Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Proanthocyanidins and Flavan-3-ols in the Prevention and Treatment of Periodontitis - Immunomodulatory Effects, Animal and Clinical Studies

Version 1 : Received: 25 November 2020 / Approved: 26 November 2020 / Online: 26 November 2020 (11:22:42 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Nawrot-Hadzik, I.; Matkowski, A.; Kubasiewicz-Ross, P.; Hadzik, J. Proanthocyanidins and Flavan-3-ols in the Prevention and Treatment of Periodontitis—Immunomodulatory Effects, Animal and Clinical Studies. Nutrients 2021, 13, 239. Nawrot-Hadzik, I.; Matkowski, A.; Kubasiewicz-Ross, P.; Hadzik, J. Proanthocyanidins and Flavan-3-ols in the Prevention and Treatment of Periodontitis—Immunomodulatory Effects, Animal and Clinical Studies. Nutrients 2021, 13, 239.

Journal reference: Nutrients 2021, 13, 239
DOI: 10.3390/nu13010239

Abstract

This paper continues the review study on antimicrobial properties relevant to the periodontal diseases. Inflammation as a major response of the periodontal tissues attacked by pathogenic microbes can significantly exacerbate the condition. However, the bidirectional activity of phytochemicals that simultaneously inhibit bacterial proliferation and proinflammatory signaling can provide a substantial alleviation of both cause and symptoms. The modulatory effects on various aspects of inflammatory and overall immune response has been covered, including confirmed and postulated mechanisms of action, structure activity relationships and molecular targets. Further, the clinical relevance of flavan-3-ols and available outcomes from clinical studies has been analyzed and discussed. Among the numerous natural sources of flavan-3-ols and proanthocyanidins the most promising are, similarly to antibacterial properties, constituents of various foods, such as fruits of Vaccinium species, tea leaves, grape seeds, and tannin-rich medicinal herbs. Despite a vast amount of in vitro and cell-based evidence of immunomodulatory there is still much less studies using animal models and only a few clinical studies. Most of the studies, regardless of the used model indicated efficiency of these phytochemicals from cranberries and other Vaccinium species and tea extracts (green or black). Other sources such as grape seeds and traditional medicinal plants, were seldom. In conclusion, the potential of flavan-3-ols and their derivatives in prevention and alleviation of periodontitis is remarkable but clinical evidence is urgently needed for issuing credible dietary recommendation and complementary treatments.

Keywords

condensed tannins; proanthocyanidins; flavan-3-ols; periodontitis; gingivitis; gum disease; cranberry; Camellia sinensis; polyphenols; immunomodulatory

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