals
Online: 16 July 2020 (13:27:46 CEST)
Hospital indebtedness is a complex and very diverse phenomenon. Thus, the goal of this study is the comparison of the financial performance of public hospitals in accordance with their ownership and size. The results of the research lead to the conclusion that the vast majority of public hospitals are indebted, and their ownership structure does not affect their financial condition. What is more, the statistical analysis depicted that large Marshall hospitals are less indebted than poviat-commune ones. In the group of medium-size hospitals, the situation was the opposite. Moreover, the study did not confirm the significant relationship between the size or ownership and the financial status of the hospital. The analysis conducted in the article is aimed at filling in the gap in studies comparing the indebtedness between different types of public hospitals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0157.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Financial Literacy; Financial Behaviour; Consumer Behavior; Sustainable Consumer Behavior; Social Media; Natural Language Processing; Social Network
Online: 6 July 2021 (13:42:31 CEST)
A more sustainable society and economy also implies a more sustainable behavior in the consumption of financial products. A possible change in focus can come from the demand side, so that more sustainable consumption of financial products have to go hand to hand with financial literacy. However, financial literacy, potential favoring of this sustainable behavior, is far from reaching an international consensus about its definition, object and scope. Two objectives are analyzed; the different interpretations of financial literacy in the academic literature, as well as its evolution and how, in what context and with what other concepts the term is used in social networks. Scientometric techniques and content analysis have been used to carry out a systematic review of literature and also NLP to analyze the comments on Social Networks. Critical moments are identified in the definition of financial literacy. Also ten sentiments are analyzed in social networks in wich positivity, trust, and anticipation predominate. Greater attention to this issue is necessary both from the private initiative and from public policies, so that financial literacy is an effective tool for a more sustainable behavior by consumers. Finally, a new definition is proposed based on our findings.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0413.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: financial capacity instruments; Semi-Structured Clinical Interview for Financial Capacity; deci-sional capacity; mild cognitive impairment; gamification
Online: 31 May 2022 (07:37:21 CEST)
Financial capacity instruments are psychometric tools designed to evaluate individual decisional capacity based on financial decisions. As tests are complex and need special conditions for administration and evaluation, it is difficult to use them in daily geriatric clinics. Our scoping review objective was to evaluate existing financial capacity instruments from the perspective of simplicity and portability. We evaluated one English speaking knowledge database (Medline) using a dedicated MeSH terminology. The review yielded one independent instrument, The Semi-Structured Clinical Interview for Financial Capacity, that can be easy adapted for every-day clinical use. It is simple to understand and perform and do not need trained personnel for administration. It can be finalized in 15 minutes. Initially validated on 261 subjects (with different forms of cognitive impairment), it showed good accuracy and precision mainly in subjects with cognitive impairment. The test is less apt to detect early or fluctuating cognitive impairment. Simplicity, the main advantage of the test, allows gamification fact that increases portability. Familiar images (coins, money) that are used for performing simple tasks does not need complex translation and adaptation. In form of a game, the test is suitable for serial administration, increasing the chance for early capacity reduction detection. Results reflect a physician judgement related to the subjects’ capacity to understand and execute simple financial instructions and not financial proficiency scores. The main limitation of our review is that we investigated only one, English speaking, knowledge database. The scoping strategy generated a financial capacity instrument that can be used in geriatric clinics for early diagnostic of decisional capacity reduction. Further studies are needed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the test in conditions of serial administration and in populations having various financial experience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0093.v1
Subject: Area Studies, Social Sciences Keywords: Renewable energy; financial development; VAR; Saudi Arabia
Online: 3 October 2023 (03:50:24 CEST)
The demand for renewable energy is increasing globally due to concerns about climate change, pollution, and the finite nature of fossil fuel resources, as renewable energy has been recognized as a significant factor in realizing sustainable development. The government of Saudi Arabia adopted the reduction of fossil fuel subsidies policy as a financial motivation for supporting both the production and consumption of fossil fuels. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the influence and shocks of Saudi’s financial development indicators on renewable energy consumption (REC). And to examine the track of causality between financial development indicators and REC. The study covers the annual data period of 1990-2021 and applies the Basic Vector Autoregressive model (VAR), Granger causality test, forecast error variance decomposition (FEVD), and impulse response function (IRF). The results imply that the financial development indicators have a significant positive impact on REC. The results of causality between REC and financial development indicators were conflicting. The results reveal that REC variation is explained by its innovative shocks and has a positive response to shocks in financial development. Authorities can encourage investment in renewable energy consumption by providing financial incentives also the governments can foster national and international partnerships between investors, policymakers, and industry stakeholders. Employing different determinants of financial development indicators and incorporating population factors in the REC function will be highly recommended for forming the renewable energy demand in Saudi Arabia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1734.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Decentralized Finance; Finance, Metaverse; DeFi; Financial Innovation
Online: 26 July 2023 (10:21:18 CEST)
This study delves into the integration of Decentralized Finance (DeFi) within metaverses, probing its implications and potential. It elucidates DeFi protocols and the intricacies of metaverses before inspecting their intersection and the resulting economic prospects. The analysis further appraises inherent risks such as financial volatility, security, and regulatory issues. Case studies provide tangible insights into DeFi applications in metaverses. Future trajectories of DeFi in metaverses are projected, underlining the possible impact on the broader financial sector. This paper contributes to burgeoning research at the nexus of blockchain technology, finance, and virtual reality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0737.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: disruptive technology; financial innnovation; social innovation; MNCs
Online: 12 June 2023 (03:03:36 CEST)
This study aims to assess and identify the role of disruptive/digital technologies in financial innovation strategies as part of social innovations at both firm and country level. There are few studies of this type that "cross-examine" technical/social innovative capacity at the firm level vs. the same innovative capacity at the level of the world's major countries. Our proposed study brings some novel elements to the literature on this topic. First, the study synthesizes the factors/variables explaining technical/social innovative capacity as ranked by the GCI (Global Competitiveness Index) and GII (Global Innovation Index) at the country level and then correlates these variables with the factors explaining innovative capacity for the 50 companies in the BCG (Boston Consulting Group) ranking. Second, the study identifies three "driving forces" (digital technologies, managers and the market) as the main variables determining financial innovativeness at firm level. Third, based on the "cross" analysis of the information/data provided by the BCG study vs. the GII and GCI studies, the study suggests some ways to delineate and quantify financial innovation as part of social innovation (e.g., it is argued that 80% of the social innovation achieved annually by a firm relates to the financial relationships engaged by the firm with various categories of stakeholders). Finally, the study is also important from a pragmatic point of view as it suggests/proposes a number of principles that can be considered by managers for building a KM (knowledge management) and continuous innovation strategy. From a theoretical perspective, the study provides a starting point for further research aimed at explaining firm-level financial innovation through the massive use of disruptive technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0088.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: innovation; proactivity; financial literacy; economy business performance
Online: 5 October 2021 (15:06:35 CEST)
This study aims to determine the Implication of innovation, proactivity, risk-taking, artistic orientation, and financial literacy on creative economy businesses during the COVID-19 pandemic. This was conducted on 120 creative economy businessmen in Bandar Lampung City, which is a miniature of Indonesia with multiethnic cultures. The results showed innovation is not significant, but proactive attitude, artistic orientation, and financial literacy have a significant implication on the performance of creative economic businesses during the Covid-19 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0223.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Accounting Distortions; Financial Statements; Neural Network; Accounting
Online: 13 September 2021 (16:18:55 CEST)
Distortion of financial statements is recognized as one of the most important issues in the field of accounting and auditing, which is also one of the most common issues today. In this regard, the present research was conducted, in which stock exchange information was used to investigate, predict, and model accounting distortions. For this purpose, financial performance, non-financial metrics, market-based metrics and commitment, or selection items were reviewed over a 6-year period. For collecting data of distorting companies, database of the Society of Certified Public Accountants in Iran was used and the information was analyzed using data mining methods (decision tree, neural networks, and Bayesian method). The results showed that analysis of financial statements҆ information has a high accuracy in determining and identifying the distorted financial statements. Using this information, it is possible to get better acquainted with the methods of document distortion and to take necessary measures in order to control and prevent administrative violations at national and international levels. Given frequent occurrence of these violations, artificial intelligence models can be used to identify these papers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0265.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: FinTech; Financial markets; PEST analysis; Survey analysis
Online: 11 August 2021 (15:32:52 CEST)
FinTech has been in the focus of the discussion for quite some time. However, the market share of FinTech companies is still relatively small in compared to more traditional financial services. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the status quo, current developments and challenges ahead for the Latvian FinTech sector. We combine three analyses: the political and legal, the economic, the social and the technological environment (PEST) analysis, an analysis of the size and performance of FinTech companies during the last 10 years, and a survey among FinTech companies. We find that the current status of regulation is one of the main obstacles to FinTech development, because it does not sufficiently consider FinTech-specific aspects. Problems in attracting skilled workforce, and an environment that is not very supportive of new developments in finance are further challenges and might explain at least part of the growth and performance difficulties. A revision, modernization and harmonization of regulation is essential to create a level playing field for all market participants: FinTech companies, traditional financial service providers and those originally traditional players that are integrating FinTech solutions in their business model. Further efforts are also required to foster the Latvia’s attractiveness for skilled workforce. We hope that this study helps increase the visibility of Latvian FinTech and contributes to the development of the new Latvian FinTech strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0126.v4
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: path integral; financial markets; high-frequency trading
Online: 8 May 2019 (08:47:44 CEST)
Methods of path integrals are used to develop multi-factor probabilities of bid-ask variables for use in high-frequency trading (HFT). Adaptive Simulated Annealing (ASA) is used to fit the nonlinear forms so developed to a day of BitMEX tick data. Maxima algebraic code is used to develop the path integral codes into C codes, and sampling code is used for the fitting process. After these fits, the resultant C code is very fast and useful for forecasting upcoming ask, bid, midprice, etc., when narrow and wide windows of incoming data are used. A bonus is the availability of canonical momenta indicators (CMI) useful to forecast direction and strengths of these variables.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0585.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: consumption; financial wealth; housing wealth; wealth effects
Online: 25 October 2018 (04:46:24 CEST)
Based on the seminal paper of Case, Quigley and Shiller (2013), we investigate the effects of financial and housing wealth on consumption. Using quarterly data from 1975 to 2016, for all States of U.S. economy, and a different methodology in measuring wealth, we report relatively greater financial effects than housing effects on consumption. Specifically, in our basic utilized model, the calculated elasticity for financial wealth is 0.060, while for housing is 0.045. The results are not in agreement with the ones obtained by Case, Quigley and Shiller. In an attempt to investigate the disparity we proceed by incorporating the introduction of the Tax Reform Act in 1986, which increased incentives for owner-occupied housing investments. Finally, due to distributional factors at work, and taking into account the pronounced uneven distribution of wealth we investigate the effects of wealth for 8 states that include the Metropolitan areas comprising of the well known Case-Shiller 10-City Composite Index. Now the housing effect on consumption is much stronger and larger than the financial effect. Additionally, we forecast the consumption changes at the time of the high rise and large drops in house prices for these states. Forecasts showed a recession from the fall of Lehman Brothers until the fourth quarter of 2011. These forecasts were not verified. Probably, the new techniques used by politics played an important role. We also find that extreme behaviors cannot be predicted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0089.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: religion; atheist; standard of living; financial situation
Online: 14 November 2017 (06:51:22 CET)
Considering the impact of religiosity on the perceptions regarding life quality, in this paper we focus on the effects of the appurtenance to a religion on the standard of living in several economically developing countries (Turkey, Ukraine, Senegal and Morocco). The data have been collected using a survey carried out in 2012 and the empirical analysis was based on non-parametric tests and multinomial logistic regression. The results indicate there are differences between religious persons and atheists regarding gender, marital status, perceptions of daily life and standards of living. Females and officially married people or single people tend to be more religious. A person claiming to belong to a religion has 2-4-fold more chances to achieve a considerable improvement in the standards of living as compared to an atheist. Moreover, religious people from the analyzed countries are more optimistic about their life overall. Taking into account the sample’s characteristics and the countries chosen, we can claim that the results obtained are truly cross-cultural in nature. Moreover, most of the conclusions reached would be to some extent relevant to other developing economies of Eastern Europe, North Africa and Middle East.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2150.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: financial bubbles; machine learning algorithms; Vietnamese stock market
Online: 30 September 2023 (05:46:52 CEST)
Financial bubble prediction has been a significant area of interest in empirical finance, garnering substantial attention in the literature. This study aimed to detect and forecast financial bubbles in the Vietnamese stock market from 2001 to 2021. The PSY procedure, which involves a right-tailed unit root test to identify the existence of financial bubbles, was employed to achieve this goal. Machine learning algorithms were then utilized to predict real-time financial bubble events. The results revealed the presence of financial bubbles in the Vietnamese stock market during 2006-2007 and 2017-2018. Additionally, the empirical evidence supported the superior performance of the Random Forest and Artificial Neural Network algorithms over traditional statistical methods in predicting financial bubbles in the Vietnamese stock market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0053.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: artificial intelligence; social media; big data; financial modeling
Online: 1 September 2023 (11:42:15 CEST)
Abstract—Annually, approximately 500,000 Merger and Ac- quisition (M&A) transactions are disclosed globally, each trans- action inciting substantial perturbations to the associated com- panies’ equity prices. The probability of an M&A transaction’s closure, as perceived by the public, inherently influences the stock price of the target company leading up to the proposed date of the deal. Given the recent advancements in the realm of Natural Language Processing (NLP), we propose an empirical investigation into the correlation between digital dialogue sur- rounding M&A transactions and consequent movements in the stock prices of involved companies. Utilizing transformer-based encoder-only architectures, we fine tune a stance detection model on an extensive dataset, amassed from digital communication platforms, featuring public discourse related to five historical M&A transactions. Ultimately, we achieved 70% accuracy on deal-completion stance detection using the Roberta-base model. We subsequently employ the aggregated the public sentiment towards the completion or termination of a proposed M&A transaction to model stock price movement. Utilizing a multitude of time-series based approaches, we achieve a mean absolute error of 2.29 USD for next-day price prediction and 3.40 USD for next-week price prediction. Ultimately, we find an existing but tenuous relationship between online discourse and the price trajectory of target companies, ultimately highlighting the complex social and economic phenomena behind M&A deals.Index Terms—Mergers and Acquisitions, Stock prediction, su- pervised learning, neural networks, Recurrent Neural Network, LSTM, stance detection, transformers
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1089.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: financial deepening; digital economy; technological innovation; mediation effect
Online: 15 June 2023 (07:30:34 CEST)
In resent years, China’s digital economy has achieved significant global recognition for its instrumental role in supporting sustainable economic and social development. Based on the panel data from China's provinces between 2013-2021, this paper investigates the impact and transmission mechanism of financial deepening on digital economy development. The study finds that financial deepening significantly improves digital economy development. Heterogeneity analysis indicates that financial deepening offers greater support to digital economy development in central and western regions than in the east. Further analysis shows that financial deepening improves technological innovation, which in turn promotes the digital economy development. After applying a test of robustness, the results proved significant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1415.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: Digital Financial Inclusion; Policy; Practices; challenges; developing economy
Online: 19 May 2023 (09:02:23 CEST)
Globally, over 1.4 billion adult people remain unbanked. This worrisome phenomenon was exacerbated by the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, which further created a new dimension of inequality in accessing financial services. Digital financial inclusion promises to be an effective tool for addressing this socioeconomic ill and propelling economic development. Given the limited studies on the subject in the context of the developing economies, it is imperative to understand the existing policies, practices, and barriers to digital financial inclusion in the developing economies so as to provide cutting-edge interventions for redress. It is against this background that this study seeks to address the following research questions: (1) What is the state of digital financial inclusion in the developing economy? (2) What are the policies and practices regarding digital financial inclusion in the developing economy? (3) What are the barriers to digital financial inclusion and innovative interventions for redress? Findings reveal that about 44% of the adult population in developing countries does not have access to financial services, with only a few countries that have made significant progress and gains through policy and practice such as mobile financial services, mobile money interoperability, native connectivity, human capital development, and digitalization of public services for digital financial inclusion. The findings also identify challenges and implications with recommendations, which are discussed in detail in the paper.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0318.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: HIV; routine screening; financial benefits; Opt-out approach
Online: 21 October 2022 (03:45:01 CEST)
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends everyone between 13-64 years be tested for HIV at least once as a routine procedure. HIV routine screening is reimbursable by Medicare, Medicaid, expanded Medicaid, and most commercial insurance plans. Yet, scaling-up HIV routine screening remains a challenge. We conducted a scoping review for studies on financial benefits and barriers associated with HIV screening in clinical settings in the U.S. to inform an evidence-based strategy to scale-up HIV routine screening. We searched Ovid MEDLINE®, Cochrane, and Scopus for studies published between 2006 - 2020 in English. The search identified 383 Citations; we screened 220 and excluded 163 (outside the time limit, irrelevant, or outside the U.S.). Of the 220 screened articles, we included 35 and disqualified 155 (did not meet the eligibility criteria). We organized eligible articles under two themes: financial benefits/barriers in healthcare settings (9 articles); and Cost-effectiveness in healthcare settings (26 articles). The review concluded recommendations in three areas: (1) Finance: Incentivize healthcare providers/systems for implementing HIV routine screening and/or separate its reimbursement from bundle payments; (2) Personnel: Encourage nurse-initiated HIV screening programs in primary care settings and educate providers on CDC recommendations; and (3) Approach: Use opt-out approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0047.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: electricity markets; financial intermediation; money; institutions; business models
Online: 2 March 2022 (12:18:31 CET)
Responding to the influences of climate change, on the one hand, and selected benefits of digital technology, on the other hand, an energy transition of global scale appears to be underway. Many observers project that a significant element of the energy transition will be a growing dependence on electricity, a dependence possibly doubling by 2050. Such a transformation, however, would likely require re-configuring the architecture of complex, centralized electricity grids, an artifact of a context of more than a century ago. In concert with the energy transition, we argue to modify the objective of the electricity grid to enable efficient, pervasive optimization in local service areas that provides incentives for users to be efficient in their energy use. At the core of our argument is the presentation of economic incentives denominated in an electricity-backed commodity currency such that incumbent electricity generators could augment their economic purpose of electricity production and electricity distribution to include financial intermediation. A direct consequence of this institutional transformation is the opportunity for all users to generate wealth. There are others who have been inspired to conjure ways that energy could be a candidate currency. Our argument is distinctive, though, in exploiting how an institution (the power grid system) could be repositioned and how all agents in the system could benefit by the institutionalization of electricity as money.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0542.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Cash holding; firm value; managerial optimism; financial constrained
Online: 22 June 2021 (14:03:51 CEST)
Cash holding is important for Chinese manufacturing firms coping with the increasing cost of financing and stiff market conditions. This study examines the impact of cash holding on the firm value of Chinese manufacturing firms. We find evidence that a non-linear relationship exists between cash holding and firm value in manufacturing firms of China. The study reveals that financially constrained firms having a higher level of cash holding negatively affects the firm value, while the unconstrained firms having a lower level of cash holding positively influences the firm value. Finally, this research is enriched by adopting the novel measure of managerial op-timism and reveals the interactive role of cash holding and optimism on firm value. The study concludes that managerial optimism influences the firm’s cash holding decisions and this is more costly for unconstrained firms.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: path integral; quantum systems; classical optimization; financial options
Online: 19 April 2021 (09:09:32 CEST)
Hybrid Classical-Quantum computing has already arrived at several commercial quantum computers, offered to researchers and businesses. Here, applications are made to a model of financial options, Statistical Mechanics of Financial Markets (SMFM). These applications were published in many papers since the 1980's. This project only uses Classical (super-)computers to include quantum features of these models. Since 1989, an optimization code, Adaptive Simulated Annealing (ASA), has been to fit parameters in such models. Since 2015, a path-integral algorithm, PATHINT, used previously to accurately describe several systems in several disciplines, has been generalized from 1 dimension to N dimensions, and from classical to quantum systems, qPATHINT. Published papers have described the use of qPATHINT to neocortical interactions and financial options. The classical space by SMFM applies nonlinear nonequilibrium multivariate statistical mechanics to fit parameters in conditional short-time probability distributions, while the quantum space described by qPATHINT deals specifically with quantum systems, e.g., quantum money. This project thereby demonstrates how some hybrid classical-quantum systems may be calculated quite well using only classical (super-)computers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0120.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Homepage words; Financial ratio; Text-mining; Balanced scorecard
Online: 3 February 2021 (15:07:40 CET)
(1) Background: The CEO message of hospital homepage contain various contents such as the hospital's future vision, promises with customers, upgraded services and public activities. The CEO’s message of the homepage includes non-financial information as well as financial information of corporates. Also, it provides useful information for not only company's goals and vision but also firm performance and strategies for the future. This study aims to investigate associations between CEO’s message of hospitals homepages and financial status. We used the balanced scorecard frame to analyze what content on the hospital's homepage is related to the hospital's various financial ratios. (2) Methods: We adopt a text mining method to extract significantly repeated keywords from the CEO’s message of hospital website. And we classify these keywords by a balanced scorecard frame. To examine the relationship between keywords of CEO’s message of the hospital homepage and hospital’s financial ratio, T-test is conducted for the difference in the TF-IDF (Term Frequency is Divided by Inverse Document Frequency) mean of the home page contents and its relationship with the views of the balanced scorecard framework. (3) Results: According to empirical results on 65 samples collected from local hospitals, there are some significant relationship between the qualitative content of the hospital's homepage and the quantitative financial ratio that indicates profitability, activity, leverage, liquidity, and transfer to essential business fund (EBF) income. (4) Conclusions: The introduction section of a homepage is most accessible to customers, containing the aims and ideals of hospitals and reflecting their values and visions . In addition, in view of financial status, they can either emphasize financial strength or focus on other areas to mask weakness of financial information. This study reminds us of the importance of hospital website’s disclosure, and it can be inferred from the financial status of the hospital. It also highlights the need for harmonization between quantitative data, financial statements, and qualitative data, CEO’s messages. (5) Implications: To our best knowledge, this paper is the first research attempting to investigate the relation between text of hospital homepage and financial ratio of hospital through text mining technique and balanced scorecard frame. Hospitals take a crucial part in a country’s welfare and healthcare backbone industry. Nevertheless, in many countries, hospital organization sectors tend to remain a source of critical fiscal deficits due to its ineffective and sloppy management. We expect that the result of this paper can provide hospital managers to useful information.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0712.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: path integral; importance sampling; financial options; combat analysis
Online: 4 January 2021 (13:29:01 CET)
Background: Forecasting nonlinear stochastic systems most often is quite difficult, without giving in to temptations to simply simplify models for the sake of permitting simple computations. Objective: Here, two basic algorithms, Adaptive Simulated Annealing (ASA) and path-integral codes PATHINT/PATHTREE (and their quantum generalizations qPATHINT/qPATHTREE) are offered to detail such systems. Method: ASA and PATHINT/PATHTREE have been effective to forecast properties in three disparate disciplines in neuroscience, financial markets, and combat analysis. Applications are described for COVID-19. Results: Results of detailed calculations have led to new results and insights not previously obtained. Conclusion: These 3 applications give strong support to a quite generic application of these tools to stochastic nonlinear systems.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0385.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: path integral; importance sampling; financial options; combat analysis; COVID-19
Online: 12 October 2020 (15:15:40 CEST)
Background: Forecasting nonlinear stochastic systems most often is quite difficult, without giving in to temptations to simply simplify models for the sake of permitting simple computations. Objective: Here, two basic algorithms, Adaptive Simulated Annealing (ASA) and path-integral codes PATHINT/PATHTREE (and their quantum generalizations qPATHINT/qPATHTREE) are offered to detail such systems. Method: ASA and PATHINT/PATHTREE have been effective to forecast properties in three disparate disciplines in neuroscience, financial markets, and combat analysis. Applications are described for COVID-19. Results: Results of detailed calculations have led to new results and insights not previously obtained. Conclusion: These 3 applications give strong support to a quite generic application of these tools to stochastic nonlinear systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0682.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Business fluctuations; financial stability; output gap; weighted maturity
Online: 28 July 2020 (12:34:23 CEST)
Many countries have been facing the problem of bank insolvency across the globe. Asset deterioration is one of the main reasons for insolvency of banks. The objective of the paper is to ascertain the determinants of nonperforming loans (NPLs) in the banking sector of Pakistan for the period 2006-16. Other than the bank specific and macro variables proposed by the literature, the roles of weighted maturity and output gap are for the first time examined. We find significant impact of output gap on NPLs however weighted maturity has insignificant role in shaping the future NPLs. Bank specific drivers of NPLs include bank size and capital adequacy ratio.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0201.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: corporate life-cycle; bankruptcy risk; financial sustainability; Pakistan
Online: 21 January 2019 (09:10:39 CET)
In this paper we analyze the relationship between bankruptcy risk and the corporate life cycle in Pakistan from 2005 to 2014. For this purpose, we run a Hierarchical Linear Mixed Model (HLM) for a sample of 301 non-financial listed firms in 12 different sectors. The empirical outcomes reveal that firms during introduction, growth and, decline stages (mature stage) of life-cycle experience higher (lower) bankruptcy risk. Moreover, in juxtaposition with growth stage, bankruptcy risk is higher at the introduction stage of life-cycle. These findings suggest that financial managers should be cautious about the financial fragility of the firm at each stage of corporate life-cycle. The results also entail that Pakistani firms do not follow a sequential pattern in their life-cycle rather they have the tendency to revert to a previous stage or jump to the next stage of life-cycle. This is the first study that empirically examines the association between firm life-cycle stage and corresponding bankruptcy risk and asserts that managers must incorporate the life-cycle effects into their financial planning and decision making for sustainable working of an enterprise.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0381.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: financial time series; autocorrelation; models; GARCH; RMSE; MAE
Online: 16 November 2018 (07:11:22 CET)
This study compared the performance of five Family Generalized Auto-Regressive Conditional Heteroscedastic (fGARCH) models (sGARCH, gjrGARCH, iGARCH, TGARCH and NGARCH) in the presence of high positive autocorrelation. To achieve this, financial time series was simulated with autocorrelated coefficients as ρ = (0.8, 0.85, 0.9, 0.95, 0.99), at different time series lengths (as 250, 500, 750, 1000, 1250, 1500) and each trial was repeated 1000 times carried out in R environment using rugarch package. And the performance of the preferred model was judged using Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) and Mean Absolute Error (MAE). Results from the simulation revealed that these GARCH models performances varies with the different autocorrelation values and at different time series lengths. But in the overall, NGARCH model dominates with 62.5% and 59.3% using RMSE and MAE respectively. We therefore recommended that investors, financial analysts and researchers interested in stock prices and asset return should adapt NGARCH model when there is high positive autocorrelation in the financial time series data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0445.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: borrowing; economic growth; financial inclusion; saving; UAE; USA
Online: 24 July 2018 (06:13:38 CEST)
This paper highlights the impact of financial inclusion on individuals’ borrowing and saving decisions in the United States and the United Arab Emirates. It does so, using data from the 2014 Global Financial Inclusion database, and an empirical strategy consisting of first testing the significance of the joint bivariate model over its binary conterparts using the Lagrange multiplier test, followed by a contrast between the fully-parametric and semi-parametric specifications of the saving and borrowing equations. Based on model performance measures, the semi-parametric bivariate probit specification is identified as a better framework for describing the two processes of saving and borrowing, with a correlation coefficient of 12.3%. Although no significant difference exists between UAE and US residents in borrowing behavior, we find that US residents are 31.4% more likely to save than their UAE counterparts. In addition, and in line with the Permanent Income Hypothesis, the results reveal the absence of an income based saving or borrowing gradient in the two countries. Conversely, we found the prevalence of a gender based saving (12.4%) and borrowing (13.8%) inequality in favor of the male gender. Furthermore, access to a bank account and a debit card, companies policy of direct wage and salary transfer, and government transfer programs with direct deposit options are all financial inclusion strategies that are found to significantly raise the likelihood of saving and borrowing. As such, companies with payroll practices based on cash or physical paycheck issuing, especially in the US, should revise such policy to create more financial inclusion, and thereby more saving potential which in turn would contribute to further borrowing, investment and growth of the national economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0053.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: emerging stock market, financial liberalization, Crisis, Cmax method
Online: 18 July 2016 (10:52:35 CEST)
In this paper, we focus on the impact of financial liberalization on stability of emerging stock market. We identify crises in a group of Latin American (Argentina, Brazil and Chile) and Asian countries (Philippines, Korea, Taiwan and Thailand) during 1975–2005. This paper aims to apply the methodology of CMAX method. Our results indicate that liberalization triggers more unstable stock market in the short run and generate several crises. Still, liberalization seems to generate more stable financial markets in the long run. Financial liberalization does not increase the frequency of crises in emerging countries and at long-term, crises are less several.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1548.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: Fin-tech; Financial Inclusion; Maximizing Finance; Digital Financial Inclusion; The Better Than Cash Alliance; mSTAR; Developing countries; Sustainable Development Goals
Online: 23 May 2023 (03:35:22 CEST)
This research suggests a multi-stakeholder framework to increase the use of fintech in Africa, which would help the continent boost its financial inclusion and reach its Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The study evaluates previous research and frameworks that have been created to aid in the adoption of fintech by several stakeholders in developing nations, some of which have been tested in African nations with limited success. To begin with, the study suggests the use of the World Bank’s Maximising Finance for Development (MFD) approach through the prioritization of national ownership, creation of an enabling environment for private sector investment, partnering with multilateral development banks and other stakeholders, fostering innovation and digital literacy, and focusing on cost-effective, non-government guaranteed financing. In the same vein, in line with the G20’s High-Level Principles for Digital Financial Inclusion, the adoption of financial technologies and digital financial services in Africa can be promoted through the creation of a country-specific strategy. Each government can create a regulatory environment that encourages innovation and competition, improve its digital infrastructure, increase its digital literacy and awareness, and collaborate with private sector stakeholders to expand financial inclusion. Furthermore, The Better Than Cash Alliance’s strategy to increase fintech adoption can also be implemented through partnership with businesses, international organizations, and other nations. By joining the Alliance, countries can enact rules and regulations that facilitate fintech adoption, promote awareness and education, and design and execute national digital payment infrastructure with the help of fintech companies. Finally, the mSTAR initiative suggests collaborating with USAID, in order to provide support to underrepresented populations, incorporate digital financial services, increase public-private collaboration, and educate and train policymakers, practitioners, and technologists. By implementing these strategies, African nations can accelerate the adoption of fintech solutions and increase financial inclusion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0018.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: hospital; quality; patient safety; perceptions of care; financial performance
Online: 1 October 2023 (08:35:28 CEST)
Hospitals are perpetually challenged by the dual requirements of concurrently improving the quality of healthcare and maintaining financial solvency. Both issues are among the top concerns for hospital executives across the United States, yet some have questioned if the efforts to enhance quality are financially sustainable. led us to examine if improving quality in the hospital setting impacts revenue. Using multivariate regression, we assessed if numerous quality measures were associated with our targeted measure of hospital profitability: the net patient revenue per adjusted discharge. The independent variables included the HCAHPS Summary Star Rating, Hospital Compare Overall Rating, All-Cause hospital-wide Readmission Rate, Total Performance Score, Clinical Outcomes Domain Score, Safety Domain Score, Person and Community Engagement Domain Score, and the Efficiency and Cost Reduction Score. Our results indicated that improving quality was significantly associated with improved net patient revenue per adjusted discharge for seven of the eight of these quality measures at the hospital level. It is clear that failing to address quality and patient safety issues is costly for US hospitals, thus we believe our findings support the premise that increased attention to the quality of care delivered as well as patients’ perceptions of care may allow hospitals to accentuate profitability and advance a hospital’s financial position.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0207.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: digital financial inclusion; migration; remittance; household; rural-urban; Bangladesh
Online: 3 August 2023 (02:36:56 CEST)
Globally, large numbers of adults remain unbanked and most of them live in rural areas of the Third World. The recent outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has shown us how inequalities in accessing financial services continue to affect us. However, financial inclusion has emerged as an effective tool to tackle socioeconomic ills and drive economic development. In fact, due to these modern technological developments, the number of studies in this area is very limited, especially in the context of developing economies. This study examines the impacts of migrant remittances on digital financial inclusion within households using the Migration and Remittance Household Survey in Bangladesh. To meet the research objectives of this study, a household survey was conducted and interviewed 2,165 households in 2022-2023 in Bangladesh. This study finds that the coefficient of remittance has a positive relationship with the probability of using mobile banking for a household's financial transactions. However, the use of ATM cards by households for financial transactions has not been significantly affected. The article concludes that remittance flows may enhance access to and use of digital financial inclusion by reducing some of the barriers and costs in Bangladesh, which can greatly contribute to the country's economic growth by creating and increasing a strong fund for investment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0812.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Financial sustainability; Microfinance; Mission Drift; Welfarist; Institutionalist; Social Performance
Online: 12 July 2023 (11:08:33 CEST)
Microfinance banks and Institutions must simultaneously provide micro financial loans to unprivileged and poor people as well as self-sustaining, which means covering enough costs to eliminate the need for subsidies. To ascertain if Micro-finance Institutions can successfully navigate the double challenge of financial self-sustainability (FSS) as well as outreach to poor clientele and women borrowers i.e. outreach. There is no other alternative but to analyse the balance between FSS and outreach indicators of MFIs. The research goal is to see whether there was any compromise between the self-sustainability and outreach towards poor and female customers. The study used data of 100 MFIs driven from the database of microfinance information’s exchange (MIX) market with the objective to determine trade off between financial sustainability and outreach. The study found financial performance variables are positively and significantly related with average loans size which shows a mission drift, in which MFIs serve wealthy clientele. However, Indian MFIs have a extremely high outreach with their female clientele, confirming MFI's social commitment to objective of women’s empowerment. The research recommends to the Policy-makers that MFIs are compromising their financial services to underprivileged people and women in order to be financially sustainable. To guarantee that institutions are focused on outreach to underserved people in rural areas, the government should reform the policies regarding governing MFIs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1228.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: financial performance; management; operational risk; SMEs; Visegrad group countries
Online: 16 June 2023 (11:00:57 CEST)
Owners and managers of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have changed their perspective on risk management due to the current global negative threats in the business environment. If they want to be successful and ensure the financial performance of their business, they must accept a proactive approach to reducing strategic risks in connection with operational risks. The aim of the article is to identify and quantify the differences in operational risk management and its effect on the financial management of SMEs between four Central European countries. The statistical sample of SMEs consisted of 1,090 owners and top managers. Data collection was carried out through a questionnaire in the period December 2022-January 2023. Statistical hypotheses were evaluated with the application of correlation analysis and linear regression modelling. Empirical findings have confirmed that operational risk management has a significant positive impact on improving the profitability of the enterprise; on reducing the enterprise's indebtedness as well as in the context of reducing the enterprise's inability to pay its obligations. However, there are disparities in the perception of this influence between owners/managers with regard to the country in which they carry out their business activities. The findings are important for both national and multinational organizations and entities dealing with risk management in the business environment of small and medium-sized enterprises.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0029.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: financial ratios; cross section; oil and gas trading industry
Online: 2 December 2022 (01:51:17 CET)
This research was conducted with the aim of knowing how to compare the financial performance of the oil and gas trading industry with cross-sectional analysis techniques. The type of research conducted in this research is qualitative research with research objects at several companies, namely PT Radiant Utama Interinsco Tbk, PT Elnusa Tbk, PT AKR Corporindo Tbk, and PT Aneka Gas Industri Tbk. The data used in this study comes from secondary data, namely the internet in the form of company financial reports for the 2019-2021 period obtained from the Indonesia Stock Exchange. The results of this study indicate that PT Radiant Utama Interinsco Tbk has the best financial performance on inventory turnover ratio and average age, PT Elnusa Tbk has good inventory performance on current ratio, quick ratio, DAR, and DER., PT AKR. Corporindo Tbk has performed well on the ratios of TIE, FCC, Dividend Payout, Dividend Yield, and PER. PT Aneka Gas Industri Tbk has performed well on the ratio of Receivables Turnover Ratio and Average Age of Receivables.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0260.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Childhood cancer; financial costs; Africa; systematic review; meta-analysis
Online: 15 August 2022 (11:53:44 CEST)
The high costs of cancer treatment and lack of investment in health care are significant obstacles to public health on the African continent. The objective of this study was to estimate the financial cost of treating children suffering from cancer in Africa. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of expert opinions between March 2000 and March 2020. The key search terms included ‘cost’, ‘cancer’ and ‘child’; we selected articles that specifically addressed the financial costs of childhood cancer in African countries. Of the 103 articles found, 18 met the inclusion criteria. Cancer care was a heavy financial burden in most of the countries studied, although costs varied from country to country; the average expenditure on healthcare was US$1017.39 ± US$319.1 per year. In countries without a health insurance system, the highest proportion of cancer care costs, 46.6%, was indirect, whereas in countries with a cancer financing system, the direct cost of treatment was low, 53.4%. The cost of treating childhood cancer is high in Africa in relation to the standard of living of individuals residing in this region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0083.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Ratios; Financial Crisis; Covid-19; Big Data; Accounting Data
Online: 3 August 2022 (10:42:06 CEST)
The effects of the 2008 financial crisis undoubtedly caused problems not only to the banking sector but also to the real economy of the developed and the developing countries in almost all around the globe. Besides, as is widely known, every banking crisis entails the corresponding cost to the economy of each country affected by it, which results from the shakeout and the restructuring of its financial system. The purpose of this research is to investigate the consequences of the financial crisis and the COVID-19 health crisis and how these affected the course of the four systemic banks (Eurobank, Alpha Bank, National Bank, Piraeus Bank) through the analysis of ratios for the period of 2015-2020.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0491.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Financial Innovation; Economic Policy Uncertainty; ARDL; NARDL; Toda-Yamamoto
Online: 18 November 2020 (23:53:19 CET)
The study's motivation is to gauge the nexus between economic policy uncertainty and financial innovation for the period 2004M1 to 2018M12 in BRIC nations. For establishing a long-run cointegration study applied Autoregressive Distributed Lagged (ARDL) and asymmetry effects of economic policy uncertainty investigated following nonlinear framework known as NARDL. Furthermore, directional causality is established by performing a non-granger causality test. Cointegration test results of Fpss, Wpss, and tBDM confirmed the long-run association between EPU and financial innovation. On the other hand, the Wald test results proved asymmetry effects furring from EPU to financial innovation both in the long-run and short-run. Referring to asymmetry effects that positive and negative shocks in financial innovation, the study revealed that negative linkage between shocks in EPU and financial innovation in the long-run but short-run effects are insignificant. Furthermore, financial innovation measured by R&D investment exhibits positive linked with shocks in EPU, implying that uncertainty induces innovation in the economy. Refers to directional causality estimation, the study revealed evidence supporting the feedback hypothesis between EPU and financial innovation in all sample countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0144.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Poverty; Financial development; Education; Trade openness; Export product concentration
Online: 3 November 2020 (09:57:05 CET)
Numerous studies in the literature have investigated the effect of financial development on poverty, and tend to report a poverty reduction effect of financial development. The present paper considers the issue in the other way around, by examining the effect of poverty on financial development. In particular, it has investigated the financial development effect of poverty that passes through three main channels, including the education level, the level of trade openness, and the degree of export product concentration. The analysis is carried out using a sample of 97 developing countries over the period 1980-2017, and the two-step Generalized Methods of Moments (GMM). Results have shown that poverty genuinely affects financial development through these three channels. Specially, lower poverty rates induce greater financial development in countries that experience higher education levels. Similarly, a rise in poverty rates in the context of restrictive trade policies (that eventually result in lower levels of trade openness) undermines the development of the financial sector. Finally, higher poverty levels adversely affect financial development in countries that experience an increase in the level of export product concentration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0051.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Savings Accumulation, Components of Savings; Financial Deepening; ARDL; VECM
Online: 3 October 2018 (13:25:52 CEST)
The paper investigated the components of savings accumulation in Nigeria over the period 1980 to 2017. Secondary data were collated from World Development Index (WDI). In evaluating the objectives, the study employed the Auto Regressive Distributive Lag (ARDL) and Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) estimation methods. The key findings of the study show that the components of savings identified in literature understudied in the paper specifically, GDP per capita, foreign direct investment, financial deepening, interest rate, inflation rate exchange rate significantly influence savings accumulation in Nigeria either in short run, long run or both. Financial deepening was found statistically significant but influences savings negatively. Inflation rate was statistically insignificant although negative. The result from the VECM causality test revealed that short run and long run causal relationship exist between savings and the afore mentioned components in Nigeria. Hence, the study recommends careful manipulation of the identified savings components in a manner that they will not yield a counterproductive result in the economy rather contribute to the growth of savings and ultimately, the growth of Nigeria economy as a whole. It further recommends that the Nigerian government through its financial institutions encourage savings from both small and big savers which to large extent will assuage the perceived undeserved influence of financial deepening on savings accumulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0395.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: football; audit fees; audit shopping; financial fair play; UEFA
Online: 20 September 2018 (04:26:41 CEST)
This paper analyzes if the Financial Fair Play (FFP) regulations set by UEFA have influenced the auditing fees charged to the football clubs. In addition, it explores the determinants of audit fees. We use a two-sample t test with equal variances to determine whether differences are present. After this, we carry out a panel data regression with clubs fix effect to estimate the determinants of audit fees in football clubs. Our findings reveal an increase of audit fees after the implementation of FFP regulations. On top of that, audit fees are explained by the presence of foreign investors if the audit firm is one of the Big4 and if the auditor is a woman. The regulation change has an impact on the audit fees charged by auditors for their services. However, this increase can be compensated across future years given the improving financial situation of clubs; therefore, the auditors’ risk diminishes and subsequent audit fees may be reduced. UEFA should monitor audit fees as well as the quality of the audit reports, which have become crucial to obtaining the license to participate in UEFA competitions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0109.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: non-performing loans; financial stability; economic geography; bank branches
Online: 6 September 2018 (04:53:27 CEST)
Over the past decade, the credit quality of loan portfolios across most countries in the world remained relatively stable until the financial crises hit the global economy in 2007–2008. In this paper I discuss, the relationship between non-performing loans and economic landscape. Since 2008, nonperforming loans have been an increasingly hot topic in the international scene, due to their important and rising volume and their impact on the economy as a whole, on the banking system and on its credit supply. Since then, average bank asset quality deteriorated sharply due to the global economic recession. Yet the deterioration of loan performance was very uneven across countries. I am interested in explaining these differences in bank asset quality across countries and over time. In this paper, I therefore study the empirical determinants of non-performing loan (NPL) ratios using a data set for EU countries covering the past decade. The paper assumes that the spatial organization of banking systems and the geographical distribution of comercial banks branches, ATMs and GDP growth are major factors influencing the effectiveness in credit system. The aim of this paper is to construct a continuous and quantifiable model, which will demonstrate a role of economic condition, technology, competition, policy, business climate in Financial Stability. Main hypotheses suggests, that GDP growth, interest rate, new business, FDI, ATMs and geographical distribution of branches have an influences on NPL (non-performing loans).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0087.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Nigeria; financial development; economic growth; threshold regression; time series
Online: 5 July 2018 (08:39:38 CEST)
The relationship between economic growth, growth volatility and financial sector development continues to attract attention in the theoretical and empirical literature. Over time, some studies hypothesize that finance has a causal linear relationship with growth. Recently several other authors contradict this claim and argue that the relationship that exists between finance and growth is nonlinear. We investigate these claims for Nigeria for the period between 1970 and 2015, using semi-parametric econometric methods, Hansen sample splitting techniques and threshold estimator. We observed no evidence of ‘Too much finance’ as claimed by many researchers in recent times. We show that the relationship between financial development and economic growth is U-shaped. This is equally true for the relationship between financial development and growth volatility. We also discuss policy implications of our findings and recommend financial innovations and decentralization of stock exchanges to boost access to financial services, in addition, improved regulation to enhance financial market efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0190.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: sustainable development; alliance; financial institution; banking sector; public finance
Online: 12 June 2018 (11:53:17 CEST)
The striving for sustainable development has become the goal of actions undertaken not only by representatives of public authorities and institutions representing this sector, but also representatives of private entities who are increasingly recognizing the benefits and sources of long-term development based on the principles and objectives of sustainable development. These are mainly based on the pursuit of synergy in the three basic areas of activities, i.e., in the economic, social, and environmental dimensions as well as in the maintenance of natural resources. The implementation of these activities is connected with the necessity of incurring financial expenditures, which the government (public sector) does not have in the required value. Therefore, in the process of sustainable development for which the government is responsible, the active participation of the financial sector (banks) is necessary. Achieving results within the alliance of the concept of sustainable development requires the setting of a kind of contract, the parties of which are the government, society, and financial institutions. The purpose of the conducted research is to indicate by which means the government and the financial sector can stimulate economic growth towards its sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0183.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: financial inclusion; unit banking; banking in Bangladesh; banking policy
Online: 21 March 2018 (03:18:47 CET)
The financial inclusion, including all the people with the finance, is very concerned issue all over the world where Bangladesh is also trying to include all the people with the finance. Bangladesh lies in such a group of countries where only 17.6% - 38.6% adults are presently under the reach of the formal financial services. This is because the present banks and other formal financial modes consider the outcome and profitability in a way that, the rural and non-developed areas are always out of the consideration. But these areas consist of the most population of Bangladesh. And only then financial inclusiveness will be successful in Bangladesh when people from these regions will be under formal financial consideration. The paper seeks for a solution to the issue and presents the Unit Banking System as a probable way towards financial inclusion. For implementing the system in Bangladesh, the system needs a slight modification to cope in Bangladeshi economic condition and address the specific needs without hampering the surroundings. Considering all these, the paper shows the status, problems and key points of financial scenario of inclusion in Bangladesh and shows policy for a Modified Unit banking System.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0113.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: bank reporting; country risk; financial stability; panel data modeling
Online: 15 March 2018 (04:46:05 CET)
This paper relies on accounting-based measures of country risk to investigate U.S. global banks' exposure to foreign country risk over the 2017 fiscal year as measured by the sum of cross-border risk, foreign office risk, and derivative risk claims. We achieve this using panel linear modeling methods with country level heterogeneity and time fixed effects, along with a constructed panel data of 284 observations on 71 countries distributed across 6 world regional blocks, and observed over 4 consecutive quarters starting from 4th quarter 2016 and ending with 3rd quarter 2017. The results show that on average, over the four quarters, a 1% increase in foreign banking sector's claims significantly increases U.S. global banks cross border risk exposure by 0.34%, while reducing derivative risk exposure by 0.22%, but have no significant impact on foreign office risk exposure. Similar results are observed with public sector claims which significantly increase banks' exposure to cross border risk by 0.21%, while reducing derivative risk exposure by 0.19%. Conversely however, non-bank financial sector claims are found to have no significant affect on cross-border risk exposure, but significantly reduce foreign office risk exposure by 0.09%, while increasing derivative risk exposure by 0.06%. These results indicate the presence of sectoral heterogeneities in U.S. banks' exposure to foreign counterparties' risk, and also that overall, over the course of 2017 the level of U.S. global banks' cross-border risk exposure increased, while their level of derivative risk exposure decreased, and the level of foreign office risk exposure remained relatively unchanged.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0182.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: financial ruin, withdrawal strategy, asset allocation, rebalancing method, portfolio
Online: 19 January 2018 (09:42:46 CET)
An optimal withdrawal strategy beginning at age 65 provides a lifetime income from a portfolio, adjusted annually for inflation, while reducing the probability of living in financial ruin to an ac-ceptable level. This paper analyzes the probability of living in financial ruin, potentially for multiple years, rather than just the event of ruin. A stochastic Excel model was developed to simulate the effect of varying investment returns on a portfolio with two asset classes; large company stocks and long-term government bonds. A stochastic model is also applied to retiree mortality. The following variables were analyzed to determine their relative impact on withdrawal strategies: • Withdrawing a constant percentage of the portfolio, • Gender, • Initial asset allocation, • Asset allocation rebalancing methods, and • Low investment return environments. For both genders and most withdrawal rates, an approximately equal initial asset allocation of stocks and bonds, combined with a level rebalancing function, provided the lowest probability of living in financial ruin. Because each investment return followed its own probability distribution function, some retirees experienced financial ruin even in the most conservative simulations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0230.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: unilateral/bilateral collateralization; partial/full/over collateralization; asset pricing; plumbing of the financial system; swap premium spread; OTC/cleared/listed financial markets
Online: 20 September 2019 (04:06:14 CEST)
This paper attempts to assess the economic significance and implications of collateralization in different financial markets, which is essentially a matter of theoretical justification and empirical verification. We present a comprehensive theoretical framework that allows for collateralization adhering to bankruptcy laws. As such, the model can back out differences in asset prices due to collateralized counterparty risk. This framework is very useful for pricing outstanding defaultable financial contracts. By using a unique data set, we are able to achieve a clean decomposition of prices into their credit risk factors. We find empirical evidence that counterparty risk is not overly important in credit-related spreads. Only the joint effects of collateralization and credit risk can sufficiently explain unsecured credit costs. This finding suggests that failure to properly account for collateralization may result in significant mispricing of financial contracts. We also analyze the difference between cleared and OTC markets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2008.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: technological innovation; financial agglomeration; real economy growth; space spillover effect
Online: 28 September 2023 (11:21:52 CEST)
Amidst China's new economic normal, the real economy faces various domestic and global challenges. Technological innovation, with its capital intensity and uncertain returns, is crucial to rejuvenate emerging industries and revamp the industrial structure. Meanwhile, financial agglomeration plays a dual role: directly fostering real economic development and indirectly affecting it through technological innovation. This study analyzes data from 30 mainland Chinese provinces and cities between 2011 and 2018, utilizing fuzzy matter-element analysis and location entropy method. Relying on a spatial econometric model, we explore the impact of technological innovation and financial clustering on real economic growth, including spatial ripple effects. The conclusions are derived from Chinese evidence and offer valuable insights into the evolving innovation and financial dynamics within the participating nations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1882.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: financial development and inflation; ARDL approach; causality; time series; Kenya
Online: 28 September 2023 (09:41:32 CEST)
This paper aims to discuss the relationship between financial development and inflation in Kenya using time series data between 1973 and 2021. The short- and long-run impact of financial development on inflation remains an important issue in the empirical and theoretical literature especially for country specific, but has yet to receive significant research consideration. For this purpose, the paper uses an ARDL analysis method, which is considered an advanced analytical model. Empirical findings confirmed that financial development has a significant long-run impact on inflation in Kenya. On the contrary, results confirmed that there is no significant short-run effect of financial development on inflation. In addition, there is significant long-run and short-run negative relationship between interest rate and inflation. The results indicate significant long-run Granger and ARDL causality from financial development to inflation. The main policy implications of the empirical results of this paper suggest supervision of financial sector must be directed in a way that would stimulate a stable and a moderate inflation rate. In particular, both financial institution and government should enhance the infrastructures of the financial market and promote the utilisation of financial services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0841.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: financial markets; national regulatory models; principles and methods of supervision
Online: 11 May 2023 (10:45:42 CEST)
The purpose of this original study is to critically analyze the emergence and development of the national models of financial regulation; international standards and codes; regional and national financial regulation and supervision (the case of UK, USA, Sweden, EU and Finland). The research raises both academic and regulatory concerns. It aims at shaping changes (innovations) in the supervisory practices of national and international regulators in response to new developments in FinTech markets, digital products, financial instruments and risks. Secondly, it will stimulate more systematic work on regulatory databases, registration and reporting procedures in various economies in different financial markets. The author identifies five main systems of national financial regulatory markets: the multi-tiered, multi-agency US system; the Twin Peaks model (UK); the mega-regulatory model (Sweden). There is a thorough review of international standards and institutions that work for the stability of financial systems. The analysis of regional and national systems of financial regulation and supervision is based on the examples of the EU and Finnish institutions. National macro and microeconomic regulation and supervision have been examined with a focus on the US Federal Reserve and the US Treasury. National and international regulatory institutions have been evolving along several lines. First, minimum capital and credit risk requirements for banks (80s of the 20th century) are complemented in the 21st century by buffer reserves, liquidity and leverage standards. Second, regulation focuses on ensuring the sustainability of the national economy. The regulatory focus is on ensuring the sustainability of national and global financial systems. Third, there is an increase in the number of supervised institutions. Fourth, there is a division of functions between central banks (macroeconomic regulation) and one or two mega-regulators (microeconomic regulation and supervision). Fifth, there is a division of labour between the international financial institutions (BIS, IMF, WB) and national regulators. Sixth, the focus is on protecting consumers and investors, and countering money laundering and the financing of terrorism. Seventh, there is an understanding for a common approach by central banks to new financial technologies and cybersecurity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0818.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Management; Financial Performance; Corporate Diversification; Capital Structure; Conglomerate; Business Model
Online: 11 May 2023 (08:17:06 CEST)
Since the early 21st century, the globalization trend and technological innovations have changed the ways and speed of market growth. Rapid market expansion and the pressure for firms to achieve sustainable business growth via mergers and acquisitions have become the norms for acquiring the necessary competencies, expanding market shares and business integrations. This study explains the factors that correlate to the IJM's financial performance based on the market dynamics in recent years. This case study is a qualitative approach employing systematic review and content analysis. As a result, firms begin to diversify or venture into the business segments that might be related to or complement their core businesses, intentionally or unintentionally, which eventually evolved into the conglomerate form. This case study provides a financial performance analysis of IJM Corporation Berhad's success and challenges from its conglomerate business model. The fact that a well-diversified firm will have better risk management in the event of an economic downturn is also a primary driver for firms to embark on a corporate diversification strategy. This case study reveals IJM's conglomerate model has been successful during its rapid business growth; however, it has shown signs of diminishing in recent years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0061.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Social engagement; social rehabilitation; community-based; financial analysis; Momentum Center
Online: 2 May 2023 (05:28:57 CEST)
Cost-effective community engagement is needed to address causes of mental illness related to social issues (i.e. isolation, stigma and lack of purpose) that are typically outside the scope of healthcare. This pilot study evaluated the relationship between clinical healthcare resources and a community-based social engagement organization in a medium-sized community in the midwestern US. Analyses were based on a retrospective longitudinal comparison of clinical visit frequency from two cohorts that joined the Momentum Center for Social Engagement (MC) and either frequently participated (Engaged; n = 9) or had extenuating circumstances limiting participation (Non-engaged; n = 3). The frequency of >1800 visits to the member’s primary mental healthcare provider were compared during the period from November 2016 - May 2021. Engaged MC members reduced frequency of regular visits to their primary mental healthcare provider by 50%, while Non-engaged MC members maintained clinical visit frequency. The financial value of reduced healthcare visits and associated wellbeing improvements was estimated to be $1.0 million, 95% CI: [$0.6-1.4 million], or roughly four times the budget received by the MC from the healthcare provider. Thus, the MC appears to be a valuable approach to improving mental health in conjunction with existing community healthcare services. Clinical implications include considering the unique MC-style community-based support as a component of practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0311.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: risks; COVID-19 pandemics; Russian economy, financial stimulation, risk management.
Online: 17 March 2023 (01:44:15 CET)
The research objects are the tax and budgetary policies of the Russian Federation. In this research, financial (budgetary) risks are understood as a decrease in the balance of the state (national) budget resulting from a reduction in revenues or an increase in expenditures. This research considers production in the main sectors of the economy as a key factor of financial risk in the COVID-19 pandemic. The research aims to analyze the main directions of the budgetary and tax policy of the Russian Federation aiming at supporting the economy and the population during the spread of COVID-19, which is especially relevant in connection with the expected recession in a number of sectors of the economy and a decrease in the level of employment and, accordingly, the well-being of citizens. In these conditions, it is necessary to adjust the budgetary and tax policy to preserve the state’s social obligations and expand social and economic support for businesses and citizens to smooth out the negative consequences of the impact of restrictive measures. The authors applied systemic and institutional approaches and statistical methods. The main results of the research reflect the need to (1) implement support measures (tax and budgetary incentives) for small and medium-sized enterprises, on which the crisis provoked by the COVID-19 pandemic has had the most destructive impact, and (2) to expand the volume of budgetary financing of social programs for financial risk management of the Russian economy during the COVID-19 pandemics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0006.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Financial distress; Dual system banking; Loan Loss Provission; forecasting; econometrics
Online: 3 January 2023 (07:19:41 CET)
Nowadays, many Muslim-majority countries have implemented a dual banking system, namely the sharia and conventional systems. The development of Islamic banks is to fulfill the Muslims' need for the existence of halal transactions in financial institutions. However, in some countries, it turns out that conventional banks still dominate the country's economy. Because of that, it is necessary to see whether there are differences in financial risk and Earnings management between Islamic and conventional banks. The samples are conventional and Islamic banks in Southeast Asia, analyzed by the purposive sampling method from 2010-2019. The analytical tool used is the statistical difference test and economometrics analysis using generalized least square (GLS) regression with panel data (time series and cross-sectional data). These models are intended to forecasting the macroeconomics effects in applying dual banking system in one country or region. The results using non parametrics means difference test showed that the first hypothesis is accepted It means that Earnings management in conventional banks is greater than in Islamic banks. The Random Model Effect (REM) for second and third hypotheses testing on Conventional banks shows the Bankruptcy Risk and NPL do not affect the dependent variable Earnings Management (LLP). While fixed effect model testing on Islamic banks, the second and third hypothesis testing is rejected. Therefor Islamic Banks the value of Bankruptcy Risk (z-score) and the value of Non-Performing Loans (NPL) do not affect Earnings management. It also means that hypothesis 2 and 3 are rejected both in conventional as well as Islamic Banking. Sensitivity analysis for conventional as well as Islamic banking altogether using fixed effect model shows that the second and third hypotheses show that the independent variables (Bankruptcy Risk and NPL) do not affect the dependent variable Earnings Management (LLP). These results can be concluded that Islamic bank are enganged in less earnings management. Therefor in the the long run there are still more research that should conduct in comparing dual banking system in one region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0201.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: cost estimation; cost deviation; financial crisis; promotor-contractor; statistical modelling
Online: 13 October 2021 (12:48:56 CEST)
For the majority of the contractual arrangements used in construction projects, the owner is not responsible for the cost deviations due to the variability of labor productivity or material price, amongst many other aspects. Consequently, the cost performance of a project may be entirely distinct for the owner and the contractor. Since the majority of the quantitative research on cost estimation and deviation found in the literature adopts the owners’ perspective, this research provides a contribution towards modelling costs and cost deviation from a contractors’ perspective. From an initial sample of 13 residential building and 10 office building projects, it was possible to develop models for cost estimation at the early stage of development including both endogenous and exogenous variables. Although the sample is relatively small, the authors were able to fully analyze all the cost data, using no secondary sources of data (very frequent in cost modelling studies). The statistically significant variables in the cost estimation models were the areas above and below ground and the years following the 2008 financial crisis, including the international bailout (2011-2014) period. For estimating the unit cost, a nonlinear model was obtained with the number of underground and total floor, the floor ratio and the years following the 2008 financial crisis, including the international bailout (2011-2014) period as predictors. For the office buildings, it was also found a statistically significant correlation between the cost deviation and the number of underground floors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0319.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: CAHME; ACHE; program accreditation; professional affiliation; healthcare outcomes, financial performance
Online: 11 June 2021 (13:39:48 CEST)
The impact of organizational accreditation and professional certification and the evidence-based measurable impact of those for both academic programs and affiliates is one of specific interest to universities and individuals in the healthcare management field . The authors’ analysis examined the impact of hiring graduates from higher education programs that held external accreditation from the Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Management Education (CAHME). Graduates’ affiliation with the American College of Healthcare Executives (ACHE) professional healthcare leadership organization was also assessed as an independent variable. Study outcomes focused on these graduates’ respective healthcare organization’s performance measures (cost, quality, and access) to assess the researchers’ inquiry into the perceived value of a CAHME-accredited graduate degree in healthcare administration and a professional ACHE affiliation . The results from this study found no effect of CAHME accreditation or ACHE affiliation on healthcare organization performance outcomes. The study findings support the need for future research surrounding healthcare administration professional graduate degree program characteristics and leader development affiliations, as perceived by various industry stakeholders.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Reliability; Earthquake damageability; Structural evaluation; Safety; Financial risk; MC simulation
Online: 14 May 2021 (13:46:04 CEST)
Abstract: Seismic performance and loss assessments can have widely varying degrees of uncertainty. An essential issue is whether a particular assessed seismic loss or performance result has sufficient reliability to serve as the basis for risk management decisions and actions, including whether or not a code prescribed performance level is met, or if an assessed loss level is acceptable. A method is developed measuring the reliability of performance and loss assessments for individual buildings and for portfolios. Consideration is given to how well the building investigation and corresponding evaluation process have been performed, the qualifications of the person(s) doing the assessment, the thoroughness of the evaluation, and the technical validity of the assessment procedure or model. The approach characterizes the uncertainty of each component of the assessment procedure for each building in qualitative terms. The resulting reliability measure is likely to be most useful for the cases where an entity is determining whether/or not a building has acceptable life safety performance, or if a portfolio has an acceptably low risk of seismic damage loss over a given period of time. In both cases, the reliability must either be sufficient to warrant action, or serve to indicate need for improved assessment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0104.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: rainwater harvesting; rainwater quality; precast concrete; financial analysis; computer simulation
Online: 5 January 2021 (17:14:18 CET)
The objective of this paper is to assess the potential for potable water savings due to rainwater use in a precast concrete factory in southern Brazil. The economic feasibility and the rainwater quality were also assessed. The current water consumption, future water demand and rainwater demand in the factory were estimated. The future demand considered was two times higher than the current water consumption since there are plans to increase the production. Three scenarios were then simulated using the computer programme Netuno. The ideal rainwater tank capacity, the potential for potable water savings and the economic feasibility analysis for each scenario were estimated. Samples of rainwater were collected in the factory and tested for quality for manufacturing precast concrete. For a rainwater tank capacity equal to 25,000 litres, the potential for potable water savings for the first scenario was 55.4%, but the first scenario was considered economically unfeasible. For the same tank capacity, the second and third scenarios presented viable results regarding potable water savings and payback. As for the rainwater quality, it was proven to be adequate for manufacturing precast concrete. The main conclusion is that rainwater can be used to manufacture precast concrete in the factory studied herein.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0469.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: delayed feedback financial system; asymptotical stability; Lyapunov function; synchronization; impulse
Online: 20 September 2020 (14:25:24 CEST)
In real financial market, the delayed market feedback and the delayed effect of government macro-control are inevitable. And both the delay of market feedback and the delay of macro-control effect bring about the mathematical difficulties in studying stabilization and synchronization of the hyper-chaotic financial system. However, employing Lyapunov function method, differential mean value theorem, suitable bounded hypotheses and pulse control technology results in the globally asymptotical stabilization and synchronization criteria. It is the first paper to drive the stabilization and synchronization criteria under the assumptions of the double delays. Finally, numerical examples illuminate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0368.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Fraud Detection; Recurrent Neural Network; PaySim; Financial Transactions; Deep Learning
Online: 30 June 2020 (11:34:34 CEST)
Online transactions are becoming more popular in present situation where the globe is facing an unknown disease COVID-19. Now authorities of Countries requested peoples to use cashless transaction as far as possible. Practically it is not always possible to use it in all transactions. Since number of such cashless transactions have been increasing during lockdown period due to COVID-19, fraudulent transactions are also increasing in a rapid way. Fraud can be analysed by viewing a series of customer transactions data that was done in his/her previous transactions. Normally banks or other transaction authorities warned their customers about the transaction If any deviation is noticed by them from available patterns. These authorities think that it is possibly of fraudulent transaction. For detection of fraud during COVID-19, banks and credit card companies are applying various methods such as data mining , decision tree, rule based mining, neural network, fuzzy clustering approach and machine learning methods. These approaches is try to find out normal usage pattern of customers based on their past activities. The objective of this paper is to find out such fraud transactions during such unmanageable situation.Digital payment schemes are often threatened by fraudulent activities. Detecting fraud transaction in during money transfer may save customers from financial loss. Mobile based money transactions are focused in this paper for fraud detection. A Deep Learning (DL) framework is suggested in this paper that monitors and detects fraudulent activities. Implementing and applying recurrent neural network on PaySim generated synthetic financial dataset, deceptive transactions are identified. The proposed method is capable to detect deceptive transactions with an accuracy of 99.87%, F1-Score of 0.99 and MSE of 0.01.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1147.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: financial performance; sustainability reporting; sustainable performance; content analysis; Istanbul Stock Exchange
Online: 19 September 2023 (03:51:51 CEST)
This study investigated the impact of sustainability reporting on financial performance, with a focus on companies in the Turkish food, beverage and tobacco and textile, wearing apparel and leather sectors. The sustainability reports of 48 companies listed on the Istanbul Stock Exchange for 2022 were studied, and the quality of sustainability practices was determined by using a general index (Sustainability Reporting Disclosure Quality Index (SRDQI)) and three partial indices (Environmental Disclosure Quality Index, Social Disclosure Quality Index, and Corporate Governance Disclosure Quality Index (CGDQI)). To analyze the relationships between financial performance and sustainability practices two types of regression models were developed, based on which eight models were directly examined. The results indicate the complete absence of a statistically significant impact of SRDQI on all financial performance measures used. Among the partial indices, only CGDQI has a significant positive effect on the Assets Turnover Ratio. An analysis of the influence of control variables shows a multidirectional dependence of individual financial performance measures on the size of companies, their age, industry affiliation, as well as on the structure of capital used. Finally, this study provides directions for improving the institutional environment of sustainability reporting for Turkish companies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1436.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Religion; Real Earnings Management; Risk Aversion; Social norm; Financial Statements Disclosure
Online: 21 August 2023 (08:02:44 CEST)
Prior research has extensively examined the relationship between religion and accrual-based earnings management. However, there is currently little research in the relationship between religion and real (non-accrual) earnings management, especially in Europe. This paper aims to fill this research gap and examines whether and how the effect of religion could be linked with firms’ real earnings management activities. Four hypotheses are developed and tested with our results providing indications that the degree of overall religiosity is negatively and significantly associated with real earnings management. Furthermore, when investigating the effects of different religions in Europe, Christianity and Islam have the opposite impact on firms’ real earnings management activities. Overall, our paper indicates that in European countries, the religious environment can mitigate firms’ manipulations on earnings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1820.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: audit committee, internal auditor, board’s experience, board size, financial statement fraud
Online: 26 May 2023 (02:55:19 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic had a wide-ranging impact, resulting in a global recession due to weakened purchasing power. This circumstance necessitates business organizations adapting to developments and being more conscious of the risk of financial statement fraud. The intention of this research is to investigate the way corporate governance affected financial statement fraud during the COVID-19 pandemic. To acquire empirical data for examining corporate governance variables on financial statement fraud, the research was examined using quantitative methods. The study takes advantage of secondary data acquired from annual reports of companies under special monitoring listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange of 2020-2021. The logistic regression method was used to evaluate 134 data sets, and financial statement fraud was measured using the Z-Score and F-Score models. The results indicate that using the Z-score, only the board size has a negative effect on financial statement fraud during the COVID- 19 pandemic. Meanwhile, using the F-Score, the corporate governance variables studied are not proven to have an influence on financial statement fraud during the COVID 19 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0400.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: crypto assets; Theory of Planned Behavior; financial literacy; trust; government regulation
Online: 23 January 2023 (07:49:08 CET)
Indonesian crypto asset owners are expanding despite the government's ban. Crypto assets are too risky for Indonesian investors. This study uses the Theory of Planned Behavior and exogenous variables like financial literacy, trust, and government regulation to determine the causes of the intention to invest in crypto assets. Exogenous variables and behavioral intentions were moderated by gender. The study employs a quantitative approach, collecting data through a questionnaire survey of 149 adults over the age of 17 who have invested in non-crypto assets. SmartPLS was used to analyze research data. Financial literacy and trust, according to the study's findings, have an impact on the intention to invest in crypto assets. Gender can moderate the relationship between belief and behavioral intention. Women are more likely than men to invest in crypto assets due to the block chain system's security, transparency, and ease of use. This research is expected to help the government address the risks associated with investing in crypto assets by increasing transaction security with futures clearing and monitoring by using third parties as depositors. It also governs the laws governing crypto exchanges' liability to their investors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0328.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Financial literacy education; to conscience; curriculum; alchemy; making kinds of people
Online: 21 July 2022 (11:00:16 CEST)
This article mainly proposes the point of view that financial literacy curriculum aims to make kinds of people, to make people with financial creativity of resource integration thinking and continuous ‘to conscience’ of morality, which is cultivate a way of thinking that can maximize benefits through the use of resource integration and constantly ‘to conscience’ to achieve goals for participants in financial structures with balanced interests. In this sense, this article argues that financial literacy is to make kinds of people with a financial mindset and constantly strengthen ‘to conscience’ through uniting of knowledge and action to achieve human well-being and benign operation of society. In this sense, this article attempts to determine what is really taught in financial literacy education in terms of curriculum theory. That is to improve creativity by cultivating financial thinking with constant ‘to conscience’. The views of this paper provide a new way of thinking about financial literacy education assessment. This changes the evaluation criteria of financial literacy education from the result-oriented of wealth growth to the process-oriented of financial creativity growth, trying to move the criticism of financial literacy education curriculum and evaluation from controversy to unity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0261.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: environmental behavior; financial industry; employee survey; behavioral acceptance; intention-behavior-gap
Online: 19 May 2022 (11:39:40 CEST)
The financial sector, too, is developing innovative services and products that have the potential to make a more positive impact on global environmental goals. However, research sheds little light on environmental attitudes and behavioral patterns of employees in this sector. There are multiple factors promoting or inhibiting environmental behavior. Those factors may be rooted in individual or subjective norms, but also social influence and to some extent financial incentives and benefits. A survey concerning the intention to improve and actually show ‘green behavior’ was developed based on widely used acceptance models which differentiate between desirable behavior and the intention to show such behavior. Employees are predominately responsive towards environmental behavior: 20% are convinced of the need to act in a “green” and sustainable manner, only 5% are hard to win over or are not accessible at all. Financial loss or benefits combined with social motives contribute to sustainable living whereas financial benefits alone actually hinder such behavior. The study underlines the existence of a intention-behavior gap: The intention to behave sustainably is built somewhat separately from various influences. There are moderating factors like sex, age and family status that influence the decisions. This then leads to a gap between intention and actual behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0340.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Digital Transformation; SME; Digital Orientation; Digital Capability; Financial Performance; Mediation Analysis
Online: 24 January 2022 (10:25:48 CET)
The COVID-19 crisis has emphasized the importance of digital transformation of SMEs and has served as an accelerator. Digital transformation empowers SMEs to rethink the way they make decisions and apply technology in meaningful and sustainable ways. The purpose of this study is to explore the role of digital transformation, fostered by COVID-19, and its potential contribution to the sustainability of SMEs. This paper examines a new conceptual framework designed on resource-based theory perspectives by using a survey data of 246 SMEs in Latvia and employing mediation analysis. The main findings of the study are that digital orientation and digital capability have direct positive effects on digital transformation; higher levels of digital orientation and capability, mediated by digital transformation, lead to higher revenue; as well as a more sophisticated business model in the case of digital orientation. Even if we cannot confirm that higher digital capability, mediated by digital transformation, leads to a more sophisticated business model, we found statistically significant direct effects from digital capability to digital transformation and from digital transformation to business model. These findings can be useful for policymakers, managers and practitioners to clarify how digital orientation, digital capability intermediated through digital transformation affect sustainability of SMEs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0383.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: AHP; COPRAS; corporate finance; environmental performance; financial planning; green bonds; MCDA
Online: 16 July 2021 (15:02:53 CEST)
There is an increasing pressure by community and customers forcing companies to insert environmental concerns in their practices. To help companies initiatives, the green bonds market was incepted. Our research question is how to select bonds in a growing billion-dollar market. This paper presents a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) model to enable investors identify opportunities based not only in opinions, but grounded on objective facts. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Complex Proportional Assessment (COPRAS) are two MCDA methods applied in this paper. Top-fifteen green bonds ranked by specialized media were assessed with the proposed MCDA model. Criteria included the Environmental Performance Index (EPI) proposed by Yale University, and common financial indicators as assets, risks (β), and dividends. The new AHP–COPRAS rank is compared with another published by specialized media.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0329.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Financial Behavior; Investor Attitudes; Traders and Investors Behavior; Experience; Investment Decision
Online: 13 April 2021 (09:14:10 CEST)
Pakistan is under developing country and it has an unpredictable market nature of shareholder-investors observe the company’s performance. This research could help to companies in understanding financial behavior, attitude and investors’ satisfaction in stock trade. Financial behavior is comparatively new subject in Pakistan therefore; this study has examined the financial behavior and attitude of investors. The behavioral finance that has been attempted to understand the positive experiences influences investors’ financial behavior. This study has find out that investor satisfaction is strongest in influence of positive financial behavior of investor and trader in stock trading; positive experience and brokers suggestions are strengthens the investment decision of investors and increases behavior loyalty to prefer over competitor. The main purpose of research to determine the effect of financial behavior on investors’ attitude and behavioral loyalty and investors’ satisfaction to preference over competitor. The research framework links with experiences in stock trade for positive (negative) experiences, attitude and financial behavior is developed. The research framework is measured data from sample of Karachi and Karachi Stock Exchange; the data is analyzed in smart PLS based on PLS-SEM. This study focused on trading experience with company’s active investors and traders in banking industry in Pakistan. The future research could be research in other sectors with inter-related issue of investors and traders (brokers) in stock trade. This is the first study in this research area; this study will be determine the experiences with positive (negative) financial behavior, attitude, satisfaction and behavioral loyalty of investors and traders in stock trade. Therefore, adding in this area of study which will help understanding the investors and traders attitude, preference and financial behavior in financial market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0303.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: transparency; accounting; internal control system; financial management; disbursement; a student organization
Online: 13 December 2020 (21:36:22 CET)
: A strong financialtransaction is an important factor in organizational triumph and sustainability, and it is elucidated in the revised student handbook of the University that can be found on page 96 rules 1 to 5. This study assessed the registered students organizations' profile in terms of its type, registration, years of establishment, functions, and designations of student leaders and advisers. The financial practices or internal control system manages their organizational finances and the problems encountered by the student organizations and eventually proposed a manual of operation for students and youth organization's internal control system. This research used the descriptive design with the aid of questionnaire; data gathering through quota sampling from 57 student leaders and advisers of different student organizations of NEUST. Findings showed that most organizations had their constitution and by-laws but kept only as files and renewal requirements. Some provisions were not known to the officers, mostly were registered more than five years in operation; however, in terms of functions of officers and advisers, the results showed that some functions were not done by the officers who supposed to do it like the auditors who serve as treasurers also, the PRO as the record keeper and the presidents who handled finances and collections and as well as disbursements of funds. Generally, the organizations' financial activities were deemed to be "good", especially budgeting and cash receipt, due to the implementation of "no collection and no tuition fee policy". The researchers concluded that the absence of the proper internal control systems and manual of operation and lack of proper transfer of financial records from the previous sets of officers were the serious problems that should be addressed. Moreover, the student organizations' internal control system could still be improved if there is proper training and supervision in accounting operation.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Financial Constraints; Agency Cost; Equity Concentration; Holding Heterogeneity; Real Estate Industry
Online: 19 October 2020 (14:32:53 CEST)
Real estate industry is related to the national economy and people's livelihood，characterized by a high degree of financial intensity. The enterprises in this industry need certain financial ability and large shareholder controlling ability to support their survival. However，due to the multiple adverse impacts of current state policies，banks and private capital，the credit crunch，the sudden decrease in withdrawn funds and the limitation of internal financing，the problem of capital restraint of real estate enterprises has become more and more serious. From the perspective of corporate governance，this paper studies the interaction among financial constraints，ownership concentration and corporate performance under different shareholding states by analyzing the quantitative characteristics of equity structure，and looks for the appropriate range of the largest shareholder holding ratio，which has considered the financial performance and risk. It is found that raising the ownership concentration can effectively ease the financing constraints and improve the performance of enterprises，both of which are significant under the state of high ownership concentration， while the financial constraints play a significant intermediary effect under the State of absolute holding， while in the decentralized state of ownership，there is a significant regulatory effect，and the interaction of the three will be different due to the size of the enterprise.