CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0240.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: periodontitis; periodontal disease; necrotizing periodontitis; periodontal treatment; multiple sclerosis; relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis
Online: 18 July 2022 (02:52:21 CEST)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) and necrotizing periodontitis (NP) are two diseases whose aetiology and pathophysiology do not seem to have a common link; however, the treatment of MS with monoclonal antibodies and the decrease in humoral immunity that this entails can be a trigger or an aggravation in patients who present NP. We present a clinical case of NP in which its clinical manifestations, treatment and evolution during therapy with ocrelizumab are reflected. During the evolution of the case, a rapid progression of NP was evidenced. During her evolution, the patient suffered bilateral pneumonia due to COVID requiring treatment with corticosteroids and antibiotics, which led to clinical relief of her NP. Given this important clinical finding, we consider of great interest the regulated dental monitoring of those patients with MS before, during and after the administration of monoclonal antibodies to prevent periodontal deterioration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0083.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: periodontitis; PMX-53; miniature swines
Online: 19 January 2017 (01:52:00 CET)
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease which results in the destruction of the tooth’ s supporting tissues and the alveolar bone resorption. The complement becomes a major link between infection and inflammatory pathology including periodontitis. Gingipians as important virulence factors of P. gingivalis have the activity of C5 convertase, could cleave C5 into fully functional C5a to activate C5aR. The above process could be blocked by the C5aR antagonist (PMX-53) to suppress local periodontal inflammation, and then achieves the purpose of treatment of periodontitis. Nanoparticles incorporated within gelatin are promising carrier system for drug delivery in recent years. This study aimed to investigate whether gelatin nanoparticles loaded with PMX-53 prevents alveolar bone resorption in miniature swines model of periodontitis. Four miniature swines were placed ligatures around the maxillary and mandibular fourth premolar and first molar on both sides for seven weeks to induce periodontitis. Then, animals were assigned randomly to four groups: minocycline-treated group, gelatin with PMX53-treated group, gelatin-treated group and a sham control group. They were treated with 1ml related drugs respectively, into gingival sulcusl for 4 times at one-week intervals. We showed that local treatments with gelatin nanoparticles loaded with PMX-53 could inhibit alveolar bone loss of periodontitis. Our study revealed that gelatin nanoparticles loaded with PMX-53 prevented alveolar bone resorption miniature swines model of periodontitis. In addition, provided proof-of-concept for local targeting of gelatin nanoparticles loaded with PMX-53 as a powerful candidate for the treatment of periodontitis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0166.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: antibacterial photodynamic therapy; Oral hygiene; Periodontitis
Online: 12 October 2022 (08:59:58 CEST)
A single-site, randomized clinical trial was designed to determine the efficacy of regular home use of Lumoral® dual-light antibacterial aPDT in periodontitis patients. For the study, 200 patients are randomized to receive non-surgical periodontal treatment (NSPT), including standardized hygiene instructions and electric toothbrush, and scaling and root planing, or NSPT with adjunctive Lumoral® treatment. A complete clinical intraoral examination is conducted in the beginning, at three months, and at six months. This report presents the three-month results of the first 59 consecutive randomized subjects. At three months, bleeding on probing (BoP) was lower in the NSPT+Lumoral®-group than in the NSPT group (p=0.045), and more patients in the NSPT+Lumoral®-group had their BoP below 10% (52% vs. 29%, respectively, p=0.008). Patients in the NSPT+Lumoral®-group improved their oral hygiene by visible-plaque-index (p=0.0002), while the NSPT group showed no statistical improvement as compared to baseline. Both groups significantly reduced the number of deep periodontal pockets, but more patients with a reduction in their deep pocket number were found in the NSPT+Lumoral® group (92% vs. 63%, p=0.01). Patients whose number of deep pockets was reduced by 50% or more were also more frequent in the NSPT+Lumoral®-group (70% vs. 33%, p=0.01). Patients with initially less than ten deep pockets had fewer deep pockets at three-month follow-up in the Lumoral® group (p=0.02). In conclusion, adjunctive use of Lumoral® in NSPT results in improved treatment outcomes at three months post-therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0640.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: diagnosis; metabolomics; periodontal therapy; periodontitis; saliva
Online: 30 October 2020 (13:28:58 CET)
Pattern analysis of salivary metabolic profile has been proven accurate to discriminate generalized periodontitis (GP) patients from healthy individuals (HI) as disease modifies the salivary concentrations of specific metabolites. Due to the scarcity of data in the literature, the aim of this study was to determine whether non-surgical periodontal therapy (NST) could change salivary metabolomic profile in GP to one more similar to HI. Unstimulated whole saliva of 11 HI and 12 GP patients were obtained prior to and 3 months after NST. Metabolic profiling was performed using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, followed by supervised multivariate statistical approach on entire saliva spectra and partial least square (PLS) discriminant analysis. In GP group, periodontal treatment improved all clinical parameters, but not all the diseased sites were eradicated. PLS revealed an accuracy of 100% in discriminating the metabolomic profile of each GP patient before and after NST. OPLS was able to discriminate the 3 groups of subjects with an accuracy of 85.6%. However the post-NST metabolic profile of GP patients could not be completely assimilated to that of HS. Although NST may produce significant changes in the metabolic profile, GP patients maintained a distinctive fingerprint compared to HI.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0042.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: adherence; endocarditis; fimbriae; jp2; leukotoxin; periodontitis
Online: 3 October 2019 (14:04:07 CEST)
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a Gram-negative bacterium that is part of the oral microbiota. The aggregative nature of this pathogen or pathobiont is crucial to its involvement in human disease. It has been cultured from non-oral infections for more than a century, while the portrayal as an aetiological agent in periodontitis has emerged more recently. Although A. actinomycetemcomitans encodes several putative toxins, the complex interplay with other partners of the oral microbiota and the suppression of the initial host response may be central for inflammation and infection in the oral cavity. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive update on the clinical significance, classification, and characterisation of A. actinomycetemcomitans, which has exclusive or predominant host specificity for humans.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0007.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Vitamin C, Periodontal disease, Periodontitis, Gingivitis
Online: 3 June 2019 (08:46:35 CEST)
Vitamin C is important in preventing and slowing the progression of many diseases. There is significant evidence linking periodontal disease and vitamin C. We aimed to systematically review studies addressing the relationship between vitamin C and periodontal disease and the preventive ability of vitamin C against periodontal disease. Electric searches were performed using PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. Studies addressing the relationships between periodontal disease and vitamin C in adults aged over 18 years were included. Quality assessment was done using Critical Appraisal Skills Program guideline and GRADE-CERQual. Seventy hundred and sixteen articles were retrieved and fifteen articles (7 cross-sectional studies, 2 case-control studies, 2 cohort studies, and 4 randomized controlled trial [RCT]) were selected by reviewing all articles. Vitamin C intake and blood level were negatively related to periodontal disease in all 7 cross-sectional studies. Subjects who suffer from periodontitis presented lower vitamin C intake and lower blood vitamin C level than subjects without periodontal disease in the two case-control studies. Patients with lower dietary intake or lower blood level of vitamin C showed greater progression of periodontal disease than did the controls. Intervention using vitamin C administration improved gingival bleeding in gingivitis but not in periodontitis. Alveolar bone absorption was also not improved. The present systematic review suggested that vitamin C contributes to reduced risk of periodontal disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0037.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: metabolic syndrome; periodontitis; periodontal medicine; cardiovascular disease
Online: 2 October 2023 (04:33:36 CEST)
This study assessed the associations between host genetic variants and subgingival microbiota in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS); 103 patients with MetS underwent medical and periodontal examinations and had blood and subgingival plaque samples taken. DNA was extracted and processed (assessing a panel of selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) first (hypothesis-testing), and then expanding to a discovery phase. The subgingival plaque microbiome from these patients was profiled. Analysis of associations between host genetic and microbial factors was performed, stratified for periodontal diagnosis. Specific SNPs within RUNX2, CAMTA1 and VDR genes were associated with diversity metrics, with no genome-wide associations detected for periodontitis severity or Mets components at p<10-7. Severe periodontitis was associated with pathogenetic genera and species. Some SNPs correlated with specific bacterial genera, as well as with microbial taxa, notably VDR (rs12717991) with Streptococcus mutans and RUNX2 (rs3749863) with Porphyromonas gingivalis. This is the first study exploring the role of host genotype variation in subgingival microbial dysbiosis in patients with MetS and periodontitis. In conclusion, variation in host genotypes may play a role in the dysregulated immune responses characterizing periodontitis and thus the oral microbiome, suggesting that systemic health-associated host traits further interact with oral health and microbiome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0054.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: periodontitis; diagnosis; saliva; biomarkers; matrix metalloproteinase; cytokines.
Online: 3 September 2020 (04:43:01 CEST)
This study was to investigate and assess salivary biomarkers as a means of diagnosing periodontitis. A total of 121 subjects were included: 28 periodontally healthy subjects, 24 with stage I, 24 with stage II, 23 with stage III, and 22 with stage IV periodontitis. Salivary proteins including active matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), pro-MMP-8, total MMP-8, C-reactive protein, secretory immunoglobulin A and planktonic bacteria including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas nigrescens, Parvimonas micra, Campylobacter rectus, Eubacterium nodatum, Eikenella corrodens, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Actinomyces viscosus were measured from salivary samples. The performance of the diagnostic models was assessed by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and area under the ROC curve (AUC) analysis. The diagnostic models were constructed based on the subjects’ proteins and/or microbial profiles, resulting in two potential diagnosis models, which achieved better diagnostic powers with an AUC value > 0.750 for the diagnosis of stage II, III, and IV periodontitis (Model PC-I; AUC: 0.796, sensitivity: 0.754, specificity: 0.712) and for the diagnosis of stage III and IV periodontitis (Model PC-II; AUC: 0.796, sensitivity: 0.756, specificity: 0.868). This study can contribute to screening for periodontitis based on salivary biomarkers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0256.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Periodontal Health; Perceived Stress; Mindfulness; Bleeding Index; Periodontitis
Online: 6 November 2023 (07:05:28 CET)
Studies suggest that chronic psychological stress can lead to oral health deterioration, alter the immune response, and possibly contribute to increased inflammation, which can impact the physiological healing of periodontal tissues. This cross-sectional study seeks to assess and improve clinical understanding regarding the relationship between perceived stress, mindfulness, and periodontal health. A total of 203 people were analysed from December 2022 to June 2023. The Periodontal Screening and Recording (PSR), score and Bleeding Index (GBI), and Plaque Control Record (PCR) of every patient were registered. Subsequently, participants completed the Sheldon Cohen Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Mind-fulness Awareness Attention Scale (MAAS) questionnaires. The collected data was analysed statistically, and correlations and dependencies were evaluated. The p-value was 0.004265 in Welch's t-test to assess the relationship between MAAS and the variable's presence or absence of periodontitis, highlighting that patients with periodontitis have significantly different MAAS scores compared to patients unaffected by periodontitis. The Pearson correlations between GBI and perceived stress, PCR and perceived stress, and PCR and MAAS resulted in p-values of 2.2-16, 3.925-8, and 2.468-8, respectively, indicating a statistically significant correlation in this case. Despite the limitations, the findings of this study suggest a significant relationship between psychological stress, mindfulness and periodontal tissue health. Clinical trials are necessary to incorporate the assessment of a patient’s psychological status as a new valuable tool in the management of periodontal health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1141.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: periodontitis; periodontal disease; hypertension; dental scaling; clinical trial
Online: 15 June 2023 (12:16:06 CEST)
We sought to evaluate the effects of non-surgical periodontal treatment (NSPT) on periodontal clinical parameters, systemic blood pressure (BP) and plasma levels of systemic inflammation markers in patients with combined refractory arterial hypertension (RAH) and stage III grade B periodontitis. Twenty-seven participants with RAH and periodontitis received NSPT. The analyzed clinical parameters were probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP), and plaque index (PI). An assessment was performed for systemic BP, complete blood count, coagulogram, creatinine measurement, C-reactive protein (CRP), glycated hemoglobin, cholesterol, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamate pyruvic transaminase, waist-hip ratio, and body mass index. In the follow-up period, twenty-two patients were evaluated at baseline and after 90 and 180 days. The data were submitted to statistical analysis (α=0.05%). As expected, the clinical results showed a significant improvement in the percentages of PI, BOP, PD and CAL, which were statistically significant at 90 and 180 days (p<0.0001). Importantly, NSPT significantly reduced the blood level of CRP (p<0.02). However, no significant reduction in BP parameters was noted in the evaluated follow-up periods. NSPT, despite the benefits in periodontal clinical parameters, reduced the plasma level of CRP but not the BP in patients with combined RAH and periodontitis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0979.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: periodontitis; rat; ligature; Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans; Fusobacterium nucleatum; Streptococcus oralis
Online: 14 June 2023 (04:19:16 CEST)
Periodontal disease is that condition resulting in the destruction of periodontal tissues, bone re-sorption and tooth loss, the etiology of which is linked to immunological and microbiological factors. The aim of the study is to evaluate the potential trigger of periodontal disease in a rat model using the bacterial species incriminated in the pathology of human periodontitis and to establish their optimal concentration capable of reproducing the disease, with the idea of subsequently devel-oping innovative treatments for the condition. We included in the study 15 male Wistar rats, aged 20 weeks, which we divided into three groups. In each group, we applied ligatures with gingival retraction wire, on the maxillary incisors. 4 days/week, 4 weeks, the ligature and the gingival sac were contaminated with fresh cultures of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Streptococcus oralis in concentrations of 108, 109 and 1010CFU/ml. The clinical monitoring period was 28 days, during which we followed the expression of clinical signs specific to periodontitis, the evolution of body weight and we took weekly samples from the oral cavity for the microbiological identification of the tested bacteria and blood samples for the hematological examination. At the end of the study, the animals were euthanized and the ligated incisors were taken for histopathological analysis. The characteristic symptomatology of periodontal disease was expressed from the first week of the study and was maintained until the end, the bacteria being able to be identified at each examina-tion. Hematologically, the number of neutrophils decreased dramatically (P<0.0001) in the case of group 109, unlike the other groups, as did the number of lymphocytes. Histopathologically, we identified neutrophilic infiltrate in all groups. The presence of coccobacilli, periodontal tissue hyperplasia and periodontal lysis, but in group 109 we also observed pulpal tissue with necrotic bone fragments and pyogranulomatous inflammatory reaction. By corroborating the data, we can conclude that for the development of periodontal disease using A.a, F.n and S.o, a concentration of 109 or 1010CFU/ml is required, which must necessarily con-taminate a ligature thread applied to the level of the rat's dental pack.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1601.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Periodontitis; Herpesviruses; Periodontal; Biomarkers
Online: 23 May 2023 (07:43:32 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has brought marked changes worldwide to the management of airborne infectious diseases. It sparked the development of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and pharmacotherapeutics to prevent infection and increase the survival rate during the acute viral phase and the comorbidities associated with COVID-19. Periodontal disease may increase the morbidity and perhaps the mortality of a COVID-19 infection. However, the molecular interaction between periodontitis and COVID-19 infection remains undetermined. A potential pathogenic co-morbidity may involve periodontal pathogenic release of destructive cytokines in the highly inflamed connective tissue and risk for COVID-19. Additional biomarkers such as C-reactive proteins appear to play a role for risk and pathogenesis of COVID-19. The potential of herpesviruses, especially as it is related to aggressive periodontitis may also be a comorbidity for COVID-19. This paper reviews available evidence on the bidirectional association between periodontitis and COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0062.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Stroke; Periodontitis; Periodontal disease; protein-protein network interaction; Bioinformatics
Online: 1 February 2021 (16:45:13 CET)
The clinical interaction between stroke and periodontitis has been consistently studied and confirmed. Hence, forecasting potentially new protein interactions in this association using bioinformatic strategies presents potential interest. In this exploratory study, we conducted a protein-protein network interaction (PPI) search with documented encoded proteins for both stroke and periodontitis. Genes of interest were collected via GWAS database. The STRING database was used to predict the PPI networks, first in a sensitivity purpose (confidence cut-off of 0.7), and then with a highest confidence cut-off (0.9). Genes over-representation was inspected in the final network. As a result, we foresee a prospective protein network of interaction between stroke and periodontitis. Inflammation, pro-coagulant/pro-thrombotic state and ultimately atheroma plaque rupture is the main biological mechanism derived from the network. These pilot results may pave the way to future molecular and therapeutic studies to further comprehend the mechanisms between these two conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Cytokines; Intestine; Rats; Periodontitis; Dextran Sulphate Sodium; Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Online: 2 June 2023 (07:43:24 CEST)
Our research aimed to explore how resolving periodontal inflammation impacts cytokine expression in the colon of aged Wistar rats. Animal studies have been used to investigate the two-way relationship between periodontitis and Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), where chronic inflammation in either the mouth or intestines can negatively affect the other. We allocated sixteen male Wistar rats, aged between 8-11 months, into four groups: (1) Ligature-induced periodontitis (LIP) without the resolution of periodontal inflammation (RPI) (LIP; n=4), (2) LIP + RPI (n=4), (3) LIP + DSS-induced colitis (DIC) without RPI (n=4), and LIP+DIC+RPI (n=5). We performed histopathological and immunological analyses on the periodontal and intestinal tissues and analysed cytokine expressions using a Rat Cytokine 23-Plex Immunoassay. Our findings showed that animals with and without DIC who underwent RPI showed significantly lower levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, IL-18, and TNF-α in the intestine compared to those without treatment. The RPI effectively reduced the number of inflammatory cells in the lamina propria and restored the epithelial barrier in the intestine in animals with DIC. The resolution of periodontal inflammation significantly reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the intestine of aged rats with and without DSS-induced colitis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0145.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; Periodontitis; Periodontal disease; Mendelian Randomization; Bioinformatics; Oral Health
Online: 7 October 2020 (08:26:14 CEST)
Latest evidence revealed a possible association between Parkinson’s disease (PD) and periodontitis. We explored the causal relationship of this association through two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) in European ancestry populations. To this end, we used openly accessible data of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on PD and periodontitis. As instrumental variables for periodontitis, seventeen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from a GWAS of periodontitis (1817 periodontitis cases vs. 2215 controls) and forty-five SNPs from a GWAS of PD (20,184 cases and 397,324 controls). Eight non-overlapping SNPs of periodontitis from an additional GWAS assisted in the validation of association being studied. Multiple approaches of MR were carried-out. There was no evidence of genetic liability of periodontitis being associated with a higher risk of PD (B= -0.0003, Standard Error [SE] 0.0003, P = 0.26). The eight independent SNPs (B= -0.0000, SE 0.0001, P = 0.99) validated this outcome. We found no association of genetically primed PD towards periodontitis (B= -0.0001, SE 0.0001, P = 0.19). This MR study found no conclusive evidence to support a bidirectional causal genetic liability between PD and periodontitis. Further GWAS studies are needed to confirm the consistency of these results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0050.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; Periodontitis; Periodontal disease; protein-protein network interaction; Bioinformatics
Online: 3 September 2020 (04:13:12 CEST)
Recent studies supported a clinical association between Parkinson’s Disease (PD) and periodontitis. Hence, investigating possible protein interactions between these two conditions is of interest. In this study, we conducted a protein-protein network interaction analysis with recognized genes encoding proteins for PD and periodontitis. Genes of interest were collected via GWAS database. Then, we conducted a protein interaction analysis using STRING database, with a highest confidence cut-off of 0.9. Our protein network casted a comprehensive analysis of potential protein-protein interactions between PD and periodontitis. This analysis may underpin valuable information for new candidate molecular mechanisms between PD and periodontitis and may serve new potential targets for research purposes. These results should be carefully interpreted giving the limitations of this approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0302.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: periodontitis; neutrophil; Porphyromonas gingivalis peptidyl arginine deiminase; Bcl-2 family; apoptosis
Online: 5 July 2023 (11:46:08 CEST)
Periodontitis is a widely spread chronic inflammatory disease caused by a changed oral microbiome. Although multiple species and risk factors have been associated with periodontitis, Porphyromonas gingivalis undoubtedly stands in the center as a keystone pathogen. The immune-modulatory function of P. gingivalis has been well characterized, but the mechanism by which peptidyl arginine deiminase (PPAD), a citrullinating enzyme, contributes to the infinite loop of inflammation is not fully understood. To determine the functional role of hypercitrullination in the context of periodontitis, we performed a comparative analysis on neutrophils stimulated by the wild type and the PPAD mutant strain that lacks an active enzyme. Our flow cytometric analysis revealed that PPAD contributes to the prolonged neutrophil survival upon bacteria stimulation, which was accompanied by aberrant IL-6 and TNF-α secretion in the experimental environment. To further elaborate on the complex mechanism by which citrullination sustains the chronic inflammatory state, we assessed the ROS production and phagocytic activity of neutrophils. Flow cytometry and colony formation assay demonstrated that PPAD obstructs the resolution of inflammation by promoting neutrophil survival and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines while making the bacteria itself more resilient to phagocytosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1535.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: type 1 diabetes; polymorphisms; interleukins; periodontitis; systemic inflammation; peripheral inflammation; childhood
Online: 21 June 2023 (11:01:48 CEST)
Diabetes may cause an increase blood levels of cytokines inducing a rising of C reactive protein (PCR) and fibrinogen stimulating a subclinical inflammation which lead to adhesive molecules expression and to endothelial disfunction. A comprehensive panel of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) interleukins polymorphisms is not provided yet. As chronic periodontitis (CP) is considered the sixth complication of DM, a clarification is needed about the inflammatory role managed by single nucleotides polymorphisms (SNPs). The goal of this review is to focus on the significant diversity of SNPs in T1DM patients with and without CP. After a digital search on PubMed and Scopus with reference to the last 5 years, 21 items were enrolled. Several ILs were analyzed. T1DM still needs to be thoroughly explored regarding the ILs polymorphisms panel, however the last 5 years have led to the increased independence of this condition, causing autonomous inflammatory effects which requires further investigations. CP and T1DM association in children and adolescents represents a severe gap in literature that should be filled, the scarce presence of studies also about adults serves as a motivation for ulterior clinical researches
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2239.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: oral care; oxygen therapy; oral biofilm; dental caries; periodontitis; peri-implantitis
Online: 1 June 2023 (02:37:15 CEST)
Worldwide, oral lesions and cancers are still being significant public health conditions. Thus, an introduction of new oral healthcare protocols is becoming essential. Oral diseases are related to many causative factors, manly dental plaque/biofilm due to poor hygiene. New anti-biofilm therapies are needed to develop. The strategies of anti-biofilm therapies should help to control biofilm formation and microbial attachment to dental surfaces. The present review aimed to provide a comprehensive over-view on evidence related to the potential utility of topical oxygen therapy (BlueM formula) as novel oral care therapies in clinical practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0455.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: NHANES; periodontal diseases; periodontitis; tooth loss; inflammation; diet; nutrition; oral health
Online: 17 November 2020 (14:44:20 CET)
Background: We aimed to assess the association between DII and PD and the mediation effect of DII in the association of PD with systemic inflammation. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009-2010, 2011-2012 and 2013-2014, participants that received periodontal exam and provided dietary recall data were included. The inflammatory potential of diet was calculated via DII. Periodontitis was defined according to the 2012 case definition. The clinical outcomes of interest were mean periodontal probing (PPD), mean clinical attachment loss (CAL) and thresholds of PPD and CAL. White blood cells (WBC), segmented neutrophils and C-reactive protein (CRP) were used as proxies for systemic inflammation. The periodontal measures were regressed across DII values using adjusted multivariate linear regression. Adjusted mediation analysis appraised the influence of DII in the association of periodontitis and systemic inflammation. 10,178 participants were included. DII was significantly correlated with mean PPD, mean CAL, thresholds of PPD and CAL, WBC, segmented neutrophils and DII (p<0.01). A linear regression logistic adjusted for multiple confounding variables confirmed the association between DII and mean PPD (B = 0.02, Standard Error [SE]: 0.02, p<0.001) and CAL (B = -0.02, SE: 0.01, p<0.001). The association of mean PPD and mean CAL with both white blood cells and segmented neutrophils were mediated by DII (from 2.1 to 3.5%, p<0.001). In the 2009-2010 subset, the association of mean CAL with serum CRP was mediated by DII (52.0%, p<0.01). In conclusion, inflammatory diet and PD may be associated. Also, the inflammatory diet significantly mediated the association of leukocyte counts and systemic inflammation with periodontitis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0622.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Tau-Marin; Mucoadhesive gel; oral formulation; probiotics; periodontitis; periodontal diseases; slow delivery
Online: 10 July 2023 (11:34:50 CEST)
: An innovative and stable probiotics-containing mucoadhesive gel (AL0020), integrated with botanical extracts, has been developed to rebalance the dysbiosis associated with periodontal diseases. Tau-Marin gel was tested against some pathogenic bacteria, belonging to the so-called "red complex", recognized as the most important pathogens in plaque specimens, adherent to the epithelial lining of periodontal pockets. A detailed physico-chemical profile of AL0020 and its in vitro efficacy in protecting activity against pathogenic bacteria as well as soothing or irritative effect on gingival epithelium were reported. Moreover, a clinical-dermatological trial on 20 volunteers using the product once a day for 30 days was also performed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0497.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: cognitive impairment; dementia; oral pathogens; periodontitis; inflammatory biomarkers; anti-bodies; systematic review
Online: 27 December 2022 (01:41:02 CET)
Introduction: Periodontitis is a severe oral infection that can contribute to systemic inflammation. A large body of evidence suggests a role for systemic inflammation in the initiation of neurodegenerative disease. This systematic review synthesized data from observational studies to investigate the association between periodontitis and neuroinflammation in adults. Methods and materials: A systematic literature search of PubMed, Web of Science, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) was performed for studies published from the date of inception up to September 2021. Search terms for the exposure “oral disease” and outcome “dementia”, “neuroinflammation” and “cognitive decline” were used. Study selection and data extraction were independently undertaken by two reviewers. The final eligible articles were included only if the exposure is periodontitis and the outcome is cognitive impairment or dementia or a topic related to this condition, and if the study was conducted in an adult population. The quality and risk of bias were assessed by Newcastle Ottawa Scale (NOS). Qualitative synthesis was used to narratively synthesize the results. Six cohort studies, three cross-sectional studies, and two case-control studies met the inclusion criteria. These eleven studies were only narratively synthesized. Meta-analysis was not performed due to the methodological heterogeneity of the studies. Results: All the included studies show evidence of an association between periodontitis and cognitive im-pairment or dementia and Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Conclusion: Nonetheless, the mechanisms responsible for the association between periodontitis and dementia are still unclear.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0552.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: periodontitis; obstructive sleep apnea; oral microbiota; pathogenic microbiota; chronic diseases; MALDI-TOF
Online: 29 November 2022 (13:09:35 CET)
Commonly the periodontitis has been linked to periodontopathogens categorized in Socransky's microbial complexes, however, there is a lack of knowledge regarding “other microorganisms” or "cryptic microorganisms", which are rarely thought of as significant oral pathogens and are neither previously categorized nor connected to illnesses in the oral cavity. This study hypothesized that these cryptic microorganisms could contribute to the modulation of oral microbiota present in health or disease (periodontitis and/or OSA patients). For this purpose, the presence and the correlation among these cultivable cryptic oral microorganisms were identified and their possible role in both conditions was determined. Data from oral samples of individuals with or without periodontitis and with or without OSA were obtained from a previous study. Demographic data, clinical oral characteristics, and genera and species of cultivable cryptic oral microorganisms identified by MALDI-TOF were recorded. The data of 75 participants were analyzed to determine the relative frequencies of cultivable cryptic microorganisms’ genus and species, microbial clusters and correlations tests were performed. According to periodontal condition, Gingivitis - dental biofilm-induced in reduced periodontium and stage III periodontitis were found to have the highest diversity of cryptic microorganism species. Based on the experimental condition these findings showed that there are genera related to disease conditions and others related to healthy conditions, with species that could be related to different chronic diseases being highlighted as comorbidities periodontitis and OSA. The cryptic microorganisms within the oral microbiota of patients with periodontitis and OSA are present as potential pathogens, promoting the development of dysbiotic microbiota, and the occurrence of chronic diseases, which have been previously proposed to be common risk factors for periodontitis and OSA. Understanding the function of possible pathogens in the oral microbiota will take more research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0321.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Periodontitis; Tooth movement; Obesity; Palmitic Acid; Histone Modification; Inflammation; COX2/PGE2; IL10
Online: 21 January 2022 (12:50:31 CET)
The interrelationship between periodontal disease, obesity-related hyperlipidemia and mechanical forces as well as their modulating effects on the epigenetic profile of periodontal ligament (PdL) cells are assumed to be remarkably complex. The PdL serves as connective tissue between teeth and alveolar bone for pathogen defense and inflammatory response to mechanical stimuli occurring during tooth movement. Altered inflammatory signaling could promote root resorption and tooth loss. Hyperinflammatory COX2/PGE2 signaling was reported for human PdL fibroblasts (HPdLF) concomitantly stressed with P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharides and compressive force after exposure to palmitic acid (PA). The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent this is modulated by global and gene-specific changes in histone modifications. Quantitative expression of epigenetic key players and global H3Kac as well as H3K27me3 levels were evaluated in dual stressed HPdLF exposed to PA revealing a decreased force-related reduction in repressive H3K27me3. UNC1999-induced H3K27me3 inhibition reversed the hyperinflammatory response of dual-stressed PA-cultures characterized by COX2 expression, PGE2 secretion and THP1 adhesion. Reduced expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL10 and increased association of H3K27me3 at its promoter-associated sites were reversed by inhibitor treatment. Thus, the data highlight an important epigenetic interplay between different stimuli to which the PdL is exposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0775.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Generalized aggressive periodontitis, histomorphometric analysis, smoke, plaque, aging, Pocket Probing Depth (PPD).
Online: 1 November 2018 (18:29:08 CET)
Background: Periodontitis is a disease that leads to serious functional and aesthetic dysfunctions resulting in impairment of life quality; it exists in different forms and its etiology is related with multiple component causes. Angiogenesis, together with inflammatory infiltrate, are two key processes in the evolution of inflammatory processes involving gingival tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate their alterations in relation to some important periodontal diseases-associated factors (i.e. smoke, sex, age, plaque, pus, probing pocket depth) in patients with diagnosis of Generalized Aggressive Periodontitis (GAP). Methods: Eighteen subjects with GAP were enrolled for this study. Percentage of inflammatory cells and vascular area were measured and evaluated in relation with each periodontal diseases-associated factor. Results: The results showed a significant decrease of the percentage of vascular area in association with almost all the periodontal diseases-related factors (smoke, age, PPD, plaque) and not significant differences in the percentage of inflammatory cells. Conclusions: Data suggest that, even if these factors are often commonly related to worsening of periodontal status, they did not affect inflammatory and vascular pattern, as we can assume. For the future, additional studies, aimed to evaluated each singular factor in a wider sample size, should be planned.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0499.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: condensed tannins; proanthocyanidins; flavan-3-ols; periodontitis; gingivitis; gum disease; cranberry; Camellia sinensis; polyphenols
Online: 19 November 2020 (10:26:44 CET)
Flavan-3-ols and their oligomeric forms called proanthocyanidins are polyphenolic compounds occurring in several foodstuffs and in many medicinal herbs. Their consumption is associated with numerous health benefits. Their bioactivities include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective, as well as antimicrobial. The latter property is important in prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases. Periodontitis is a multifactorial polymicrobial infection characterized by a destructive inflammatory process affecting the periodontium. Using non-toxic and efficient natural products such as flavanol derivatives can significantly contribute to alleviating of periodontitis symptoms and prevent the disease progress. In this paper, we systematically review the state-of-the art in antibacterial effects of these compounds from the viewpoint of gum health. There is a significant evidence supporting an importance of antibacterial action exerted by proanthocyanidins from edible fruits, tea and medicinal herbs in inhibition of periodontitis-causing pathogens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0090.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: periodontal disease; periodontitis; early tooth loss; predictive model; risk factors; oral health; public health; epidemiology
Online: 5 January 2021 (13:03:13 CET)
The aim of this study was to develop and validate a predictive early tooth loss multivariable model for periodontitis patients before periodontal treatment. A total of 544 patients seeking periodontal care at a university dental hospital were enrolled in the study. Teeth extracted after periodontal diagnosis and due to periodontal reasons were recorded. Clinical and sociodemographic variables were analyzed, considering the risk of short-term tooth loss. This study followed the Transparent Reporting of a multivariable prediction model for Individual Prognosis Or Diagnosis (TRIPOD) guidelines for development and validation, with two cohorts considered as follows: 455 patients in the development phase and 99 in the validation phase. As a result, it was possible to compute a predictive model based on tooth type and clinical attachment loss. The model explained 25.3% of the total variability and correctly ranked 98.9% of the cases. The final reduced model area under the curve (AUC) was 0.809 (95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): 0.629 - 0.989) for the validation sample and 0.920 (95% CI: 0.891 - 0.950) for the development cohort. The established model presented adequate prediction potential of early tooth loss due to periodontitis. This model may have clinical and epidemiologic relevance towards the prediction of tooth loss burden.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0671.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: condensed tannins; proanthocyanidins; flavan-3-ols; periodontitis; gingivitis; gum disease; cranberry; Camellia sinensis; polyphenols; immunomodulatory
Online: 26 November 2020 (11:22:42 CET)
This paper continues the review study on antimicrobial properties relevant to the periodontal diseases. Inflammation as a major response of the periodontal tissues attacked by pathogenic microbes can significantly exacerbate the condition. However, the bidirectional activity of phytochemicals that simultaneously inhibit bacterial proliferation and proinflammatory signaling can provide a substantial alleviation of both cause and symptoms. The modulatory effects on various aspects of inflammatory and overall immune response has been covered, including confirmed and postulated mechanisms of action, structure activity relationships and molecular targets. Further, the clinical relevance of flavan-3-ols and available outcomes from clinical studies has been analyzed and discussed. Among the numerous natural sources of flavan-3-ols and proanthocyanidins the most promising are, similarly to antibacterial properties, constituents of various foods, such as fruits of Vaccinium species, tea leaves, grape seeds, and tannin-rich medicinal herbs. Despite a vast amount of in vitro and cell-based evidence of immunomodulatory there is still much less studies using animal models and only a few clinical studies. Most of the studies, regardless of the used model indicated efficiency of these phytochemicals from cranberries and other Vaccinium species and tea extracts (green or black). Other sources such as grape seeds and traditional medicinal plants, were seldom. In conclusion, the potential of flavan-3-ols and their derivatives in prevention and alleviation of periodontitis is remarkable but clinical evidence is urgently needed for issuing credible dietary recommendation and complementary treatments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0197.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: periodontitis; Pelargonium sidoides DC root extract; proanthocyanidins; bacteriotoxicity; inflammatory cytokines; gene expression; fibroblasts; macrophages; leukocytes
Online: 18 September 2019 (04:07:50 CEST)
The study explores antibacterial, antiinflammatory and cytoprotective capacity of Pelargonium sidoides DC root extract (PSRE) and proanthocyanidin fraction from PSRE (PACN) under conditions characteristic for periodontal disease. Following previous finding that PACN exerts stronger suppression of Porphyromonas gingivalis compared to the effect on commensal Streptococcus salivarius, the current work continues antibacterial investigation on Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Escherichia coli. PSRE and PACN are also studied for their ability to prevent gingival fibroblast cell death in the presence of bacteria or bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), to block LPS- or LPS+IFNγ-induced release of inflammatory mediators, gene expression and surface antigen presentation. Both PSRE and PACN were more efficient in suppressing Staphylococcus and Aggregatibacter compared to Escherichia, prevented A. actinomycetemcomitans- and LPS induced death of fibroblasts, decreased LPS-induced release of interleukin 8 and prostaglandin E2 from fibroblasts and IL-6 from leukocytes, blocked expression of IL-1β, iNOS, and surface presentation of CD80 and CD86 in LPS+IFNγ-treated macrophages, and IL-1β and COX-2 expression in LPS-treated leukocytes. None of the investigated substances affected either the level of secretion or expression of TNFα. In conclusion, PSRE, and especially PACN, possess strong antibacterial, antiinflammatory and gingival tissue protecting properties under periodontitis mimicking conditions and are suggestable candidates for treatment of the disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0557.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: transplantation; dental implant; marginal bone loss; implant failure rate; systematic review; periodontitis; periodontal diseases; oral health
Online: 25 August 2020 (13:45:34 CEST)
This systematic review investigates the failure rate and marginal bone loss (MBL) of dental implants placed in Solid-organ transplant (SOT) patients compared to healthy controls. Three databases (PubMed, Web of Sciences and the Cochrane Library) were searched up to June 2020 (PROSPERO CRD42019124896). Case-control and cohort studies reporting data failure rate and marginal bone loss (MBL) of dental implants placed in SOT patients were included. The risk of bias of observational studies was assessed through the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Four case-control studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria, all of low risk of bias. Meta-analyses revealed consistently lower implant failure rate than control populations at patient and implant levels. SOT patients had a significant difference of -18% (p-value <0.001) of MLB towards healthy patients. SOT status poses no serious threat to implant survival. Overall, this group of patients presented lower levels of dental implant failure rate and marginal bone loss compared to otherwise healthy patients. Further intervention trials with wider sample size and longer follow-ups are necessary to confirm these summary results.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0199.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: periodontal regeneration; aggressive periodontitis; deproteinized bovine bone; enamel matrix derivatives (Emdogain®); guided tissue regeneration (GTR)
Online: 21 January 2019 (08:58:50 CET)
The aim of this article is to evaluate and compare, retrospectively, the efficacy of two regenerative periodontal procedures in patients suffering from aggressive periodontitis (AgP). Twenty-eight patients were diagnosed with AgP, suffering from multiple intra-bony defects (IBD); that were treated by one of two regenerative modalities of periodontal therapy randomly assigned to each patient: a. guided tissue regeneration (GTR) or b. an application of enamel matrix derivatives (EMD) combined with DBX. The monitoring of the treated sites included recordings of probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and gingival recession. Pre-treatment and follow-up (up to 10 years from the surgery) recordings were analyzed statistically within and between groups. A significant reduction was shown at time on PD and CAL values, however, not between subject groups. CAL values decreased in all sites. At EMD group (44 sites) CAL gain was 1.92 mm (±1.68) from pre-treatment to follow-up (p<0.001) and at the GTR group (12 sites) CAL gain of 2.27 (±1.82) mm. In conclusion, 1-10 years observations have shown that surgical treatment of AgP patients by either GTR or by application of EMD/DBX results in similar successful clinical results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0016.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: periodontitis; the periodontal ligament stem cells; the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2; oxidative stress; apoptosis
Online: 4 April 2017 (08:58:13 CEST)
The present study aimed to analyze novel mechanisms underlying Nrf2-mediated anti-apoptosis in periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) in the periodontitis oxidative microenvironment. We created an oxidative stress model with H2O2-treated PDLSCs. Herein, we used real-time PCR, western blotting, TUNEL staining, fluorogenic assay and transfer genetics to confirm the degree of oxidative stress and apoptosis as well as the Nrf2 function. Surprisingly, we demonstrated that with up-regulated ROS and MDA levels, the effect of oxidative stress was obvious under H2O2 treatment. Anti-oxidative molecules were changed after the H2O2 exposure, whereby the anti-oxidative signaling of Nrf2 was activated with the increase of its downstream effectors, HO-1, NQO1 and γ-GCS. Additionally, the apoptosis levels gradually increased with oxidative stress and changes in the caspase-9, caspase-3, Bax and c-Fos levels, but not with caspase-8 and down-regulated Bcl-2. The enhanced antioxidant effect could not resist the occurrence of apoptosis. Furthermore, Nrf2 overexpression effectively improved the anti-oxidative levels and increased cell proliferation. At the same time, overexpression effectively restrained TUNEL staining and decreased the molecular levels of caspase-9, caspase-3, et al, but not that of caspase-8. By contrast, silencing the expression Nrf2 levels had the opposite effect. Collectively, Nrf2 alleviates PDLSCs via its effects on anti-oxidative and anti-intrinsic apoptosis by the activation of anti-oxidative enzymes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1542.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: IL-1R; Interleukin– 1 receptor; Il-1 receptor; Glycyrrhiza glabra; Licorice; Flavonoid; Inflammation; Periodontitis; Molecular docking; In silico
Online: 24 November 2023 (02:39:37 CET)
Periodontitis is a disease that originates from gingival tissue, and if left untreated, can cause inflammation to spread to deeper tissues, altering bone homeostasis, and even leading to tooth loss. When the bacteria in plaque reach sufficient numbers, the immune system responds by activating immune cells that will produce cytokines, including interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). These immune signaling molecules will coordinate the inflammatory responses. IL-1 binds to the IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) on the surface of target cells, initiating an inflammatory response by activating intracellular signalling pathways. Inhibition of IL-1R can prevent the interaction of IL-1 with this receptor, thereby halting the activation of the inflammatory pathway. By substituting this connection with active anti-inflammatory substances, it is possible to prevent the contact between IL-1 and IL-1R. The licorice plant, Glycyrrhiza glabra, includes eight types of flavonoids with significant anti-inflammatory potential, namely isoliquiritigenin, glyzaglabrin, prunetin, shinpterocarpin, licochalcone A, glabridin, glisoflavone, and isoangustone A. This study aims to assess the potential of such flavonoids as candidates for periodontitis treatment through molecular docking, using AutoDock Tools v.1.5.6. All tested compounds showed highly stable bonds to IL-1R, with a binding affinity values below -7 kcal/mol. Van der Waals forces, hydrogen bonds, and hydrophobic bonds all contribute to the stability of these interactions. Among the eight tested compounds, glisoflavone, which has a Ki value of 90.89 nM and a ΔG value of -9.61 kcal/mol, has the highest binding stability to IL-1R.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0587.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: cardiovascular diseases; salivary biomarkers; myocardial infarction; saliva; salivary glands; adiponectin; C-reactive protein; Chemokine CCL3; macrophage inflammatory proteins; periodontitis; inflammation mediators; risk assessment
Online: 19 April 2023 (10:40:14 CEST)
Background: Macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1α) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are pro-inflammatory biomarkers that quantify clinical and subclinical inflammation in cardiac ischemia in cardiac inflammation and disease. Adiponectin is an anti-inflammatory marker associated with good health. The susceptibility of periodontitis patients to cardiovascular events needs to be evaluated. Objective: This study aims to assess the levels of biomarkers in periodontitis patients with and without acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared to controls. Material and methods: Pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory analytes were examined by collecting unstimulated saliva from three groups (n = 20/each): healthy individuals, individuals with stage III periodontitis, and post-myocardial infarction patients with stage III periodontitis. The samples were collected within 48 hours of AMI. Results: Adiponectin levels were significantly lower in patients with periodontitis with and without AMI compared to controls, while CRP and MIP-1α were significantly higher in patients with periodontitis with and without AMI compared to controls. The highest titers for MIP-1α and CRP were detected among patients with periodontitis with and AMI. Conclusion: Our study provides evidence of the association between periodontitis and salivary analytes that occur in tandem with cardiovascular disease. The lower levels of Adiponectin and higher levels of CRP and MIP-1α in patients with periodontitis indicate that this condition is a potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The findings emphasize the importance of early detection and intervention for periodontitis patients to prevent cardiovascular events.