ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0116.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Time Series Prediction; ANN forecasting; New Coronavirus; COVID19 prediction cases; COVID19 prediction deaths; COVID19 prediction ICU, COVID19 Vaccination; COVID19 in Europe; COVID19 in Israel; COVID19 use of face mask.
Online: 6 May 2021 (16:58:01 CEST)
The use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) is a great contribution to medical studies since the application of forecasting concepts allows the analysis of future diseases propagations. In this context, this paper presents a study of the new coronavirus SARS-COV-2 with a focus on verifying the virus propagation associated with mitigation procedures and massive vaccination campaigns. There were proposed two methodologies to predict 28 days ahead the number of new cases, deaths, and ICU patients of five European countries: Portugal, France, Italy, United Kingdom, and Germany, and a case study of the results of massive immunization in Israel. The data input of cases, deaths, and daily ICU patients was normalized to reduce discrepant numbers due to the countries size, and the cumulative vaccination values by the percentage of population immunized, at least with one dose of vaccine. As a comparative criterion, the calculation of the mean absolute error (MAE) of all predictions presents the best methodology and targets other possibilities of use for the proposed method. The best architecture achieved a general MAE for the 1 to 28 days ahead forecast lower than 30 cases, 0,6 deaths and 2,5 ICU patients by million people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0240.v1
Online: 14 May 2020 (12:08:06 CEST)
Aim of the study: Aim of he study was to analyse correlation of daily maximum temperature on corona virus daily growth rate as well as effect of lockdown on daily growth rate of cases. Materials and Methods:All the data regarding new cases of covid 19 Pandemic in Gujarat was collected from Gujarat health department website., Temperature details were collected from www.accuweather.com. Growth rate was calculated as a percent increase of new cases daily compared to previous day active cases. Relations between trends were calculated from correlation and regression studies. MANNOVA analysis was performed. Results:Total 6625 cases, 4729 active cases and 380 deaths were reported as on 6th May 2020 in Gujarat. Daily maximum temperature was significantly correlated inversely with daily growth rate. (p value= 0.010) with Pearson correlation coefficient =-0.363. Correlation between time since lock down to daily case growth rate was non significant. (p=0.123). Phases of lockdown and growth rates showed significant inverse correlation. (p=0.002). Multivariate ANOVA showed there was statistical significant difference in case growth rate based on daily temperature [p= 0.006 F=4.71] and progression of phases of lockdown (p=0.018, F=3.55). Conclusion:Conclusion increase in temperature has inverse relationship in growth rate in covid 19 pandemic. Lockdown may be useful in decreasing growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0538.v1
Online: 22 June 2021 (10:22:56 CEST)
COVID-19 pandemic put pregnant women in high risk, but behavioural changes has also led to lower rates of preterm births in high-income countries. The main goal in this article is to study the impact that COVID-19 pandemic is having on pregnancy control and outcomes. This is a joint analysis of two cohorts. A pre-pandemic one includes 969 pregnant women recruited in 2018. The pandemic cohort comprises 1168 pregnant women recruited in 2020. Information on demographic and socio-economic characteristics, reproductive history, characteristics of the current pregnancy and its outcome were obtained from medical records. Caesarean section was more frequent in the pre-pandemic cohort (24% vs. 18%, p = 0.004). Birth with less than 37 weeks of gestational age was more frequent in the pre-pandemic cohort (6% vs. 5%, p = 0.04). Weight at birth lower than 2500 grams occurred more frequently in the pre-pandemic cohort (9% vs. 6%, p = 0.001). Exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge was more frequent in the pandemic cohort than in the pre-pandemic one (60% vs. 54%, p = 0.005). We are reporting reductions in Caesarean section and preterm birth during the pandemic in a hospital located Northern of Spain. Further analysis would clarify if these lessening are related to changes in health-related behaviour or health-care functioning.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0446.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: COVID19; infectious diseases
Online: 31 March 2020 (05:08:29 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-COV-2 has infected over 500,000 people causing over 25,000 deaths in the last 10 weeks. A key host cellular protein required for the virus entry is angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Recent studies have reported that patients with hypertension and diabetes treated with ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers might be at a higher risk of COVID-19 infection as these drugs have been reported to increase ACE2 expression. This has raised the need to systematically investigate the effect of different drugs including antihypertensives on modulating ACE2 expression. Here, we analyzed a publicly available CMAP dataset of pre/post transcriptomic profiles for drug treatment in cell lines for over 20,000 small molecules. We show that only one subclass of antihypertensives drugs - ACE inhibitors, are significantly enriched for drugs up-regulating ACE2 expression. Studying the effects of the 672 clinically approved drugs in CMAP, we chart the drug categories that affect ACE2 expression. Specifically, we find that panobinostat (an HDAC inhibitor) confers the highest up-regulation of ACE2 expression while isotretinoin (a vitamin A derivative) is its strongest down-regulator. Our results provide initial candidates guiding further in vitro and in vivo studies aimed at assessing drug effects on ACE2 expression.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0245.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: COVID19; economic paradigm shift; economic failures; post-COVID19 economy; 5G technology
Online: 15 May 2020 (03:35:16 CEST)
This conceptual article is aimed at evaluating the COVID19 impacts on the global economy and to postulating an ‘economic paradigm shift’. We argue that the existing economic, political, and trade principles have been challenged due to the global pandemic issue. We also compare the COVID19 impact on Western countries and Eastern countries with their control mechanisms. The emerging of new economies is due to the travel restrictions and disrupt of the global economies are discussed that pave a gateway to the economic paradigm shift. The article finally assesses the advent of 5G technology and its implications to face any future health threats that will lead to the next economic paradigm shift in the modern world.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0929.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID19; Tixagevimab–cilgavimab; Remdesivir
Online: 14 September 2023 (03:39:01 CEST)
Tixagevimab–cilgavimab are effective for treatment of early COVID-19 among outpatients with risk factors for progression to severe illness, as well as for primary prevention and post-exposure prophylaxis. We aimed to retrospectively evaluate the hospital stay (expressed in days), prognosis, and negativity rate for COVID-19 after treatment with tixagevimab–cilgavimab. We enrolled 42 patients who were nasal swab positive for SARS-CoV-2 (antigenic and molecular), both vaccinated and not vaccinated for COVID-19, hospitalized at the first division of the Cotugno Hospital in Naples and who received intramuscular single dose of tixagevimab-cilgavimab (300 mg / 300 mg). All patients candidates for tixagevimab-cilgavimab had immunocompromised immune system either for chronic degenerative disorders (Group A: 27 patients) or onco-hematological diseases (Group B: 15patients). Patients enrolled in group A came to our observation after 10 days from the detection of positivity to COVID-19 unlike the other types of patients enrolled in this study. The mean stay in hospital of patients in Group A was 21±5 days vs 25±5 days in Group B. Twenty patients resulted negative after a median of hospitalization stay of 16 days (IQR: 18-15.25), of them 5 (25%) patients belonged to group B. Therefore, patients with active hematological malignancy had the lower negativization rate.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: COVID19; ACE2; SARS-CoV2
Online: 12 March 2020 (03:15:15 CET)
The COVID19 coronavirus SARS-CoV2 spreading in Wuhan and now worldwide has been shown to use angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 ACE2 as its host cell receptor, like the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Epidemiology studies found different sex and age groups have different susceptibility to infection, and very skewed severity and mortality of the virus infection, with male, old age, and comorbidity being the most inflicted. Here by analyzing GTEx and other public data in 30 tissues across thousands of individuals, we found significantly higher expression in Asian females compared to males and other ethnic groups, an age dependent ACE2 expression decrease and a highly significant decrease in type II diabetic patients. Consistently, the most significant expression quantitative loci (eQTLs) contributing to high ACE2 expression are close to 100% in East Asians, >30% higher than other ethnic groups. Together with the shockingly common enrichment of viral infection pathways among ACE2 anti-expressed genes, binding of virus infection-related transcription factors at ACE2 regulatory regions, the repression of ACE2 expression by inflammatory cytokines and by type 2 diabetes, and the induction by estrogen and androgen (both decrease with age) established a negative correlation between ACE2 expression and CovID19 fatality at both population and molecular levels. Our results will be instrumental when designing potential prevention and treatment strategies for ACE2 binding coronaviruses in general.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0552.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID19; vaccine; SARS nCoV-2; information technology; COVID19 vaccine survey; MIT vaccine survey
Online: 20 April 2021 (14:35:05 CEST)
With the onset of the COVID19 pandemic, information technology has played a critical role in healthcare. A broad spectrum of information technology tools and applications played an essential role to create awareness of the COVID19 vaccination drive and its health benefits. We use the COVID-19 Global Beliefs, Behaviors, and Norms Survey for analysis of prevalence and factors associated with vaccination drives among men and women aged 20-80 years in 60 countries worldwide. Our analysis of the global survey offers a unique perspective about the role of information technology associated with vaccination drives involving social norms and human behavior among 437,236 respondents. The international survey was organized using a pre-registered randomized experiment demonstrating the role of technology in reaching out to people based in diverse communities and evaluating their beliefs, behavior, and social norms. The study shows that vaccine acceptance can vary due to descriptive norms. Our analysis shows 65.06% of people all over the globe are willing to get vaccinated and a large proportion of the population thinks that the COVID19 pandemic is a viable threat to the community and preventive measures need to be taken including vaccination drives.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0033.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: COVID19; Cyclone; Aerosols; Lockdown; Climate
Online: 3 July 2020 (12:06:09 CEST)
The world witnessed one of the largest lockdowns in the history of mankind ever, spread over months in an attempt to contain the contact spreading of the novel coronavirus induced COVID-19. As billions around the world stood witness to the staggered lockdown measures, a storm brewed up in the urns of the rather hot Bay of Bengal (BoB) in the Indian Ocean realm. When Thailand proposed the name “Amphan” (pronounced as “Um-pun” meaning ‘the sky’), way back in 2004, little did they realize that it was the christening of the 1st super cyclone (Category-5 hurricane) of the century in this region and the strongest on the globe this year. At the peak, Amphan clocked wind speeds of 168 mph (Joint Typhoon Warning Center) with the pressure drop to 925 h.Pa. What started as a depression in the southeast BoB at 00 UTC on 16th May 2020 developed into a Super Cyclone in less than 48 hours and finally made landfall in the evening hours of 20th May 2020 through the Sundarbans between West Bengal and Bangladesh. Did the impact of the COVID-19 induced lockdown drive an otherwise typical pre-monsoon tropical depression into a super cyclone?
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0240.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: COVID19; 2019-nCov, 3CLpro inhbitors
Online: 15 April 2020 (10:00:52 CEST)
The novel coronavirus 2019 (nCov-2019/Covid-2019/2019-nCov) has become a pandemic in a very short span of time. It has caused significant loss to human lives, economy, daily life. The key development against the nCov-2019 remains apprehended when it comes to discovery of its vaccine or medicines for the treatment. Drugs used for the treatment of HIV ( inhibitors of HIV protease) are being largely used for the treatment of nCov-2019. Therefore, we conducted a study by docking a set of natural compounds with reported protease activity against HIV or SARS coronavirus against the protease of nCov-2019. The Bavachinin ranked the top among natural compounds with binding energy of -7.74±0.152 Kcal/mol, RMSD 0.823±0.024 Å, predicted pKd 5.59 and predicted dG of -7.56 Kcal/mol. The finding infers that these three compounds could have the potential to inhibit the nCov-2019 protease. The finding was supported with reputed research publications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1927.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: COVID19; Children; Epilepsy; Adolescents; Pediatric; Pandemic
Online: 26 May 2023 (11:00:40 CEST)
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disrupted health care worldwide. As the pandemic has been prolonged, quarantine restrictions have been lightened gradu-ally, which can influence outcomes of pediatric patients with chronic disease such as epi-lepsy by increase of susceptibility of the COVID-19 infection. The aim of this study was to determine impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on seizure control and identify potential risk factors that might worsen seizure attacks during the pandemic in children with epilepsy. We performed a retrospective chart review of 48 pediatric patients with epilepsy during the COVID-19 pandemic from January 2016 to July 2022. During the COVID-19 pandemic period, 25% of pediatric patients experienced sei-zure worsening, showing an increase in seizure frequency or duration or both. Factors associated with worsening seizures during pandemic were: diagnosis of epi-lepsy less than one year, comorbid conditions with cerebral palsy or having a tracheosto-my or a PEG, and infection with other viruses (respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus A, influenza virus B) rather than COVID-19 infection. Our finding highlights the need to proactively monitor and regularly follow up (es-pecially short period of time) patients after they are diagnosed with epilepsy. It is also important to properly manage those who are susceptible to serious illness and keep sea-sonal viral infections under surveillance to manage exacerbated seizure in children with epilepsy. Furthermore, pediatric physicians should not overlook surveillance of seasonal respiratory viruses since quarantine restrictions are getting eased.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0111.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID19; SARS CoV2; physiotherapy; healthcare system
Online: 3 June 2021 (12:06:26 CEST)
Background: The practices of various health-care professionals have been improvised to accommodate the on-going covid-19 pandemic situation. Different guidelines have been set in place to ease the process of re-opening of non-elective healthcare services like out-patient physiotherapy clinics. Although the measures taken should be guided by evidence based information, major consensus amongst practicing therapists needs to guide the India physiotherapy clinics. Objective: To identify and present the opinions of different physiotherapists about the various strategies for re-opening the out-patient physiotherapy clinics. Methods: An online cross-sectional survey was conducted. Over 169 participants were selected to participate in the survey according to the pre-decided inclusion and exclusion criteria. The data was collected and saved via google forms. Result and conclusion: A majority of respondents had a consensus over different strategies for re-opening the physiotherapy OPDs. These were regarding different measures to be adapted including modifications in the clinic infrastructure and the practice pattern. This would help in smoothly re-instating the physiotherapy services post the covid-19 lockdown.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0345.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Respiratory Failure; COVID19; Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy
Online: 14 May 2021 (15:04:29 CEST)
Adjunctive therapy with polyclonal intravenous immunoglobins (IVIg) is currently used for preventing or managing infections and sepsis, especially in immunocompromised patients. The pathobiology of COVID19 and the mechanisms of action of Ig led to consider this adjunctive therapy also in patients with respiratory failure by SARS-CoV2 infection. This manuscript report the rationale, the available data and the results of a structured consensus on intravenous Ig therapy in patients with severe COVID19. METHODS A panel of multidisciplinary experts defined the clinical phenotypes of COVID19 patients with severe respiratory failure and, after literature review, voted for the agreement on the rationale and the potential role of IVIg therapy for each phenotype. Due to the scarce evidence available, a modified RAND/UCLA appropriateness method was used. RESULTS Three different phenotypes of COVID19 patients with severe respiratory failure were identified: patients with an abrupt and dysregulated hyperinflammatory response (early phase), patients with suspected immune-paralysis (late phase), and patients with sepsis by hospital-acquired superinfection (sepsis by bacterial superinfection). The rationale for intravenous Ig therapy in the early phase was considered uncertain whereas the panellists considered appropriate its use in the late phase and patients with sepsis/septic shock by bacterial superinfection. CONCLUSION As with other immunotherapies, IVIg adjunctive therapy may a potential role in the managing of COVID19 patients. The ongoing trials will clarify the appropriate target population and the true effectiveness.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0181.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Nigeria; disease drivers; public health; COVID19
Online: 9 July 2020 (10:49:11 CEST)
Given the pace of SARS-CoV-2 transmission and its relatively high mortality rate, COVID-19, has the potential to become the most severe pandemic in recent times. This virus’s spread across international borders has triggered different responses in countries around the globe with a spectrum of mild, moderate to severe outcomes. Nigeria, Africa’s most populous country with many densely populated cities, presents a unique situation for the explosive spread of SARS-CoV-2. However, at the point of this writing, the number of reported confirmed infection and mortality is comparatively lower to other countries with dense urban populations. The exact reasons for this are not clear but include societal, political and infrastructural factors that will influence the course of the outbreak in Nigeria. In this perspective, we have described the ongoing COVID-19 outbreak and its associated peculiarities. We identify critical steps that remain to be taken to contain and control the outbreak in Nigeria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0107.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Ang II; COVID19; erythropoietin; EPO-R; neuroinflammation: AT1R; SARS-CoV2; angiotensin(1-7); COVID-19 encephalopathy
Online: 20 August 2020 (09:06:38 CEST)
Neuroinflammation, defined as inflammatory reactions mediated by cytokines, chemokines, reactive oxygen species, and secondary messengers in the central nervous system (CNS) including the brain and spinal cord is the basis of many neurological disorders. Recently, erythropoietin (EPO) has been considered and studied as a modulator of neuroinflammation. On this article minireview of pathophysiology of neuroinflammation and the neuroprotective effects of EPO is discussed and a case of subacute huge subdural hematoma with double mydriasis operated urgently, treated with low daily dose (vs high dose once or twice a month in the literature) of EPO and recovered fully and discharged home with good consciousness is reported. In addition, the probable unfavorable outcome of erythropoietin administration in patients with neuroinflammation in COVID-19 is considered.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0482.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: COVID19; preterm neonate; pneumonia; vertical transmission
Online: 31 May 2020 (16:39:43 CEST)
We report the first case of COVID 19 pneumonia in a preterm neonate in Mayotte, an overseas department of France. The respiratory distress with typical thoracic imaging lesions appears at 14 days of life. This case-report emphasizes the need for a cautious and close up follow-up for asymptomatic neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 infection. Vertical transmission cannot be excluded in this case.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0114.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: COVID19; ACE2; diabetes; SARS-CoV2; liver injury
Online: 7 May 2020 (08:57:14 CEST)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) that has resulted in a global pandemic. The clinical symptoms of the disease vary from mild illness to acute respiratory issues. Older age, diabetes, cardiac diseases predict poor prognosis in COVID-19 patients. Various reports mention the incidence of liver injury with transient elevations in the levels of aminotransferases (liver function enzymes). The clinical characteristics, etiology and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms associated with liver damage in SARS-CoV2 infected patients need to be explored. This review highlights the severity of the hepatic injury in COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1474.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: satisfaction; slum dwellers; assistance; city corporation; Covid19; Bangladesh
Online: 21 June 2023 (03:46:10 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected Bangladesh's economic and social well-being in many ways. During the lockdown, many households lost their full income. The day labors and the slum dwellers including rickshaw pullers, CNG drivers, housemaids, hawkers, and street vendors were the worst victims of this pandemic. Besides the voluntary organizations, the city corporation, being instructed by the central government took the initiative to distribute necessary food as well as financial assistance to the city dwellers to survive during the lockdown. The objective of this study is to identify the satisfaction level of the slum dwellers with the assistance received from the City Corporation and get an idea of how far these supports were enough for them to lead their livelihood. It is a mixed-method research consisting of both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Researchers conducted a field survey in Sylhet City Corporation, the northeastern part of Bangladesh, and collected primary data from eighty respondents through a semi-structured questionnaire along with an interview schedule. Samples have been selected by applying a multistage sampling technique. Researchers analyzed quantitative data using SPSS software and qualitative data using the thematic analysis method. Study findings reveal that, although this aid was very inadequate compared to the needs of the slum dwellers, it was able to alleviate food shortages to some extent in times of extreme hardship. However, some dwellers got deprived of the aid due to having different political ideologies and corruption. Proper aid management, well coordination, and community participation are indispensable for dealing with any crisis.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0551.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Telomere attrition in covid19; telomerase and spike RNA
Online: 22 March 2021 (15:48:20 CET)
In this letter we investigate if SARS-CoV-2 RNA is involved in the increased ageing of alveolar cells. Our in silico study is explorative. With the results we are able to outline experiments with AEC2 repair of bleomycin damaged alveolar cells. If AEC2 repair capability is diminished by spike RNA then perhaps this result provides a first step on a route to treat immortal lung cancer cells.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0339.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: COVID19; Bounce Back Loans; BBLS; Clustering, Geospatial; Temporal
Online: 18 January 2021 (13:13:23 CET)
Bounce Back Loan is amongst a number of UK business financial support schemes launched by UK Government in 2020 amidst pandemic lockdown. Through these schemes, struggling businesses are provided financial support to weather economic slowdown from pandemic lockdown. £43.5bn loan value has been provided as of 17th Dec2020. However, with no major checks for granting these loans and looming prospect of loan losses from write-offs from failed businesses and fraud, this paper theorizes prospect of applying spatiotemporal modelling technique to explore if geospatial patterns and temporal analysis could aid design of loan grant criteria for schemes. Application of Clustering and Visual Analytics framework to business demographics, survival rate and Sector concentration shows Inner and Outer London spatial patterns which historic business failures and reversal of the patterns under COVID-19 implying sector influence on spatial clusters. Combination of unsupervised clustering technique with multinomial logistic regression modelling on research datasets complimented by additional datasets on other support schemes, business structure and financial crime, is recommended for modelling business vulnerability to certain types of financial market or economic condition. The limitations of clustering technique for high dimensional is discussed along with relevance of an applicable model for continuing the research through next steps
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0561.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: covid19; immunostimulant; immunomodulator; vitamin D; vitamin C; zinc
Online: 24 September 2020 (03:40:34 CEST)
Background & Aims: The covid19 is a world changing challenge. Furthermore, this disease challenges our capacities to change our point of view in the domain of infectiology, immunology and global public health. Many trials try some drug such as antiviral (lopinavir, remdesivir) interferon, and the chloroquine. Unfortunately, all approach is not really convincing at this time. We are proposing another approach on this issue. In infectiology there are two protagonists : the host and its immune system versus pathogens and its virulence. Our approach focuses on an intervention on the host’s immune system and how stimulate and modulate its reactions. Methods: We searched on PubMed and Google Scholar databases for French and English-language studies, without a limit of date of publications, for randomized clinical trials, meta-analyses, reviews, systematic reviews, observational studies, case report. We performed a review on the field of immunology enhancements by nutrients use. Results: We identified groups of vitamins (D and C), oligo-elements (magnesium, zinc, selenium) and nutrition advice which enhance immune system response. Indeed, these supplements have some proved properties in modulating and stimulating the immune system. For example, a recent study demonstrates that vitamin D deficiency is linked with the severity of covid19. Majority of the population has a deficiency in these elements. According to this, we propose a therapeutic protocol using these elements to reach an efficient therapy against covid19 by enhancing host’s immune system. Conclusion: Due to this serious pandemic, any solutions must not be disregarded. The nutrition way is an entire part of the solution.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0279.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: COVID19; sub-Sahara Africa; PCR testing; Capacity building
Online: 13 July 2020 (06:32:48 CEST)
The novel COVID-19 pandemic prompted an unprecedented Institutional reaction to aggregate existing capacity from silos of research laboratories to establish a multidisciplinary research laboratory for COVID19 testing. In less than two weeks, resources were mobilized from the community to strengthen public health response and epidemic control. Such strengthening of institutional research capacity to support public health response contributes to a natural knowledge transfer, facilitates collaboration, and generates new frontiers for knowledge production that should ultimately lead to professional development and retention of skilled human resources. This report describes the pre-established mechanisms and involvement of the authors that made it possible to set-up a multidisciplinary laboratory in a remarkably short period of time. We also discuss the opportunities and sustainability of multidisciplinary laboratory research post-COVID19. Existing institutional capacity can be repurposed to establish multidisciplinary research laboratories to support the strengthening of basic and clinical translational research capacity in resource limited settings and impact on public health and scientific knowledge for socioeconomic development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0062.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Covid19; DIC; coagulopathy; Sars Covid; blood coagulation disorder
Online: 7 June 2020 (07:41:24 CEST)
COVID-19 induces coagulopathy at the base of SIC (sepsis-induced coagulopathy) and it is an important cause of death in the patients. Cytokine storm causes imbalance in coagulation and fibrinolytic system. A combination of hypercoagulability state, decrease or inhibition of fibrinolytic and endothelialopathy causes thromboembolic events. Underlined disease with a high rate of mortality in COVID-19 like diabetes, hypertension and some conditions like aging and obesity are the main disorders with hemostatic disturbance and increase of coagulopathy. Therefore, it seems that the combination of COVID-19 infection and these risk factors increase the risk of thromboembolic all together.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2026.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: HIV; AIDS; antiretroviral therapy; COVID19; public health; medication adherence
Online: 30 August 2023 (09:45:38 CEST)
I. Introduction: Adherence to ART reduces morbidity and mortality among PLHIV by suppression of viral replication, restoration and preservation of immune function. However, poor adherence may lead to treatment failure and death. PLHIV have high probability of treatment interruptions due to lockdowns related to COVID-19 protocol. Mortality rate is higher among COVID-19 patients with HIV than those with COVID-19 only. This led to determination of the barriers to antiretroviral medication adherence in PLHIV at the time of COVID-19 pandemic and seek significant association between identified HIV treatment barriers and socio-demographic characteristics. II. Methods: A cross-sectional study using online survey questionnaire was distributed via social media. Sample size was computed using Open Epi software. Data was analyzed using Stata software. Categorical variables and quantitative data were summarized using frequencies and percentages, and mean and standard deviation respectively. Chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test, whichever is more appropriate, was used to determine association between socio-demographic characteristics and HIV treatment barriers. III. Results: There is a total of 116 respondents, 115 were males, homosexual (59.5%), with mean age of 30.25 years old (SD = 6.22) and majority (53.4%) were from NCR. The most common HIV treatment barriers reported by PLHIV in accessing treatment and care were unavailability of transportation and cost of courier services for ARV delivery (62.1%), location of treatment hubs (52.6%) and financial assistance (37.9%). IV. Conclusion: There is significant association between location of treatment hubs and respondents who finished college/graduate studies; checkpoints and crossing borders and: 1. respondents from Northern Luzon, 2. unemployment; financial assistance and: 1. Respondents 18 to 25 years old, 2. unemployment, 3. respondents who finished elementary/high school; psychosocial support and: 1. Respondents from NCR, 2. Respondents 26 to 30 years old;
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0309.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: covid19; sars cov2; fondaparinux; enoxaparin; venous thrpmbpembolism; inflammatory diseases
Online: 19 May 2020 (04:07:50 CEST)
Background: After the outbreak of a novel coronavirus (i.e. SARS COV2) in China and its diffusion around the world, great attentions was reserved to the increased incidence of venous thromboembolism in these patients. A specific antiviral action of heparins toward SARS COV2 has been reported in vitro such as a well know action of heparins to prevent VTE in inpatients with infective disease has already been reported since several years. Yet, because fondaparinux represent the pharmacological antithrombotic active sequence of all heparins and because its clinical indication o prevent VTE in inpatients is similar to heprains, we realized a retrospective analysis in inpatients with SARS COV2 on the incidence of VTE during pharmacological prophylaxis with enoxaparin or fondaparinux. This retrospective analysis was named FONDENOXAVID. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study that used patients with SARS COV2 during the Italian outbreak from February 18, 2020 to April 30, 2020. Our aim was to compare the clinical characteristics, prophylactic treatment and outcomes in inpatients positive to SARS COV2 at risk to develop venous thromboembolism, in particular venous thrombosis with or without pulmonary embolism, during in-hospital primary thromboprophylaxis with enoxaparin (40 mg or 60 mg once daily) or fondaparinux (2.5 mg once daily). Statistical analysis was conducted with using MatLab R2016B and eventually ad hoc functions. Results: There were not significative differences in clinical characteristics between patients that used enoxaparin or fondaparinux as thromboprpophylaxis for SARS COV2. The cumulative incidence of thrombotic events was not different in patients that used enoxaparin or fondaparinux as thromboprpophylaxis. No differences were found also in d-dimer and fibrinogen levels test at the admission and after 3 weeks as markers of prolonged inflammation due to SARS COV2. Discussion: The increased incidence of VTE in vivo has been reported in several studies although prophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin was conducted in some of them. The clinical indication to prevent VTE was similar for heparins and fondaparinux. In our results a non-inferiority to prevent VTE was recorded when inpatients with SARS COV2 were treated with prophylactic doses of enoxaparin or fondaparinux according to international guidelines. The incidence of VTE in this retrospective analysis showed that Fondaparinux at fixed doses of 2.5 mg daily was not inferior to enoxaparin (4000 UI daily). Our results testify that fondaparinux and enoxaparin showed the same efficacy to reduce the incidence of VTE in inpatients with SARS COV2.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0427.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: COVID19; natural immune boosters; vitamins; fruits and vegetables; sleep
Online: 29 March 2020 (08:26:36 CEST)
The coronavirus COVID-19 epidemic has wreaked havoc on inhabitants of earth killing thousands of humans from more than 150 countries. The epidemic has put a number of countries under complete lockdown and the deadly situation is still prevailing around the globe. Vaccines have been long known as the most effective means of preventing viral infections. However, the lack of vaccines against COVID-19 has further worsened the situation. In this time of health crisis, it is the duty of scientific research community to provide alternative, effective and affordable strategies to vaccinate human bodies against viral infections-COVID-19 based on focused experimental approaches. Growing evidence suggests that certain natural foods and lifestyle changes have potential to optimize immune functions against viral infections including improving defense function, resistance towards invading pathogens, while maintaining self-tolerance. Boosting immune system gives an edge in fending off viruses and staying healthy. This review presents the six smart steps to add to your to-do list which let the inner work of immunity take place against viral infections-COVID-19 by dissolving the powers of disease and illness. Many of these factors are associated in their functions to improve or properly maintain the immune function such as promoting anti-inflammatory functions, inhibiting pro-inflammatory mediators, modulating cell-mediated immunity, altering the antigen-presenting cellular functions as well as promoting communication between the innate and adaptive immune responses. Thus, a scientific illustration of boosting the immune system by proper sleep, moderate exercise, avoiding stress, utilizing vitamins enriched foods, intake of more water and use of fruits and vegetables will hopefully help the community to deal with the coronavirus by vaccinating the human systems naturally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1840.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: COVID19; Biomarkers; CRP; PCT; modeling analysis; ICU-acquired infections; Monitoring
Online: 28 August 2023 (09:49:50 CEST)
The SARS-CoV-2 infection is a cause of hypoxemic acute respiratory failure, leading to frequent intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Due to invasive organ support and immunosuppressive therapies, these patients are prone to nosocomial infections. Our aim was to assess the value of daily measurements of C-reactive protein (CRP) and Procalcitonin (PCT) in the early identification of ICU-acquired infections in COVID-19 patients Methods: We undertook a prospective observational cohort study (12 months). All adult me-chanically-ventilated patients admitted for ≥ 72 hours to the ICU with COVID-19 pneumonia were divided into an infected group (n=35) and a non-infected group (n=83). Day 0 was considered as the day of the diagnosis of infection (infected group) and day 10 of ICU stay (non-infected group). The kinetics of CRP and PCT were assessed from day -10 to day 10 and evaluated using a general linear model, univariate, repeated-measures analysis. Results: 118 patients (mean age 63 years, 74% males) were eligible for the analysis. The groups did not differ in patients' age, gender, CRP, and PCT serum levels at ICU admission. However, the infected group encompassed patients with a higher severity (SOFA score at ICU admission, p=0.009) and a higher 28-day mortality (p<0.001). Before D0, CRP kinetics showed a significant increase in infected patients, whereas in noninfected it remained almost unchanged (p<0.001), while PCT kinetics did not appear to retain diagnostic value to predict superinfection in COVID-19 patients (p=0.593). Conclusion: COVID-19 patients who develop ICU-acquired infections exhibited different biomarker kinetics before the diagnosis of those infections. Daily CRP monitoring and the recognition of the CRP kinetics could be useful in the prediction of ICU-acquired infections.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0249.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: mouthwash; mouth rinse; oral rinse; covid19; SARS-COV-2; coronavirus
Online: 9 June 2021 (09:10:08 CEST)
There is a relatively high risk of virus transmission in dental procedures and oropharyngeal examinations. We investigated the effects of mouthwashes on covid-19 viral load reduction during dental practices and oro-pharyngeal assessments. We performed a systematic search in PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane library for relevant studies up to February 2021. Papers evaluating patients with covid-19 infection (patients) who rinse mouthwashes (intervention) compared to patients who don’t rinse them (comparison) for reducing covid-19 viral load or reducing cross-infection of covid-19 (outcome) in the randomized and non-randomized clinical trial and quasi-experimental studies (study) were included due to PICOS question. Three independent authors conducted literature screening and data extraction. We extracted the most relevant data and we evaluated the risk of bias from the included studies. Out of 344 potentially eligible articles, six studies were included in this systematic review. Regarding viral load and negative cycle threshold (ct) values, 1% PVP_I and Listerine mouthwash were effective. 0.12% CHX mouthwash was effective 0-2 hours post rinsing, but it was not effective after 2 hours. A mixture solution of 0.2% Chlorhexidine gluconate and 6% Hydrogen peroxide was effective on day 5 of intervention. Gargling 1% hydrogen peroxide, 0.075% Cetylpiridinum Chloride (CPC), 0.5%PVP-I and 0.2% CHX mouthwashes was not effective on SARS-COV-2. It cannot be guaranteed that rinsing a specific kind of mouthwash prevents cross-infection of covid-19; however, the viral load of SARS-COV-2 in saliva will be decreased after rinsing mouthwashes containing 1%PVP-I and Listerine.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0510.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID19; RNA replication; protein structure; infectious disease
Online: 29 April 2020 (12:52:18 CEST)
COVID19 is a current pandemic disease due to the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. The scientific community mounted a strong response by accelerating research and innovation, and rapidly setting the basis to the understanding of molecular determinants of the disease for the development of targeted therapeutic interventions. The replication of the viral genome within the infected cells is a key step of SARS-CoV2 life cycle. It is a complex process involving the action of several viral and host proteins in order to perform RNA polymerization, proofreading and final capping. This review provides an update of structural and functional data on key actors of the replicatory machinery of SARS-CoV-2, filling the gaps in the current availability of structural data using homology modelling. Moreover, learning from similar viruses, we collect literature data to reconstruct the pattern of interactions among protein actors of the SARS-CoV-2 RNA polymerase machinery. In this pattern, an important role is played by co-factors, like Nsp8 and Nsp10, not only as allosteric activators but also as molecular connectors holding the entire machinery together to enhance the efficiency of RNA replication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0201.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: Public hospitals; Performance; Efficiency; Quality; COVID19; Network-based Data Envelopment Analysis
Online: 14 October 2022 (03:37:41 CEST)
COVID-19 is a well-known respiratory disease spreading worldwide since January 2020, causing many deaths and massive pressure on health systems. This pandemic’s appearance compromised the health services’ sustainability and quality as many procedures were postponed or even canceled out, with an expected increase of adverse events like nosocomial infections, in-hospital deaths, and the worsening of the patients’ clinical status. Therefore, assessing whether the healthcare providers’ performance has changed is paramount. In this case, we evaluated the public hospitals in Portugal as the leading secondary health care providers in the country, which in turn has been highly affected by the pandemic. To this end, we developed a network Data Envelopment Analysis model serially relating efficiency and effectiveness. Using 2,795 observations from public hospitals and 18 variables, we observed consistent drops in efficiency when the pandemic started, followed by a recovery to levels above the pre-pandemic ones. Regarding effectiveness, we observed a positive trend during the evaluated period. In short, these results allow us to conclude that, apart from the great resilience of public healthcare providers, the Portuguese State was not prepared for a pandemic like COVID-19, but still the actions taken (including massive vaccination) were beneficial.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0153.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Surgical mask; exercise; treadmill test; stress test; Oxygen saturation; Covid19; ECG
Online: 5 February 2021 (10:03:09 CET)
In the context of the COVID-19 Pandemic, the use of surgical masks has become the new normal. The use of these devices in exercise and medical situations has been advocated with the purpose of reducing contagions, but some concerns exist regarding its safety. We performed maximal treadmill stress tests in 12 healthy young subjects, with and without surgical mask use, and measured exercise capacity, oxygen saturation (rest, peak exercise and post-exercise) and electrocardiographic changes. Exercise capacity and Oxygen saturation levels decreased in peak exercise vs rest in a statistically significant manner when mask was used. ECG changes, although not significant, were present in 3 subjects when mask was used and disappeared when the test was made unmasked. We conclude that masked exercise has the potential to cause decreased exercise load and oxygen saturation and potentially cause diagnostic errors in medical exams.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0284.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Covid19; Best fit regression; Hyperbolic fit; Recovery rate; Reproducibity of research
Online: 9 November 2020 (16:15:21 CET)
In this report the positive cases of Covid19 in India with effect from 7th September ,2020 to 25th October ,2020 are analysed for statistical relevance . The scattered data are used to find out a model equation correlating two variables number of recovered Covid –patient with an interval of regular seven days . The best fit regression analysis shows a significant correlation of Pearson coefficient (r) with standard error ( s ) with a probable lower mortality rate . Finally the limitations of this analysis is discussed herewith .
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0918.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Lung Imaging; CT; LUS; ARDS; COVID19; Deep Learning; Machine Learning
Online: 14 November 2023 (11:48:31 CET)
The artificial intelligence (AI) is a machine or computing platform that is capable of making intelligent decision similarly to the human mind. The AI could improve diagnosis, treatment prognosis, and clinical workflow, particularly in the field of radiology. Concerning acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a rather heterogeneous syndrome characterized by an inflammatory lung edema leading to an increased lung weight, decreased lung aeration with the presence of alveolar collapse and interstitial opacities mainly in the dependent area. Thus, lung imaging is an essential tool to assess not only the morphology but also the mechanical characteristics of ARDS patients. Chest computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound have a higher sensitivity and specificity than conventional chest radiography. This narrative review summarizes the state of art of AI in the field of lung imaging, focusing on CT and ultrasound technique in ARDS patients. A total number of 18 articles were retrieved. The application of AI in lung imaging was mainly devoted to assess the prediction of ARDS, the quantification of alveolar recruitment, the possible alternative diagnosis and the outcome. Although the presence of a physician is still essential to ensure a high quality of examinations the AI could assist the clinical team to provide the best possible care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1537.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: multidisciplinary rehabilitation; obesity; personalized rehabilitation; post-COVID19 condition; rehabilitation; whole-body cryostimulation
Online: 24 October 2023 (11:14:34 CEST)
Background: Post-Covid condition can reduce activity and quality of life, resulting in a significant socioeconomic and health burden. Understanding its impact on patients' health is important for the development of personalized rehabilitation interventions. An independent association between obesity and post-covid condition was found because of complications and comorbidities. Methods: Sixteen patients with obesity and post-COVID symptoms (i.e., dyspnea, pain, poor sleep quality, muscle fatigue) admitted to the Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Piancavallo (VB), Italy, were recruited for a four-week rehabilitation program including conventional exercise therapy, nutritional intervention, psychological support and whole-body cryostimulation (WBC). Results: All participants attended all sessions of the program. Anthropometric data showed statistically significant changes in weight, waist circumference and body mass index. Biochemical analyses showed significant reductions in lipid and inflammatory profiles. There was a significant improvement in physical performance, reduction in pain and improvement in psychological well-being. Conclusion: A multidisciplinary rehabilitation protocol including WBC designed for patients with obesity and post-covid condition is safe and feasible. The overall improvements demonstrate that multidisciplinary rehabilitation was effective on post COVID patients and suggest that the use of WBC is safe and could play a role as a booster in rehabilitation programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0320.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: COVID19; SARS-CoV-2; metabolomics; omics; animal models; ferret; host metabolic responses
Online: 21 October 2022 (03:55:09 CEST)
The global threat of COVID-19 has led to the increasing use of metabolomics to study SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans and animals. Despite this, understanding SARS-CoV-2's metabolome during infection remains difficult and incomplete. Here, metabolic responses were characterized from sampled nasal washes collected from an asymptomatic ferret model (n = 20) at different time points before and after the SARS-CoV-2 challenge using an LC-MS-based metabolomics approach. Multivariate analysis of the nasal wash metabolome data resulted in several statistically significant features being observed. Despite no effects of gender or interaction between gender and time on the time course of SARS-CoV-2 infection, 16 metabolites were significantly different at every time point post-infection. Among these altered metabolites, the relative abundance of taurine was elevated post infection which could be an indication of hepatotoxicity, while the accumulation of sialic acids could indicate SARS-CoV-2 invasion. The pathway analysis identified several pathways influenced by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Of these, sugar, glycan, and amino acid metabolisms were the key altered pathways in the upper respiratory channel during infection. These findings provide some new insights into the progression of SARS-CoV-2 infection in ferrets at the metabolic level which could be useful for the development of early clinical diagnosis tools and new or repurposed drug therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0279.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: COVID19; risk; clinical; metrics; cost; false-positive; false-negative; prevalence; sensitivity; specificity
Online: 9 July 2020 (15:57:30 CEST)
Since the beginning of the year 2020, the global healthcare system has been challenged by the threat of the SARS-COV 2 virus. Molecular, antigen, and antibody testing are the mainstay to identify infected patients and fight the virus. Molecular and antigen tests that detect the presence of the virus are relevant in the acute phase only. Serological assays detect antibodies to the Sars-CoV-2 virus in the recovering and recovered phase. Each testing methodology has its advantages and disadvantages. To evaluate the test methods, sensitivity (percent positive agreement - PPA) and specificity (percent negative agreement – PNA) are the most common metrics utilized, followed by the positive and negative predictive value (PPV and NPV), the probability that a positive or negative test result represents a true positive or negative patient. In this paper, we illustrate how patient risk and clinical costs are driven by false-positive and false-negative results. We demonstrate the value of reporting PFP (probability of false positive results), PFN (probability of false negative results), and costs to patients and healthcare. These risk metrics can be calculated from the risk drivers of PPA and PNA combined with estimates of prevalence, cost, and Reff number (people infected by one positive SARS COV-2).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0228.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: multilayer perceptron; support vector machine; COVID19; SarsCov2; forecasting; machine learning; public health; pandemic
Online: 10 September 2020 (08:05:49 CEST)
This paper presents a Multilayer Perceptron and Support Vector Machine algorithms approach to predict the number of COVID19 infections in different countries of America. It intends to serve as a tool for decision-making and tackling the pandemic that the world is currently facing. The models were trained and tested using open data from the European Union repository where a time series of confirmed contagious cases was modeled until May 25, 2020. The hyperparameters as number of neurons per layer were set up using a tabu list algorithm. The countries selected to carry out the study were Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and the United States. The metrics used are Pearson's correlation coefficient (CP), Mean Absolute Error (MAE), and Mean Percentage Error (MPE). For the testing stage we obtained the following results: Brazil, CP=0.65, MAE=2508 and MPE=17%; Chile, CP=0.64, MAE=504, MPE=16%; Colombia, CP=0.83, MAE=76, MPE=9%; Mexico, CP=0.77, MAE=231, MPE=9%; Peru, CP=0.76, MAE=686, MPE=18% and the United States of America, CP=0.93, MAE=799, MPE=4%. This resulted in powerful machine learning tools although it is necessary to use specific algorithms depending on the data and the stage of the country’s pandemic.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0072.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Dopamine; Brain; Reward; Stress; Pathological Adaptation; Behavior; Covid19 pandemic; Digital Addiction; Global Mental Health
Online: 1 August 2023 (10:09:42 CEST)
When “hijacked” by compulsive behaviors that affect the reward and stress centers of the brain, functional changes in dopamine circuitry occur as the consequence of pathological brain adaptation. As a brain explanans for mental health, with a central functional role in behavioral regulation from healthy reward seeking to pathological adaptation to stress in response to adversity, we may use dopamine regulation in interaction with other brain mechanisms, as discussed herein, to gather a deeper insight into environmentally triggered mental health changes to understand, for example, specific behavioral changes observed during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Pandemic-related adversities, the stresses they engendered, and the long lockdown periods where people had to rely on digital tools to get feed-back rewards via the internet can be seen as the major triggers of changes in motivation and reward seeking behavior worldwide. The pathological adaptation of dopamine-mediated reward circuitry in the brain offers a highly plausible explanation why, when pushed by fate and circumstance into a physiological brain state of anti-reward, human behavior and mental health changes almost inevitably depending on individual vulnerability to stress. A unified conceptual account that places dopamine function at the centre of the current global mental health context is proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0102.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Asperger; Atypically development; Covid19; Children; Adolescents; typically development; Parents; Adaptation; Well-being; Multi-informant
Online: 5 January 2023 (09:19:13 CET)
Mental health could worsen in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder during the Covid19 pandemic. In addition, their parents could be more at risk for an increase in anxiety and depression symptomatology. This study aims to understand the adaptation and the psychosocial well-being in a sample of 16 males aged 10-21 years old with Asperger syndrome after the quarantine for Covid19 when they return to school and partially to their activities in September 2020, The approach adopted is multi-informant with a battery of questionnaires on psychological health and adaptation given by a secure online web data Qualtrics both to adolescents and also to their parents. Paralleling matched peers with typically development were assessed adopting the same methodology. The results evidenced several difficulties in Asperger’s psychological health, especially in anxiety and socialization. Also adaptation is put in crisis, even if they reported a good comprehension and adoption of the behaviors anti-Covid19. Parents of children with Asperger reported similar psychological difficulties and general health than those of the group of children typically developing. Some clinical indications could be discussed for psychologists who follow children and adolescents with Asperger.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0181.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: COVID-19; Covid19; SARS-CoV-2; pandemic; coronavirus; Lamiaceae, perilla; sage; tea; caffeic acid
Online: 5 October 2022 (09:48:05 CEST)
Recent lines of evidence suggest the intriguing hypothesis that consuming common culinary herbs of the mint family might help prevent or treat Covid. Individual citizens could easily explore the hypothesis using ordinary kitchen materials. I offer a philosophical framework to account for the puzzling lack of public health messaging about this interesting idea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0439.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: COVID19; SARS-CoV-2 virus; Oro-nasopharyngeal; fecal; vaccination; asym-symptomatic; rapid diagnostic test
Online: 28 September 2022 (11:51:21 CEST)
Coronavirus is a disease caused by a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which emerged as a global pandemic in 2019 from Wuhan, China. Since its emergence, it has caused immense suffering to human life, 6.27 million lives have been lost, movement curtailed and social dynamics disrupted. The golden standard for getting samples for SARS-CoV-2 detection is through oral- nasopharyngeal swab, this method of sample collection is invasive and uncomfortable, thus stigmatized the general population, and thereby impeded the progress of controlling the spread through mass testing. Being a contact disease, mechanisms to encourage mass testing is key to reduce the spread. This study thus developed a complimentary sample type to test for SARS-CoV-2, the use of human feces. Fecal samples were collected from 100 asym-symptomatic individuals suspected to be infected with COVID-19, virus RNA was then extracted and profiled through Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR). The antigen rapid diagnostic test revealed high positivity rate of 44%, but the real time polymerase chain reaction results on nasopharyngeal and fecal samples revealed a significant variation, high number of the patients tested positive with stool samples compared to the nasopharyngeal swabs, with 43 and 37%, respectively. SARS-CoV-2 virus was detected in both symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals; however, the symptomatic registered a higher positivity of 25% compared to 20% among the asymptomatic patients. Vaccination only lowered the risk of infection, fully and partially vaccinated lowered the infection level to 10% compared to 20% among the unvaccinated. Finally, gender parity in relation to COVID19 was evaluated, more females (56%) compared to males were recruited in this study, out of which (20; 43.4%) were positive, and 26 (56.6%) were negative based on fecal RT-qPCR outcomes. Based on the outcome of this study, rapid diagnostic test (Ag-RDT) however cheap and or fast does not provide accurate information, moreover, the virus does not stay longer within the Oro-nasopharyngeal region, thus the invalid or negative results, thus use of feces should be adopted as a confirmatory test to ascertain the COVID19 status of an individual.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0613.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID19; SARS-CoV-2; Variants of Concern; Diagnosis; LC-MS/MS; Mass-Spectrometry; Spike; Nucleocapsid
Online: 11 July 2023 (03:01:19 CEST)
The spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs), is of great importance to the whole community, since their genetic changes may increase transmissibility, disease severity and reduce effectiveness of vaccines. Moreover, these changes may lead to failure of diagnostic measures, thus variant-specific diagnostic methods are essential. To date, genetic sequencing is the gold standard method to discriminate between variants, however it is time consuming (several days) and expensive. Therefore, the development of rapid diagnostic methods for SARS-CoV-2 in accordance with its genetic modification is of great importance. In this study, we introduce a Mass-Spectrometry (MS)-based methodology for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 in clinical specimens, a methodology which enables universal identification, alongside with variant-specific discrimination. The universal identification of SARS-CoV-2 is based on conserved markers shared by all variants, while the identification of the specific variant relies on variant-specific markers. Determining a specific set of peptides for a given variant consists of a multistep procedure, starting with in-silico search for variant-specific tryptic peptides, followed by tryptic digest of a cell-cultured SARS-CoV-2 variant and identification of these markers by HR-LC-MS/MS analysis. As a proof of concept, this approach was demonstrated for four representative VOCs, in comparison with the wild-type Wuhan reference strain. For each variant, at least two unique markers, derived mainly from the spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) viral proteins, were identified. This methodology is specific, rapid, easy to perform and inexpensive, therefore can be applied as a general diagnostic tool of pathogenic variants.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0042.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Flue; Virus; COVID19; SARS CoV-2; Spike Protein; Virtual Screening; dgitoxin; anthracycline; rolitetracycline; E-155
Online: 23 March 2020 (10:19:17 CET)
The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is a human pathogen recently emerged in China, causing a global pandemic of severe respiratory illness (COVID19). SARS-CoV-2 makes entry into human cells through its spike (S) protein that binds to cell surface receptors. Widespread of SARS-CoV-2 has been attributed to high affinity of S protein to its receptor. A homology model of the receptor binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 S protein (RBD) was built. RBD- receptor docking and published molecular dynamics data were used to map the key RBD-receptor interaction hotspot (RBDhp) on the RBD. Primary virtual screening was carried out against RBDhp using more than 3300 compounds approved by U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other authorities for human use. Compounds that bind to hpRBD with a binding energy ≤ - 6.5 kcal/mol were subjected to secondary screening using a recently published cryo EM (2.9 Å) structure of RBD. A cardiac glycoside (dgitoxin), two anthracyclines (zorubicin and aclarubicin), a tetracycline derivative (rolitetracycline), a cephalosporin (cefoperazone) and a food dye (E-155) were predicted to be most potent inhibitors of RBD – receptor interaction. An anti-asthmatic drug (zafirlukast) and several other drugs (itrazol, fazadinium, troglitazone, gliquidone, Idarubicin, Oxacillin) were found to be high affinity binders that may have a potential to inhibit RBD – receptor interaction.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0194.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID19; Airborne transmission; Droplet transmission; Aerosol transmission; SARS-CoV-2; Heat Inactivation; Infection Prevention; Ventilation system
Online: 9 July 2020 (12:32:42 CEST)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, has been confirmed in over 10,000,000 individuals worldwide and has resulted in more than 500,000 deaths in a few months since it first surfaced. With such a rapid spread it is no surprise that there has been a massive effort around the world to collectively elucidate the mechanism by which the virus is transmitted. Despite this, there is still no definitive consensus regarding droplet versus airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Public health officials around the world have introduced guidelines within the scope of droplet transmission. However, increasing evidence and comparative analysis with similar coronaviruses, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-1) and middle eastern respiratory syndrome (MERS), suggest that airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 cannot be effectively ruled out. As the data supporting COVID-19 airborne transmission grows, there needs to be an increased effort in terms of technical and policy measures to mitigate the spread of viral aerosols. These measures can be in the form of broader social distancing and facial covering guidelines, exploration of thermal inactivation in clinical settings, low-dose UV-C light implementation, and greater attention to ventilation and airflow control systems. This review summarizes the current evidence available about airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2, available literature about airborne transmission of similar viruses, and finally the methods that are already available or can be easily adapted to deal with a virus capable of airborne transmission.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0317.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2); COVID19; Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus; bioaerosol; aerosol
Online: 30 April 2020 (05:30:30 CEST)
A short review of the important studies was conducted to evaluate the potential of aerosol transmission of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The minimum size of droplets potentially carrying the SARS-CoV-2 was newly estimated and discussed in this review.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0384.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID19; Laboratory diagnostics; Cycle threshold; PCR platforms; median Ct; moving average; variants; continuous quality monitoring
Online: 6 June 2023 (05:35:27 CEST)
The high demand for SARS-CoV-2 tests but limited supply to South African laboratories early in the COVID19 pandemic, resulted in a heterogenous diagnostic footprint of open and closed molecular testing platforms. Novel approaches were required to monitor test quality especially during the introduction of newly circulating variants. The National Health Laboratory Service centrally collected cycle threshold (Ct) values from 1,497,669 test results reported from six commonly used PCR assays in 36 months, and visually monitored changes in their median Ct within a 28-day centered moving average for each assays’ gene targets. This continuous quality monitoring rapidly identified delayed hybridization of RdRp in the Allplex™ SARS-CoV-2 assay due to the Delta (B.1.617.2) variant; S-gene target failure in the TaqPath™ COVID-19 assay due to B.1.1.7 (Alpha) and the B.1.1.529 (Omicron); and recently E-gene delayed hybridization in the Xpert® Xpress SARS-CoV-2 due to XBB.1.5. This near “real-time” monitoring helped inform the need for sequencing and the importance of multiplex molecular nucleic acid amplification technology designs used in diagnostics for patient care. This continuous quality monitoring approach at the granularity of Ct values should be included in ongoing surveillance and with application to other disease use cases that rely on molecular diagnostics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0343.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: social laser; social energy; social atom; indistinguishability; quantum statistics; quantum information theory; COVID19 protests; pro-war; pro-peace beaming
Online: 24 October 2022 (02:58:50 CEST)
This is a review on social laser theory completed with its new developments and applications. An important methodological step towards similarity with quantum physics is the invention and consistent operation with infons. These are excitations of the quantum social-information field carrying social energy and coarse grained content of communications (their color and quasi-color). We study in more detail interactions of infons with social atoms, the processes of absorption and emission (spontaneous and stimulated). We also analyze the dynamics of iterations of the cascades of infons in the social resonators. The latter are based on social networks coupled to laser's gain medium composed of social atoms. Consideration of the pro-war and pro-peace beams leads to the general discussion on the competing beams of social radiation and the conditions for their creation and coexistence. The role of social networks in lasing is illustrated by the protests during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is highlighted that a human gain medium can approach the state of population inversion with supply of infons of one sort (quasi-color), but the stimulated emission can be induced by injection into the gain medium of infons of a different quasi-color. We call this behavior of social atoms memorylessness. This theoretical property is illustrated with the examples from the modern social-political life.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0192.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: neurotechnologies; neuroscience; public health; brain-machine interface; artificial intelligence; coronavirus; COVID19; personal data; neuroethics; liability; stress; social isolation; containment
Online: 15 June 2020 (06:32:47 CEST)
How can neuroscience help everyone to live and care for our confined brains? Understanding and studying human behaviour allows us to measure the impact of such confinement on each of us and to identify those who need help. The challenges are to understand the psychological repercussions following confinement and to understand how neuroscience and neurotechnology can be very interesting tools for dealing with the health crisis. Neuroscience is changing our traditional philosophical and ethical views by providing information about the biological basis of our moral behaviour. The exception of the brain is at the heart of neuroethical thinking and discourse. Neuroethics is an interdisciplinary discipline placed at the intersection between the human sciences and the neurosciences, and aims to help understand how knowledge and research in neurosciences and neurotechnologies will affect the future of society, their impact on humans, relationships, daily life, the labour market ... but also how they can help and provide solutions and answers to the questions of citizens in a health crisis. But it's a double-edged sword, collecting and analyzing brain data in real time seems to be increasingly simple and within everyone's reach, without having the hindsight of the real meaning of these data, allowing one day to read people's thoughts, control them and manipulate them. It is becoming clear that the boundaries between medical and non-medical uses of neuroscience and neurotechnology are becoming very porous, inviting us to reflect on neuroethical issues in order to put safeguards on these uses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0426.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: Dispatch; Emergency Medical Dispatch; Emergency Medical Communication Centre; Video Live; COVID19; Emergency Call; Video triage; Public Safety Answering Point; Telemedecine; Emergency Medical Services; Remote assessment; Triage
Online: 24 January 2023 (08:20:00 CET)
The COVID19 pandemic had a major impact on emergency medical communication centres (EMCC). A live video facility was made available to second-line physicians in an EMCC with a first-line paramedic to receive emergency calls. The objective of this study was to measure the contribution of live video to remote medical triage. The single-centre retrospective study included all telephone assessments of patients with suspected COVID19 symptoms from 01.04.2020 to 30.04.2021 in Geneva, Switzerland. The organisation of the EMCC and the characteristics of patients who called the two emergency lines (official emergency number and COVID19 number) with suspected COVID19 symptoms were described. A prospective web-based survey of physicians was conducted during the same period to measure the indications, limitations and impact of live video on their decisions. 8,957 patients were included. 2,157 (48.0%) of the 4,493 patients assessed on the official emergency number had dyspnoea. 4,045 (90.6%) of 4,464 patients assessed on the COVID19 number had flu-like symptoms. 1,798 (20.1%) patients were reassessed remotely by a physician, including 405 (22.5%) with live video, successfully in 315 (77.8%) attempts. The web-based survey (107 forms) showed that physicians used live video to assess mainly the breathing (81.3%) and general condition (78.5%) of patients. They felt that their decision was modified in 75.7% (n=81) of cases, and caught 7 (7.7%) patients in life-threatening emergency. Medical triage decisions for suspected COVID19 patients are strongly influenced by the use of live video.