Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: CO2 capture; adsorption; amine-based adsorbents; mesoporous carbon; triethylenetetramine; ethylenediamine
Online: 3 March 2021 (14:16:48 CET)
Carbon sequestration via carbon capture and storage (CCS) method is one of the most useful methods to lower the CO2 emission in the atmosphere. Ethylenediamine (EDA) and triethylenetetramine (TETA) modified mesoporous carbon (MC) has been successfully prepared as CO2 storage materials. The effect of various concentrations of EDA or TETA added to MC as well as activated carbon (AC) on their CO2 adsorption capacity were investigated using high purity CO2 as feed and titration method to quantitatively measure the amount of adsorbed CO2. The results showed that within 60 min adsorption time, MCEDA49 gave the highest CO2 capacity adsorption (19.68 mmol/g), followed by MC-TETA30 (11.241 mol/g). The improvement of CO2 adsorption capacity at low TETA loadings proved that the four amine functional groups in TETA gave advantages to CO2 adsorption. TETA functionalized MC has a potential to be used as CO2 storage materials as it is used at low concentration. Therefore, it is more benign and friendly to the environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0605.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: adsorption; 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane; carbon dioxide; functionalization; mesoporous silica; MCM-41; SBA-15
Online: 27 December 2018 (05:28:16 CET)
The adsorption of carbon dioxide on amino silanes-functionalized MCM-41 and SBA-15 materials is reported. The functionalization of mesoporous silicas was made by post-synthesis method, by impregnation of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopies, nitrogen adsorption-desorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The carbon dioxide adsorption capacities for the samples were carried out under ambient pressures. The obtained results evidenced that amino-silanes with a terminal amine (–NH2) were functionalized through covalent coupling of this group on the surface of the channels in the ordered mesoporous silica, meaning that the amine is anchored on the surface of the bigger pores of the MCM-41 and SBA-15 support. For functionalized materials, the CO2 adsorption capacity of the AMCM-41 increased from 0.18 to 1.1 mmol·g−1, whereas for ASBA-15, it was from 0.6 to 1.8 mmol·g−1. The Lagergren kinetic algorithms were applied in order to validate the obtained results, evidencing the enhanced carbon dioxide adsorption capacity and stability of the functionalized ordered mesoporous molecular sieves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1625.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Mesoporous carbon; adsorption; gallium; zeolite; kinetic; isotherm
Online: 23 May 2023 (08:33:02 CEST)
In this research, the adsorption of gallium onto natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) and two mesoporous activated carbons was compared and evaluated. The clinoptilolite was treated with HCl (HCPL) while mesoporous activated carbons (MCSG60A and MCO1) were synthesized by replica method, using sucrose as carbon precursor and silica gel as template. These carbonacenous materials showed large pore sizes and mesoporous surface, as well as a suitable surface chemistry for cation adsorption, which promotes a high negative charge density. On the other hand, zeolites have narrower pore sizes, which hinders the material diffusion inside the particle; however, its strength is their ion exchange capacity. Regarding the gallium kinetic studies, it is described by Pseudo-second order model for both sorts of adsorbents. MCO1 is the best carbonaceous adsorbent studied, with a capacity of 4.58 mg/g. As for zeolites, between the two zeolites studied, HCPL showed the best results, with a gallium adsorption capacity of 3.1 mg/g. The gallium adsorption mechanism onto MCO1 material is based on physisorption while HCPL is mainly retained due to an ion-exchange process. Regarding Giles classification, MCO1 isotherm described an H-4 pattern of high affinity, characteristic of multilayer adsorption. Double-Langmuir model fits properly these experimental results. In the case of zeolites, HCPL adsorption isotherm followed an L-2 pattern, typical of monolayer adsorption, being the Sips model the one which better describes the adsorption of gallium onto the zeolite.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0379.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: mesoporous alumina; chitin; P123; hydrothermal method
Online: 7 July 2023 (05:50:04 CEST)
The control of alumina morphology is crucial yet challenging for its various applications. Un-fortunately, traditional methods for preparing alumina particles suffer from several limitations such as irregular morphology, poor dispersibility, and restricted application areas. In this study, we develop a novel method for preparing spherical mesoporous alumina using chitin and Plu-ronic P123 as mixed templates. The effects of reaction temperature, time, and the addition of mixed templates on the phase structure, micromorphology, and optical absorption properties of the samples were investigated. The experimental results indicate that lower temperature and shorter reaction time facilitated the formation of spherical mesoporous alumina with excellent CO2 adsorption capacity. The periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations demonstrate that both (110) and (100) surfaces of γ-Al2O3 can strongly adsorb CO2. The difference in the amount of CO2 adsorbed by Al2O3 is mainly due to the different surface areas, which give dif-ferent number of exposed active sites. This approach introduces a novel strategy for utilizing bi-ological compounds to synthesize spherical alumina and greatly enhances mesoporous alu-mina's application efficiency in adsorption fields. Moreover, the study explored the electro-chemical performance of the synthesized product using cyclic voltammetry and discovered im-proved loading of electrocatalysts and enhanced electrocatalytic activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1923.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Dendritic Mesoporous Organisilica Nanoparticles; siRNA; FVIII Factor
Online: 26 May 2023 (10:47:14 CEST)
Dendritic Mesoporous Organosilica Nanoparticles (DMON) are a new class of biodegradable nanoparticles suitable for biomolecules delivery. In order to escape from the endosomes-lysosomes and to deliver biomolecules in the cytoplasm of cells, we studied photochemical internalization (PCI) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) of DMON. We added photosensitizers in the framework of DMON. DMON were also loaded with siRNA or FVIII factor protein. We made four formulations with four different photosensitizers, The photosensitizers allowed to perform imaging of DMON in cancer cells, but the presence of the tetrasulfide bond in the framework of DMON quenched the formation of singlet oxygen. Fortunately one formulation allowed to efficiently deliver proapoptotic siRNA in MCF-7 cancer cells leading to 31% of cancer cell death, without irradiation. For FVIII protein, it was loaded in two formulations with drug loading capacities (DLC) up to 25%. In conclusion DMON are versatile nanoparticles which allowed to load siRNA and to deliver it in cancer cells, and to load FVIII protein with good DLC. Due to the presence of tetrasulfide, it was not possible to perform PDT and PCI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1492.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Drug delivery; Hydrophobic drug; Camptothecin; Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles
Online: 23 November 2023 (09:36:38 CET)
The practical application of a pH-responsive Nanoparticle Drug Delivery System (NDDS) in cancer treatment is often hampered by several issues such as the protection of therapeutic molecules from external stresses, inefficient targeted delivery, sustained drug release, and poor efficacy. This study presents an effective design strategy for the synthesis of a pH-sensitive controlled hydrophobic drug delivery method based on the formulation of chitosan (CS)-coated mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) through the sol-gel method, where hydrolysis takes place in the acidic medium followed by polycondensation of the hydrolyzed products. For this purpose, NH2 modified-MSNs were prepared by using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as precursor and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a template, and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) for amine modification, followed by hydrophobic drug loading and CS coating of various concentrations. Camptothecin (CPT) was used as a model drug. Fabricated monodispersed functionalized nanoparticles had sizes ranging from 200nm to 245nm with an encapsulation efficiency as high as 90%. The highest encapsulation efficiency was found for 1% CS coating, which released 50% drug in 120h at pH 6.4 and 20% at pH 7.4 respectively. These nanoformulations exhibited pH-responsive release patterns of CPT under two different pH values (pH=7.4 and pH=6.4). These results contribute to the optimization of NDDS, with potential implications for nanoformulations designed for controlled and sustained drug release particularly to tumors without affecting healthy cells owing to differences in the pH of the tumor microenvironment and the normal physiological environment of cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0147.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: MSQ aerogel; mesoporous structure; sol-gel; microwave drying
Online: 15 January 2019 (09:30:09 CET)
Methylsilsesquioxane aerogels with uniform mesopores have been facilely prepared via a sol–gel process followed by microwave drying with methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) as precursor, hydrochloric acid (HCl) as catalyst, water and methanol as solvents, hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) as surfactant and template and propylene oxide (PO) as gelation agent. The microstructure, chemical composition and pore structures of the resultant MSQ aerogels were investigated in detail to achieve controllable preparation of MSQ aerogels, and the thermal stability of MSQ aerogels was also analyzed. The gelation agent, catalyst, solvent and microwave power have important roles on pore structures of MSQ aerogels. Meanwhile, microwave drying method is found to not only have a remarkable effect on improving production efficiency, but also be conducive to avoid the collapse of pore structure especially micropores during drying. The resulting MSQ aerogel microwave-dried at 500 W possesses a specific surface area up to 821 m2/g and a mesopore size of 20 nm, and displays good thermal stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0124.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: nanoplasmonic sensing; CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite; Mesoporous TiO2; gold nanosensor
Online: 11 September 2018 (05:10:40 CEST)
Hybrid metal-halide perovskites have emerged as leading class of semiconductors for photovoltaic devices with remarkable light harvesting efficiencies. The formation of methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) perovskite into mesoporous titania (TiO2) scaffold by a sequential deposition technique is known to offer better control over the perovskite morphology. The growth reactions at the mesoporous TiO2 film depend on reactants concentration in the host matrix and the reaction activation energy. Here, we are characterizing formation of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite in mimic solar cell photoelectrodes utilizing the developed NanoPlasmonic Sensing (NPS) approach. Based on dielectric changes at the TiO2 mesoporous film interface, the technique provides time-resolved spectral shifts of the localized surface plasmon resonance that varies widely depending on the different operating temperatures and methylammonium iodide (CH3NH3I) concentrations. Analytical studies included Ellipsometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The results show that perovskite conversion can be obtained at lower CH3NH3I concentrations if reaction activation energy is lowered. A significant finding is that the NPS response at 350 nm mesoporous TiO2 can widely change from red shifts to blue shifts depending on extent of conversion and morphology of perovskite formed at given reaction conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1656.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Hollow mesoporous silica; Alkylammonium; Fludarabine; Drug delivery; Cancer therapy
Online: 24 August 2023 (02:20:25 CEST)
In this work, alkylammonium-functionalized hollow mesoporous silica as nonocarrier of drugs was synthesized to realize enhanced cancer therapy by pH stimuli for sustained drug release. First, functionalized hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (Hollow MSNs) were synthesized using dodecyl dimethyl(3-sulfopropyl)ammonium hydroxide (DDAPS), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and triethanolamine as structure-directing agents, and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and N-trimethoxysilypropyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride (TMAPS) as silica sources under basic condition via the sol-gel process. The structure and morphology of the alkylammonium-functionalized hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (Hollow MSN-N+CH3) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N2 adsorption-desorption analysis, and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The functionalized hollow MSNs had a particle size of about 450 nm and a shell thickness of about 60 nm with uniform size. The nanoparticle had a surface area of 408 m2g-1, pore volume of 0.8 cm3g-1 and a uniform pore diameter of 45.9 Å. In the cancer cell viability test with MCF-7 cell, fludarabine-incorporated and alkylammonium-functionalized hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (Flu/Hollow MSN-N+CH3) showed excellent cancer cell death comparable with pure fludarabine drug with the controlled drug release by pH stimuli. It is considered that our current materials have the potential applicability as pH-responsive nanocarriers in the field of cancer therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1166.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Mesoporous materials; lipid bilayer; graphene oxide; graphene@MSN nanocomposites
Online: 16 August 2023 (20:23:59 CEST)
In the contemporary era, there has been a notable surge in the systematic utilization of therapeutic drugs that exhibit stimulus-responsive drug release patterns in specific target areas. However, challenges such as premature drug release and limited biocompatibility persist. To address these issues, the application of a lipid coating on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) has emerged as a promising strategy. This lipid coating not only enhances the stability and biocompatibility of nanocarriers but also facilitates targeted drug delivery to diseased cells while minimizing drug release throughout the body. MSNs, renowned for their unique attributes including high porosity, morphology, and controllable pore size, have been widely recognized as suitable platforms for drug/gene delivery systems. Furthermore, graphene-based nanomaterials such as graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide have garnered significant interest in the fields of biology and biomedicine. These materials possess exceptional characteristics such as a large surface area, distinct surface properties, high biocompatibility, and pH sensitivity, making them ideal candidates for incorporating drugs, genes, photosensitizers, and other cargo to design innovative drug delivery systems. This study aims to emphasize the ongoing efforts and advancements in enhancing the capacity and versatility of nanocomposites comprising graphene MSN composites for applications in drug delivery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0711.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Other Keywords: methane dehydroaromatization; zeolite ZSM-5; micro-mesoporous structure; benzene
Online: 21 April 2023 (10:05:20 CEST)
Dehydroaromatization of methane (MDA) is of great interest as a promising process for processing natural and associated petroleum gases, the main component of which is methane. The rapid loss of catalyst activity because of coke formation hinders the introduction of the DHA methane process into industry. Therefore, the aim of the research was to find ways to improve Mo/ZSM-5 catalysts for MDA. The paper presents the results of the synthesis of high-silica zeolites of the ZSM-5 type with a microporous and micro-mesoporous structure, the preparation of Mo/ZSM-5 catalysts based on them, and the study of the physicochemical and catalytic properties of the obtained samples during the non-oxidative conversion of methane into aromatic hydrocarbons. Zeolite catalysts were investigated by IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, TPD-NH3, SEM, HR-TEM, N2-adsorption. It was found that the addition of carbon black at the stage of synthesis of zeolite type ZSM-5 does not lead to structural changes, the obtained samples have a crystallinity equal to 100%. The creation of the micro-mesoporous structure in Mo/ZSM-5 catalysts lead to an increase in their activity and stability in the process of methane dehydroaromatization. The highest conversion of methane is observed on a 4.0%Mo/ZSM-5 catalyst prepared based on of zeolite synthesized using 1.0% carbon black, and is 13.0% in 20 minutes of reaction, while the benzene yield reaches 7.0%. It has been shown by HR-TEM that a more uniform distribution of the active metal component is observed in a zeolite catalyst with a micro-mesoporous structure than in a microporous zeolite.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0595.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Electrospun polyvinylpyrrolidone; polymeric scaffolds; bone regeneration; mesoporous bioactive glass
Online: 19 April 2023 (13:36:52 CEST)
Composite biomaterials that combine osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties are a promising approach for bone tissue engineering (BTE) since it allows osteogenesis stimulation while mimicking the extracellular matrix (ECM) morphology. In this context, the aim of the present research work was to produce polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanofibers containing mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) 80S15 nanoparticles. These composite materials were produced by electrospinning technique. The design of experiments (DOE) was used to estimate the optimal electrospinning parameters to reduce average fiber diameter. The polymeric matrices were thermally crosslinked under different conditions, and the fiber’s morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Evaluation of the mechanical properties of nanofibrous mats revealed a dependence on thermal crosslinking parameters and on the presence of MBG 80S15 particles inside the polymeric fibers. Degradation tests indicated that the presence of MBG led to a faster degradation of nanofibrous mats. On the other hand, MBG presence also leads to higher swelling capacity. The assessment of in vitro bioactivity in simulated body fluid (SBF) was performed in MBG pellets and PVP/MBG (1:1) composites to assess whether the bioactive properties of MBG 80S15 were kept when it was incorporated into PVP nanofibers. FTIR and XRD analysis along with SEM–EDS results indicated that a hydroxy-carbonate apatite (HCA) layer was formed on the surface of MBG pellets and nanofibrous webs after soaking in SBF over different time periods. In general, the materials revealed no cytotoxic effects on Saos-2 cell line. The overall results for the produced materials show the potential of the composites to be used in BTE.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0352.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: Electrophoretic deposition; mesoporous bioactive glass nanoparticles; adhesion; antibacterial; bioactive
Online: 27 June 2022 (08:01:22 CEST)
In recent years, natural polymers have replaced synthetic polymers for antibacterial orthopedic applications owing to their excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability. Zein is a biopolymer found in corn. The lacking mechanical stability of zein is overcome by incorporating bioceramics e.g. mesoporous bioactive glass nanoparticles (MBGNs). In present study, pure zein and zein/Zn-Mn MBGNs composite coatings were deposited via electrophoretic deposition (EPD) on 316L stainless steel (SS). Zn and Mn were co-doped in MBGNs in order to make use of their antibacterial and osteogenic potential, respectively. A Taguchi design of experiment (DoE) study was established to evaluate the effect of various working parameters on the morphology of the coatings. It was observed that coatings deposited at 20 V for 5 min with 4 g/L concentration (conc.) of Zn-Mn MBGNs showed highest deposition yield. Uniform coatings with highly dispersed MBGNs were obtained adopting these optimized parameters. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were employed to investigate the morphology and elemental composition of zein/Zn-Mn MBGNs composite coating. Surface properties i.e. coating roughness and wettability analysis concluded that composite coatings were appropriate for cell attachment and proliferation. For adhesion strength various techniques including tape test, bend test, pencil hardness test, and tensile test were performed. Wear and corrosion analysis highlighted the mechanical and chemical stability of coatings. Colony forming unit (CFU) test showed that zein/Zn-Mn MBGNs composite coating was highly effective against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) due to the presence of Zn. The formation of hydroxyapatite (HA) like structure upon immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) validated the in vitro bioactivity of the coating. It was concluded that zein/Zn-Mn MBGNs coating synthesized in this work can be used for bioactive and antibacterial orthopedic applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0499.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Oxidation catalysis; Neutron diffraction; Molybdenum; Mesoporous materials; Hydrogen bonds
Online: 21 June 2021 (10:21:57 CEST)
In this work we explored how solvents can affect olefin oxidation reactions catalyzed by MCM-bpy-Mo catalysts and whether their control can be made with those players. The results of this study evidenced that polar and apolar aprotic solvents modulated the reactions in different ways. Experimental data showed that acetonitrile (aprotic polar) could hinder largely the reaction rate whereas toluene (aprotic apolar) did not. In both cases product selectivity at isoconversion was not affected. Further insights were obtained by means of neutron diffraction experiments, which confirmed the kinetic data allowing to propose a model based on substrate-solvent crosstalk by means of hydrogen bonding. In addition, the model was also validated in the ring-opening reaction (overoxidation) of styrene oxide towards benzaldehyde, which progressed when toluene was the solvent (reaching 31% styrene oxide conversion) but was strongly hindered when acetonitrile was used instead (reaching only 7% conversion), due to the establishment of H-bonds in the latter. Although this model was confirmed and validated for olefin oxidation reactions, it can be envisaged that it may also be applied to other catalytic reaction systems where reaction control is critical, while widening its use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0138.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Gadolinium oxide, mesoporous, silica, biocompatible, zeta potential, luminescence properties
Online: 7 September 2018 (13:22:19 CEST)
Highly colloidal Eu-doped Gd2O3 nanoparticles(core-NPs) were synthesized by thermal decomposition via weak base at low temperature (150oC), subsequently, silica layers were deposited to increased colloidal stability, solubility, biocompatibility and no-toxicity at the environmental condition. XRD results indicate the highly purified, crystalline, single phase cubic phase Gd2O3 nanocrystals. TEM image shows the mesoporous thick silica layer was effectively coated over the core nanocrystals, which have irregular size with nearly spherical shape and a mean grain size is about 10-30 nm. Absorption spectra and zeta potential results in aqueous media revealed that solubility, colloidal stability, and biocompatibility character was enhanced from core to core-shell structure because of silica layer surface encapsulation. The samples demonstrate excellent photoluminescence properties (dominant emission 5D0→7F2 transition in red region at 610 nm) indicated the advantage to use in optical bio-detection and bio-labeling etc. The photoluminescence intensity of the silica shell modified core/shell nanoparticles were suppressed relatively core-nanoparticles, it indicates the multi-photon relaxation pathways arising from the surface coated high vibrational energy molecules of the silanol groups. The core/nSiO2/mSiO2 nanocrystals display strong emission (5D0→7F2) transition along with excellent solubility and biocompatibility, which may find promising applications in photonic based biomedical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2153.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: Hydrogel gatekeeper; mesoporous silica nanoparticles; stimuli-sensitive delivery; chemotherapy; doxorubicin
Online: 31 August 2023 (12:35:42 CEST)
Hydrogels can offer many opportunities for drug delivery strategies. They can be used on their own or their benefits can be further exploited in combination with other nanocarriers. Intelligent hydrogels that react to changes in the surrounding environment can be utilized as gatekeepers and provide sustained on demand drug release. In this study, a hybrid nanosystem for tempera-ture and pH sensitive delivery was prepared from MCM-41 nanoparticles grafted with newly synthesized thermosensitive hydrogel (MCM-41/AA-g-PnVCL). The initial particles were chemi-cally modified by carboxyl groups attachment. Later, they were grafted with agar (AA) and vi-nylcaprolactam (VCL) by free radical polymerization. Doxorubicin was applied as a model hy-drophilic chemotherapeutic drug. The successful formulation was confirmed by FT-IR and TGA. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis showed small particles with negative zeta potential. Their release behaviour was investigated in vitro in different pH media and at different temperatures. At tumor simulating conditions (40ºC and pH 4.0) doxoru-bicin was almost completely released within 72 hours. The biocompatibility of the proposed na-noparticles was demonstrated by in vitro haemolysis assay. These results suggest the possible parenteral application of the newly prepared hydrogel-functionalized mesoporous silica nanopar-ticles for temperature-sensitive and pH-triggered drug delivery at the tumor site.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1258.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Al-SBA-15; Mesoporous; ethylenediamine; trimethylamine; ionic liquid; Esterification reaction
Online: 19 July 2023 (03:10:13 CEST)
This study involved the fabrication of a set of Aluminum ion-grafted SBA-15 utilizing ethylene-diamine and trimethylamine ionic liquids. The primary objective was to examine the impact of the fabrication environment on the physicochemical characteristics of the catalysts. Comprehensive characterization of the Al-SBA-15 catalysts was conducted using various techniques, including XRD, FTIR, surface area, pyridine FTIR, 27Al-NMR, TGA, HRTEM, and FESEM, to analyze their physicochemical characteristics. Furthermore, the acidic characteristics were examined by con-ducting potentiometric titration in a nonaqueous solvent and employing FTIR spectroscopy to an-alyze the chemisorbed pyridine. The effectiveness of the fabricated acid materials was evaluated by testing their performance in the acetic acid esterification with butanol. The findings obtained reveal that the mesostructured of SBA-15 remains intact following the successful inclusion of Al3+ ions into the silica frameworks. Additionally, a remarkable enhancement in the existence of both Bronsted and Lewis acid centers is noted due to the grafting process of Al3+ ions. At temperatures of 80°C and 100°C, the reaction in Al-SBA-15(T-120) proceeds swiftly, reaching approximately 32% and 38% conversion, respectively, within a span of 110 minutes. The excellent catalytic performance observed in the esterification reaction can be attributed to two factors: the homogeneous distribution of Al3+ ions within the SBA-15 frameworks and the acidic character of Al-SBA-15. The findings further indicate that the grafting process for incorporating Al3+ ions into the silica matrix is more efficient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0066.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Mesoporous silica; Polyacrylic acid; Calcium ion; 5-Fluorouracil; Drug delivery
Online: 2 August 2022 (12:15:03 CEST)
In this work, polyacrylic acid-functionalized MCM-41 was synthesized, which was further interacted with calcium ions, to realize enhanced pH-responsive nanocarrier for sustained drug release. First, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were prepared by the sol-gel method. Afterward, (3-trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (TMSPM) modified surface was prepared by using the post-grafting method, then polymerization of acrylic acid was proceeded. After adding calcium chloride solution, polyacrylic acid-functionalized MSNs with calcium-carboxyl ionic bonds in the polymeric layer, which can prevent the cargo from leaking out of the mesopore, were prepared. The structure and morphology of the modified nanoparticles (PAA-MSNs) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and N2 adsorption-desorption analysis, etc. The controlled release of guest molecules was studied by using 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The drug molecules-incorporated nanoparticles showed different releasing rates under different pH conditions. It is considered that our current materials have the potential as pH-responsive targeted nanocarriers in the field of medical treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0245.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Mesoporous Bioactive Glass Nanopartciles; Sol-Gel; Antibacterial Activity; Silver; Bioactivity
Online: 10 February 2021 (07:54:28 CET)
Biomedical implants are the need of this era due to the increase in number of accidents and follow-up surgeries. Different types of bone diseases such as osteoarthritis, osteomalacia, bone cancer, etc. are increasing globally. Mesoporous bioactive glass nanoparticles (MBGNs) are used in biomedical devices due to their osteointegration and bioactive properties. In this study, silver (Ag) and strontium (Sr) doped mesoporous bioactive glass nanoparticles (Ag-Sr MBGNs) were prepared by a modified Stöber process. In this method, Ag+ & Sr2+ were co-substituted in pure MBGNs to harvest the antibacterial properties of Ag ions, as well as pro-osteogenic potential of Sr2 ions. The effect of the two ion concentration on morphology, surface charge, composition, antibacterial ability, and in-vitro bioactivity was studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the doping of Sr and Ag in MBGNs. SEM and EDX analysis confirmed the spherical morphology and typical composition of MBGNs, respectively. The Ag-Sr MBGNs showed a strong antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus carnosus and Escherichia coli bacteria determined via turbidity and disc diffusion method. Moreover, the synthesized Ag-Sr MBGNs develop apatite-like crystals upon immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF), which suggested that the addition of Sr improved in-vitro bioactivity. The Ag-Sr MBGNs synthesize in this study can be used for the preparation of scaffolds or as a filler material in the composite coatings for bone tissue engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0342.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Omeg@Silica; periodic mesoporous silica; omega-3; anchovy; fish oil
Online: 16 September 2020 (03:25:43 CEST)
Fish oil rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), vitamin D3 and natural astaxanthin sustainably extracted from anchovy fillet leftovers using biobased limonene only, can be conveniently stabilized by adsorption on periodic mesoporous silicas. The simplicity of the process, the high load of entrapped fish oil, and the biocompatible nature of silica support numerous forthcoming applications of this new class of “Omeg@Silica” materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1642.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: plastic recycling; mesoporous silica nanoparticles; vinyl functional groups; sodium silicate; vinyltrimethoxysilane
Online: 26 October 2023 (03:26:26 CEST)
Due to growing concerns about environmental pollution from plastic waste, plastic recycling research is gaining momentum. Traditional methods, such as incorporating inorganic particles, increasing cross-linking density with peroxides, and blending with silicone monomers, often improve mechanical properties but reduce flexibility for specific performance requirements. This study focuses on synthesizing silica nanoparticles with vinyl functional groups and evaluating their mechanical performance when used in recycled plastics. Silica precursors, namely sodium silicate, and vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMS), combined with a surfactant, were employed to create pores, increasing silica's surface area. Early-stage introduction of vinyl functional groups prevented the typical post-synthesis reduction in surface area. Porous silica was produced in varying quantities of VTMS, and the synthesized porous silica nanomaterials were incorporated into recycled Polyethylene to induce cross-linking. Despite a decrease in surface area with increasing VTMS content, a significant surface area of 883 m2/g was achieved. In conclusion, porous silica with the right amount of vinyl content exhibited improved mechanical performance, including increased tensile strength, compared to conventional porous silica. This study shows that synthesized porous silica with integrated vinyl functional groups effectively enhances the performance of recycled plastics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1429.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Magnetic Mesoporous Nanoparticles; Up scaled synthesis. DTPA; Metal ion separation, Toxicity
Online: 23 October 2023 (09:54:08 CEST)
(1) Background: The synthesis of core-shell magnetic mesoporous nanoparticles (MMSN) from phase transfer process is usually performed at 100-250 mg scale. At the gram scale, nanoparticles without core or with multicore systems are observed. (2) Methods: Iron oxide core nanoparticles (IO) were synthesized through thermal decomposition procedure of -FeO in oleic acid. Phase transfer from chloroform to water was then performed in order to wrap IO with mesoporous silica shell through the sol-gel procedure. MMSN were then functionalized with DTPA, and used for the separation of metal ions. Their toxicity was evaluated (3) Results: The phase transfer pro-cedure was crucial to obtained MMSN at large scale. Three synthesis parameters were rigorously controlled: temperature, time and glassware. Homogeneous dispersion of MMSN at the gram scale was successfully obtained. After functionalization with DTPA, the MMSN-DTPA were shown to have a strong affinity for Ni ions. Furthermore toxicity was evaluated in cells, zebrafish and through seahorse metabolic assays, and the nanoparticles were found nontoxic. (4) Conclusions: We developed a method of preparation of MMSN at the gram scale. After function-alization with DTPA, the nanoparticles were efficient in metal ion removal and separation, fur-thermore, no toxicity was noticed up to 125 µg.mL-1 in zebrafish.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0537.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: metals oxides; surface hydrophilicity; alcoholic beverage; contaminants; quality control; mesoporous materials
Online: 31 March 2023 (03:13:00 CEST)
The presence of copper in distilled sugar cane spirits, especially cachaça produced in alembics, has impeded the marketing of this product. Red mud (RM) is a residue obtained from alumina production. It contains a high concentration of metal oxides and is very alkaline. The RM was dried at 100 oC and sifted through a 150-micron sieve. The sample was characterized by B.E.T. nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (A.A.S.). The textural parameters indicate that the total surface area (S.T.) was 21.9 m2g-1, and the total volume pore (V.T.) was 0.09 cm3g-1. The RM (1 g) was stirred for two hours with a 1.0 L cachaça sample containing 9.39 mg of copper L-1 and filtered under atmospheric pressure. The concentration of copper ions detected in the filtrate was 0.00 mg L-1. No copper ions were retained when the cachaça was filtered through the RM under high pressure without stirring prior to filtration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0265.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Mesoporous Ni/KIT-6 catalyst; Active Ni species; Catalytic hydrodeoxygenation; Biodiesel
Online: 26 August 2019 (12:34:43 CEST)
A series of Ni/KIT6 catalystprecusors with 25wt.%Ni loading amount were reduced in H2 at 400, 450, 500, and 550ºC, respectively. The studied catalysts were investigated by XRD, Quasiin-situ XPS, BET, TEM, and H2-TPDanalysis methods.It was found that reduction temperature is an important factor affecting the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) performance of the studied catalysts. The reduction temperature influences mainly the content of active components, crystal size, and the abilityfor adsorbing and activatingH2. The developed pore structure and large specific surface area of the KIT-6 support favored the Ni dispersion.The RT450 catalyst, which was prepared in H2 atmosphere at 450 ºC, has the best HDO performance. Ethyl acetate can be completely transformed, and maintain 96.8% ethane selectivity and 3.2% methane selectivity at 300 ºC. The calculated apparent activation energies of the prepared catalysts increased in the following order: RT550 > RT400 > RT500 > RT450.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0264.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: mesoporous silica; surface area; rice husk ash; hydrolysis-ageing time, hydrophobicity
Online: 18 June 2018 (13:38:56 CEST)
This work describes the preparation of mesoporous silica by the green reaction of rice husk ash (RHA) with glycerol, followed by the modification and the potential use as a drug carrier. The reaction was carried out at 215 °C for 2 h. The solution was further hydrolyzed with deionized water and aged for various times (24, 48, 120, 360, 528 and 672 h) before calcinations at 500 oC for 24 h. Further treatment of prepared mesoporous silica was performed using trimethylmethoxysilane (TMMS) to obtain hydrophobic Mesoporous silica. For all synthesized silica, silica contents were as high as 95%wt, whereas organic residues were less than 3%wt. RHA-glycerol showed the highest specific surface area with smallest pore diameter (205.70 m2/g, 7.46 nm) when aged for 48 h. The optimal hydrolysis-ageing period of 120 h resulted in 500.7 m2/g BET surface area, 0.655 cm3/g pore volume and 5.23 nm pore diameter. The surface modification of RHA-glycerol was succeeded through the reaction with TMMS as confirmed by FTIR. Ibuprofen was selected as a model drug for the adsorption experiments. The adsorption under supercritical CO2 was carried out at isothermal temperature of 40 ˚C and 100 bar, % ibuprofen loading of TMMS modified mesoporous silica (TMMS-g-MS) was 6 times less than mesoporous silica aged for 24 h (MS-24h) due to the hydrophobic nature of modified mesoporous silica, not surface and pore characteristics. The release kinetics of ibuprofen-loaded mesoporous silicas were also investigated in vitro. The release rate of ibuprofen-loaded MS-24h was much faster than that of ibuprofen-loaded TMMS-g-MS, but comparable to the crystalline ibuprofen. The slower release rate was attributed to the diffusion control and the stability of hydrophobic nature of modified silica. This would allow the design for the controlled release drug delivery system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0094.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: bulk crystal mesoporous MCM-41; heteroatom molecular sieves; direct hydrothermal method
Online: 18 December 2016 (10:30:52 CET)
The mesoporous heteroatom molecular sieve MCM-41 bulk crystals with the crystalline phase were synthesized via a one-step hydrothermal method using an ionic complex as template. The ionic complex template was formed by interaction between cetyltrimethylammonium ions and metal complex ion [M (EDTA)]2- (M=Co or Ni ). The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption–desorption isotherms, and X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. The results showed that the materials possess a highly ordered mesoporous structure with the crystalline phase and possess high uniform ordered arrangement channels. The structure is in the vertical cross directions with a crystalline size of about 12 µm and high specific surface areas. The metal atoms were incorporated into the zeolite frameworks in the form of octahedral coordinate and have a uniform distribution in the materials. The amount of metal complexes formed by metal ion and EDTA is an essential factor for the formation of the vertical cross structure. Comparing to Si-MCM-41, the samples exhibited better conversion, higher selectivity for cumene cracking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0032.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Gold nanoclusters; manganese ferrite nanoparticles; mesoporous silica; multimodal imaging; NIR-photoluminescence; superparamagnetism.
Online: 2 October 2023 (04:07:20 CEST)
Gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) with fluorescence in the Near Infrared (NIR) by both one- and two-photon electronic excitation were incorporated in mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) using a novel one-pot synthesis procedure where the condensation polymerization of alkoxysilane monomers in the presence of the AuNCs and a surfactant produce hybrid MSNs of 49 nm diameter. This method was further developed to prepare 30 nm diameter nanocomposite particles with simultaneous NIR fluorescence and superparamagnetic properties, with a core composed of superparamagnetic manganese ferrite nanoparticles (MnFe2O4) coated with a thin silica layer, and a shell of mesoporous silica decorated with AuNCs. The nanocomposite particles feature NIR-photoluminescence with 0.6% quantum yield and large Stokes shift (290 nm), and superparamagnetic response at 300 K, with a saturation magnetization of 13.4 emu g-1. The conjugation of NIR photoluminescence and superparamagnetic properties in the biocompatible nanocomposite has high potential for application in multimodal bioimaging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0660.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: metformin cocrystal; mechanochemical synthesis; dicationic metformin; water channels; pi-interactions; mesoporous anhydrate
Online: 27 September 2020 (04:12:17 CEST)
A new cocrystal salt of metformin, an antidiabetic drug, and N,N’-(1,4-phenylene)dioxalamic acid, was synthesized by mechanochemical synthesis, purified by crystallization from solution and characterized by single X-ray crystallography. The structure revealed a salt-type cocrystal composed of one dicationic metformin unit, two monoanionic units of the acid and four water molecules namely H2Mf(HpOXA)2∙4H2O. X-ray powder, IR, 13C-CPMAS, thermal and BET adsorption-desorption analyses were performed to elucidate the structure of the molecular and supramolecurar structure of the anhydrous microcrystalline mesoporous solid H2Mf(HpOXA)2. The results suggest that their structures, conformation and hydrogen bonding schemes are very similar between them. To the best of our knowledge, the selective formation of the monoanion HpOXA⁻, as well as its structure in the solid, is herein reported for the first time. Regular O(-)∙∙∙C(), O(-)∙∙∙N+ and bifacial O(-)∙∙∙C()∙∙∙O(-) of n→* charge-assisted interactions are herein described in H2MfA cocrystal salts which could be responsible of the interactions of metformin in biologic systems. The results, support the participation of n→* charge-assisted interactions independently, and not just as a short contact imposed by the geometric constraint due to the hydrogen bonding patterns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0020.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Hydrotreating, mesoporous sulfide materials, waste Jatropha biomass, drop-in biofuels, upgrading technology
Online: 1 April 2019 (13:51:53 CEST)
The bio-oil was largely produced by thermal pyrolysis of Jatropha-derived biomass wastes (denoted as Jatropha bio-oil) using a Pilot Plant with a capacity of 20 kg h-1 at Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research (TISTR), Thailand. Jatropha bio-oil is an unconventional type of bio-oil, which is mostly composed of fatty acids, fatty acid methyl esters, fatty acid amides and derivatives, and consequently it contained large amounts of heteroatoms (oxygen ~ 20 wt.%, nitrogen ~ 5 wt.%, sulfur ~ 1000 ppm.). The heteroatoms, nitrogen especially, are highly poisonous to the metal or sulfide catalysts for upgrading of Jatropha bio-oil. To overcome this technical problem, we reported a stepwise strategy for hydrotreating of 100 wt% Jatropha bio-oil over mesoporous sulfide catalysts of CoMo/γ-Al2O3 and NiMo/γ-Al2O3 to produce drop-in transport fuels, such as gasoline- and diesel-like fuels. This study is very different from our recent work on co-processing of Jatropha bio-oil (ca. 10 wt%) with petroleum distillates to produce a hydrotreated oil as a diesel-like fuel (Chen et al., Catalysts 2018, 8, 59; http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/catal8020059). Jatropha bio-oil was pre-treated through a slurry-type high pressure reactor under severe condition, resulting in a pre-treated Jatropha bio-oil with relatively low amounts of heteroatoms (oxygen < 20 wt.%, nitrogen < 2 wt.%, sulfur < 500 ppm.). The light and middle distillates of pre-hydrotreated Jatropha bio oil was then separated by distillation at temperature below 240 oC, and the temperature of 240-360 oC. Deep hydrotreating of light distillates over sulfide CoMo/γ-Al2O3 catalyst was performed on a batch-type high pressure reactor at 350 oC and 7 MPa of H2 gas for 5 h. The hydrotreated oil was a gasoline-like fuel, which contained 29.5 vol.% of n-paraffins, 14.4 vol.% of iso-paraffins, 4.5 vol.% of olefins, 21.4 vol. % of naphthene compounds and 29.6 wt.% of aromatic compounds, and little amounts of heteroatoms (nearly no oxygen and sulfur, and less than 50 ppm of nitrogen), corresponding to an octane number of 44, and it would be suitable for blending with petro-gasoline. The hydrotreating of middle distillates over sulfide NiMo/γ-Al2O3 catalyst using the same reaction condition produced a hydrotreating oil with diesel-like composition, low amounts of heteroatoms (no oxygen and less than 50 ppm of sulfur and nitrogen), and a cetane number of 60, which would be suitable for use in drop-in diesel fuel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0138.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: natural rubber; GO-NH-MCM-41; graphene oxide; mesoporous; intumescent flame retardants
Online: 9 May 2018 (05:50:26 CEST)
Aiming to improve the flame retardancy performance of natural rubber (NR), we developed a novel flame retardant synergistic agent through grafting of MCM-41 to graphene oxide (GO)，named as GO-NH-MCM-41，as an assistant of intumescent flame retardants (IFR). The structure of GO-NH-MCM-41 was characterized by FTIR, TEM and SEM tests, which confirmed that a fine grafting had been applied between GO and MCM-41. The flame retardancy of NR/IFR/GO-NH-MCM-41 composites was evaluated by limited oxygen index (LOI), UL-94 and cone calorimeter test. The LOI value of NR/IFR/GO-NH-MCM-41 reached to 26.3%; the UL-94 ratings improved to V-0 rating. Moreover, the addition of GO-NH-MCM-41 obviously decreased the peak heat release rate (PHRR) and the total heat release (THR) of the natural rubber composites. And the addition of GO-NH-MCM-41 increased the thickness of char residue. The images of SEM indicated the char residue were more compact and continuous. The degradation of GO-NH-MCM-41 based NR composites completed with a mass loss of 35.57% at 600 ℃. The tensile strength and the elongation at break of NR/IFR/GO-NH-MCM-41 composites were 13.9 MPa and 496.7%, respectively. The results of rubber process analyzer (RPA) reached the maximum value, probably due to a better network of the fillers in the matrix.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0201.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: mesoporous TiO2; reduced graphene oxide; Ag nanoparticles; photocatalytic activity; visible light irradiation
Online: 27 March 2017 (12:01:25 CEST)
Mesoporous TiO2/reduced graphene oxide/Ag (TiO2/RGO/Ag) ternary nanocomposite with effective electrons transfer pathway is obtained by an electrostatic self-assembly method and photo-assisted treatment. Compared with bare mesoporous TiO2 (MT) and mesoporous TiO2/RGO (MTG), the ternary mesoporous TiO2/RGO/Ag (MTGA) nanocomposite exhibited superior photocatalytic performance for the degradation of MB under visible light, and the degradation rate reached 0.017 min-1, which was 3.4 times higher than that of MTG. It is proposed that Ag nanoparticles can form the local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) to absorb the visible light and distract the electrons into MT, and RGO can accept the electrons from MT to accelerate the separation efficiency of carriers. The establishment of MTGA ternary nanocomposite make the three components act synergistic effect to enhance the photocatalytic performance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0391.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: monochromatic X-ray; high Z elements; mesoporous silica nanoparticles; tumor spheroids; Auger therapy
Online: 26 March 2020 (14:27:39 CET)
Conventional radiation therapy uses white X-rays that consist of a mixture of X-ray waves with various energy levels. In contrast, a monochromatic X-ray (monoenergetic X-ray) has a single energy level. Irradiation of high Z elements with a synchrotron generated monochromatic X-ray with the energy at or higher than the K-edge energy of the element results in the production of the Auger electrons that cause DNA damage leading to cell killing. Delivery of high Z elements into cancer cells and tumor mass can be facilitated by the use of nanoparticles. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have been shown to be effective in delivering high Z elements to cancer cells. A proof of principle experiment was reported that demonstrated the feasibility of this approach. This opens up a possibility to pursue the Auger cancer therapy by the combined use of MSNs loaded with high Z elements and monochromatic X-rays. Similar cancer therapies using other types of quantum beams such as neutron, proton and carbon ion beams can be envisioned.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2190.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: advanced water treatment; electrochemical filtering; doxorubicin; mesoporous Sb-doped SnO2 electrode; activated carbon; particulate electrode
Online: 31 May 2023 (07:52:28 CEST)
In this paper, mesoporous electrodes consisted of Sb-doped SnO2 deposited onto Ti plates controlled corroded under acidic medium were synthesized by spin-coating method, and morpho structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrodes were electrochemical testing in the degradation/mineralization by electrooxidation (EO) of doxorubicin (DOX) as single-component and multi-component together with capecitabine (CCB)-from cytostatic class and humic acid (HA)-from natural organic matter (NOM) class in the absence/the presence of activated carbon (AC) as particulate electrode. The best mineralization efficiency of 67 % was achieved for DOX mineralization using Sb-doped SnO2 deposited onto Ti plate controlled corroded with oxalic acid in electrooxidation process. The presence of AC within the electrolysis process generated a synergy effect of 52.75 % for TOC parameter removal, which is in accordance and quite better than the result reported in the literature. The aspects related to the complex mechanism of DOX degradation and mineralization are discussed. The superiority of AC assisted electrooxidation, as electrochemical filtering (EF), was proved considering simultaneous degradation and mineralization of mixture of doxorubicin, capecitabine and humic acid.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0177.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: lipid peroxidation; membrane elasticity; mesoporous silica nanoparticles; myricetin; myricitrin; nanomechanics; protective effects of flavonoids; quercetin
Online: 16 April 2019 (09:54:03 CEST)
Flavonoids, polyphenols with anti-oxidative activity have high potential as novel therapeutics for neurodegenerative disease, but their applicability is rendered by their poor water solubility and chemical instability under physiological conditions. In this study, this is overcome by delivering flavonoids to model cell membranes (unsaturated DOPC) using prepared and characterized biodegradable mesoporous silica nanoparticles, MSNs. Quercetin, myricetin and myricitrin have been investigated in order to determine the relationship between flavonoid structure and protective activity towards oxidative stress i.e. lipid peroxidation induced by addition of hydrogen peroxide and/or Cu2+ ions. Among investigated flavonoids, quercetin showed the most enhanced and prolonged protective anti-oxidative activity. The nanomechanical (Young modulus) measurement of the MSNs treated DOPC membranes during lipid peroxidation confirmed attenuated membrane damage. By applying combination of experimental techniques (AFM, force spectroscopy, ELS, DLS), this work generated detailed knowledge about the effects of flavonoid loaded MSNs on the elasticity of model membranes, especially under oxidative stress conditions. Results from this study will pave the way towards the development of innovative and improved markers for oxidative stress-associated neurological disorders. In addition, the obtained could be extended to designing effective delivery systems of other high potential bioactive molecules with an aim to improve human health in general.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0124.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: lipases; Thermomyces lanuginosus; agroindustrial waste; hexyl laurate; lipase immobilization; biomass valorization; green chemistry; biocatalysis; mesoporous materials
Online: 3 March 2021 (10:07:48 CET)
As a consequence of intense industrialization in the last few decades, the amount of agro-industrial wastes has increasing, where new forms of valorization are crucial. In this work, 5 residual biomasses from Maranhão (Brazil) were investigted as supports for immobilization of lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (TLL). The new biocatalysts BM-TLL (babaçu mesocarp) and RH-TLL (rice husk) showed immobilization efficiencies >98% and hydrolytic activities of 5,331 U.g-1 and 4.608 U. g-1 respectively against 142 U. g-1 by Lipozyme® TL IM. High esterification activities were also found, with 141.4 U.g-1 and 396.4 U.g-1 from BM-TLL and RH-TLL against 113.5 U.g-1 by TL IM. Results of porosimetry, SEM and BET demonstrated BM and RH supports are mesoporous materials with large hydrophobic area, allowing a mixture of hydrophobic adsorption and confinement, resulting in hyperactivation of TLL. These biocatalysts were applied in the production of hexyl laurate, where RH-TLL was able to generate 94% conversion in 4 h. Desorption with Triton X-100 and NaCl confirmed that new biocatalysts were more efficient with 5 times less protein than commercial TL IM. All results demonstrated that residual biomass was able to produce robust and stable biocatalysts containing immobilized TLL with better results than commercial preparations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0085.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: chick embryo; 3D culture; tumor models in vitro; tissue engineering; metastasis; triple-negative breast cancer; liver; mesoporous silica nanoparticles; doxorubicin; micrometastasis
Online: 6 September 2021 (11:46:54 CEST)
Colonization of distant organs by tumor cells is a critical step of cancer progression. The initial avascular stage of this process (micrometastasis) remains almost inaccessible to study due to the lack of relevant experimental approaches. Here, we introduce an in vitro/in vivo model of organ-specific micrometastases of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) that is fully implemented in a cost-efficient chick embryo (CE) experimental platform. The model is built as three-dimensional (3D) tissue engineering constructs (TECs) combining human MDA-MB-231 cells and decellular-ized CE organ-specific scaffolds. TNBC cells colonized CE organ-specific scaffolds in 2-3 weeks, forming tissue-like structures. The feasibility of this methodology for basic cancer research, drug development and nanomedicine was demonstrated on a model of hepatic micrometastasis of TNBC. We revealed that MDA-MB-231 differentially colonize parenchymal and stromal com-partments of the liver-specific extracellular matrix (LS-ECM) and become more resistant to the treatment with molecular Doxorubicin (Dox) and Dox-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles than in monolayer cultures. When grafted on CE chorioallantoic membrane, LS-ECM-based TECs induced angiogenic switch. These findings may have important implications for the diag-nosis and treatment of TNBC. The methodology established here is scalable and adaptable for pharmacological testing and cancer biology research of various metastatic and primary tumors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0031.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: direct-electron transfer-type bioelectrocatalysis; nanostructures; mesoporous electrodes, curvature effect; protein engineering; bi-directional bioelectrocatalysis; hydrogenase; fructose dehydrogenase; bilirubin oxidase; formate dehydrogenase; ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase
Online: 3 February 2020 (13:34:02 CET)
Direct electron transfer (DET)-type bioelectrocatalysis, which couples electrode reactions and catalytic functions of redox enzymes without any redox mediator, is one of the most intriguing subjects studied over the past decades in the field of bioelectrochemistry. In order to realize the DET-type bioelectrocatalysis and to improve the performance, nanostructures of the electrode surface have to be carefully tuned for each enzyme. In addition, enzymes can also be tuned by protein engineering approach for the DET-type reaction. This review summarizes the resent progresses in this field of the research, while taking into consideration of the importance of nanostructure of electrodes as well as redox enzymes. Described are basic concepts and theoretical aspects of DET-type bioelectrocatalysis, significance of nanostructures as scaffolds for DET-type reactions, protein engineering approached for DET-type reactions, and concepts and facts of bidirectional DET-type reactions, from a cross-disciplinary viewpoint.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0088.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: There are many molecules used as drug carrier. TUD-1 is a newly synthesized mesoporous silica (SM) molecule possess two important features; consists of mesoporous so it is very suitable to be drug carrier in addition to that it has the ability to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the effect of TUD-1 appears to act as cell death inducer, regardless of whether it is necrosis or apoptosis. Unfortunately, recent studies indicate that a proportion of cells undergo necrosis rather than apoptosis, which limits the use of TUD-1 as a secure treatment. On the other hand, lithium considered as necrosis inhibitor element. Hence, current study based on the idea of production a new Li/TUD-1 by incorporated mesoporous silica (TUD-1 type) with lithium in order to produce a new compound that has the ability to activate apoptosis by mesoporous silica (TUD-1 type) and at the same time can inhibit the activity of necrosis by lithium. Herein, lithium was incorporated in TUD-1 mesoporous silica by
Online: 4 October 2018 (15:54:02 CEST)
There are many molecules used as drug carrier. TUD-1 is a newly synthesized mesoporous silica (SM) molecule possess two important features; consists of mesoporous so it is very suitable to be drug carrier in addition to that it has the ability to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the effect of TUD-1 appears to act as cell death inducer, regardless of whether it is necrosis or apoptosis. Unfortunately, recent studies indicate that a proportion of cells undergo necrosis rather than apoptosis, which limits the use of TUD-1 as a secure treatment. On the other hand, lithium considered as necrosis inhibitor element. Hence, current study based on the idea of production a new Li/TUD-1 by incorporated mesoporous silica (TUD-1 type) with lithium in order to produce a new compound that has the ability to activate apoptosis by mesoporous silica (TUD-1 type) and at the same time can inhibit the activity of necrosis by lithium. Herein, lithium was incorporated in TUD-1 mesoporous silica by using sol-gel technique in one step synthesis procedure. Moreover, lithium was incorporated in TUD-1 with different loading in order to form different active sites such as isolated lithium ions, nanoparticles of Li2O, and bulky crystals of Li2O. The ability of the new compounds to induce apoptosis and prevent necrosis was evaluated on three different types of cancer cell lines which are; liver HepG-2, Breast MCF-7 and colon HCT116. The obtained results show that Li/TUD-1has the ability to control necrosis and thus reduce the side effects of treatments containing silica in the case of lithium has been added to them, especially in chronic cases. This has been demonstrated by the significant increase in the IC50 value and cell viability comparing to control groups. Consequently, the idea is new, so it definitely needs more develop and test with materials that have more apoptotic impact than silica in order to induce apoptosis without induction of necrosis.