ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0338.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: startup failure; competency approach; Critical Incident Technique; Information seeking; Customer service orientation
Online: 28 January 2020 (10:37:41 CET)
Purpose: There is limited research on the reasons behind startup failure, and none of the available studies use a competency approach. In this study we applied Spencer’s competency model to identify the competencies in startups which, according to their CEOs, contributed to failure. Methodology: Three coders analyzed the stories of 50 startup failures published online using modified Critical Incident Technique. Findings: Two salient competencies were identified playing a fundamental role in startup failures if missing: Information seeking and Customer service orientation. A network pattern of 9 more prevalent competency deficits was created: Technical/professional/managerial expertise, Analytical thinking, Flexibility, Self-control, Concern for order, quality and accuracy, Interpersonal understanding, Self-confidence, Team leadership and Teamwork and cooperation. Besides startup-specific behavior descriptions were added to Spencer’s competencies. Research implications: Competency approach and Critical Incident Technique method proved to be feasible to identify competency deficits in failed startups. Practical implications: The identified competency deficits offer relevant focus areas for the assessment and development of startup teams. Originality: The study provided research evidence to describe the competency deficits of startup teams that are connected to their failure.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0053.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: customer experience; customer-centricity; customer experience design; and integrated customer experience strategy
Online: 5 October 2020 (08:14:04 CEST)
The dynamics involving market competition and the challenges of dealing with empowered customers, means that creating and delivering relevant customer experience (CX) of service, is as important as creating product or services. Several studies have treated customer experience as though a front-desk, sales-point affair with the customer in the retailing environment, negating the critical role of organization-wide efforts in the overall customer experience management sequence. This review, however, adopts customer-centricity, as a theoretical lens to underscore the [re]configuration of organizational-level factors that are critical to adopting a high customer-experienced centred organization. Based on the review, we highlight conditions for adopting high customer experience management organization: (1) developing an integrated CX strategy, (2) CX-based knowledge management, (3) organizational re-design that supports CX-management, (4) top management commitment, (5) integrated CX IT systems, and (6) CX-oriented HR policies. These practices are only necessary conditions, but not sufficient, for creating, delivering, relevant and sustainable customer experience. However, more robust empirical studies are needed to advance the application of organization-wide customer experience management, which vary across industry, products/services, and sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0250.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: Customer Service Experience; Multichannel Retailing; Customer Journeys; Customer Equity
Online: 10 February 2021 (10:25:58 CET)
Spectacular shifts have been led to by The COVID-19 crisis in consumer behavior. Retailers will have to work hard to meet ever-evolving customer service experience with respect to the ways in which it may be differently affected by offline or online transactions in order to win and stay relevant. We suggest an integrative framework and construct customer service experience hypotheses, based on its antecedents and consequences that will contribute to academic study as well as managerial implications. The hypotheses are tested by a simultaneous equation model employing two data sets of the retail industry's offline and online customers. In this study, 571 samples of these businesses, 319 and 252 respondents from offline and online retail channels, respectively, were collected by means of an online web survey of consumers. The results show that the impact of consequences and antecedents of CSX differs based on the media utilized. The integrative framework of CSX in its online medium is far more effective than its explanatory power offline. The outcomes are reasonably counterintuitive in so far as they demonstrate that while most elements of CSX where a service is selected offline is the same in terms of customer loyalty and value equity, the emotional element related to the service provider is higher when the service is selected offline rather than online. These outcomes indicate that, contrary to popular fears, the online medium enables firms to develop a loyal customer foundation. These findings offer perceptivity into how an online channel could be used to better complement the offline channel, contributing towards new knowledge and understanding on CSX and how it may be utilized for managerial decision-making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0027.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: customer complaint process improvement; customer complaint service; big data analysis
Online: 7 September 2016 (11:38:33 CEST)
With the advances in industry and commerce, passengers have become more accepting of environmental sustainability issues; thus, more people now choose to travel by bus. Government administration constitutes an important part of bus transportation services as the government gives the right-of-way to transportation companies allowing them to provide services. When these services are of poor quality, passengers may lodge complaints. The increase in consumer awareness and developments in wireless communication technologies have made it possible for passengers to easily and immediately submit complaints about transportation companies to government institutions, which has brought drastic changes to the supply-demand chain comprised of the public sector, transportation companies, and passengers. This study proposed the use of big data analysis technology including systematized case assignment and data visualization to improve management processes in the public sector and optimize customer complaint services. Taichung City, Taiwan was selected as the research area. There, the customer complaint management process in public sector was improved, effectively solving such issues as station-skipping, allowing the public sector to fully grasp the service level of transportation companies, improving the sustainability of bus operations, and supporting the sustainable development of the public sector-transportation company-passenger supply chain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: customer; interruption; cost; DSO; compensation
Online: 6 July 2018 (15:58:22 CEST)
Estimation of the worth of continuity of electricity supply is of interest of industry, authorities and research society. There are numerous methods to calculate the Customer Interruption Costs (CICs). Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. This paper approaches the problem from Distribution System Operators’ (DSOs) point of view and adopts two existing analytical models. One model is used by the Finnish Energy Market Authority and the second one was proposed by the authors at a previous study. The model suggested by the authors as an alternative to the one used by the Finnish Energy Market Authority proposes a simple and straightforward methodology which will provide credible and objective estimations by only utilizing publicly available analytical data. We made use of cost and reliability indices data of 78 DSOs in Finland from the year 2016. In addition to cost estimations, this paper highlights regional differences in CIC estimations in different parts of Finland and critically overviews the existing standard customer compensation scheme in Finland.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0063.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Churn 1; customer churn; customer segmentation; churn prevention; predictive churn model; recommendation system engine.
Online: 2 June 2021 (10:03:02 CEST)
The strategy of any organization is based on the growth of its customer base, and one of its principles is that selling a product to an existing customer is much more profitable than acquiring a new customer. However, this approach has several opportunities for improvement, since it usually has a totally reactive approach, which does not give opportunity to the areas specialized in customer experience and recovery, to give an effective response for that moment, since the customer is gone at the time of the intervention. This happens because usually a diagnostic analysis of customers who have stopped buying products or services in a defined period, commonly three (3) periods or months, is performed. This thesis work challenges the way to face this problem, and proposes the development of a complete solution, which does not focus exclusively on the prediction of churn, as is usually done in the state of the art research, but to intervene in different interactions that can be carried out with customers. The above focused not only to prevent customer churn, but to generate an added value of continuous improvement in sales processes, increase customer penetration, leading to an improvement in customer experience and consequently, an increase in customer loyalty.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0363.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Marketing Keywords: social media; social media metrics; digital marketing; social media marketing strategy; customer sentiment; customer engagement
Online: 25 July 2022 (08:38:24 CEST)
The role of Social Media Marketing (SMM) in marketing strategies is rapidly growing. Because the use of social media is growing, the industry of SMM will grow bigger in the coming years; the pace of this growth is faster than ever. To survive in the modern competitive world, effective use of SMM for a firm is a must; for that, every SMM channel needs to be used to its full potential. For a marketing campaign to be effective, there is a need for some metrics to measure the success of the SMM campaign. These metrics measure if the campaign is successfully implemented or not. This would help firms understand the market, gain a competitive advantage, and ultimately get a positive impact on the overall business. This study categorizes SMM strategy into 4 dimensions and associates 10 broad categories of SMM metrics to these dimensions. The proposed model of this study suggests the application of Social Media Analytics (SMA) ineffective use of metrics to measure SMM campaigns. There are so many SMA Tools available for free and time-efficient data analysis that can lead to faster and better results than manual analysis. Following this model, the importance of SMA tools in devising an effective SMM strategy is highlighted. The implication of this research is towards a better understanding of the application of SMA for any firm to have a solid SMM Strategy, especially small and medium-sized enterprises that have limited resources.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0119.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Churn 1; customer churn; customer segmentation; churn prevention; predictive churn 20 model; recommendation system engine
Online: 3 June 2021 (14:57:01 CEST)
The strategy of any organization is based on the growth of its customer base, and one of 5 its principles is that selling a product to an existing customer is much more profitable than acquiring 6 a new customer. However, this approach has several opportunities for improvement, since it usu- 7 ally has a totally reactive approach, which does not give opportunity to the areas specialized in 8 customer experience and recovery, to give an effective response for that moment, since the customer 9 is gone at the time of the intervention. This happens because usually a diagnostic analysis of cus- 10 tomers who have stopped buying products or services in a defined period, commonly three (3) pe- 11 riods or months, is performed. This thesis work challenges the way to face this problem, and pro- 12 poses the development of a complete solution, which does not focus exclusively on the prediction 13 of churn, as is usually done in the state of the art research, but to intervene in different interactions 14 that can be carried out with customers. The above focused not only to prevent customer churn, but 15 to generate an added value of continuous improvement in sales processes, increase customer pene- 16 tration, leading to an improvement in customer experience and consequently, an increase in cus- 17 tomer loyalty.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0118.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: Churn 1; customer churn; customer segmentation; churn prevention; predictive churn 21 model; recommendation system engine.
Online: 3 June 2021 (13:34:28 CEST)
The strategy of any organization is based on the growth of its customer base, and one of 6 its principles is that selling a product to an existing customer is much more profitable than acquiring 7 a new customer. However, this approach has several opportunities for improvement, since it usu- 8 ally has a totally reactive approach, which does not give opportunity to the areas specialized in 9 customer experience and recovery, to give an effective response for that moment, since the customer 10 is gone at the time of the intervention. This happens because usually a diagnostic analysis of cus- 11 tomers who have stopped buying products or services in a defined period, commonly three (3) pe- 12 riods or months, is performed. This paper challenges the way to face this problem, and proposes 13 the development of a complete solution, which does not focus exclusively on the prediction of 14 churn, as is usually done in the state of the art research, but to intervene in different interactions 15 that can be carried out with customers. The above focused not only to prevent customer churn, but 16 to generate an added value of continuous improvement in sales processes, increase customer pene- 17 tration, leading to an improvement in customer experience and consequently, an increase in cus- 18 tomer loyalty.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0113.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Churn 1; customer churn; customer segmentation; churn prevention; predictive churn 20 model; recommendation system engine.
Online: 3 June 2021 (12:48:22 CEST)
The strategy of any organization is based on the growth of its customer base, and one of 5 its principles is that selling a product to an existing customer is much more profitable than acquiring 6 a new customer. However, this approach has several opportunities for improvement, since it usu- 7 ally has a totally reactive approach, which does not give opportunity to the areas specialized in 8 customer experience and recovery, to give an effective response for that moment, since the customer 9 is gone at the time of the intervention. This happens because usually a diagnostic analysis of cus- 10 tomers who have stopped buying products or services in a defined period, commonly three (3) pe- 11 riods or months, is performed. This paper challenges the way to face this problem, and proposes 12 the development of a complete solution, which does not focus exclusively on the prediction of 13 churn, as is usually done in the state of the art research, but to intervene in different interactions 14 that can be carried out with customers. The above focused not only to prevent customer churn, but 15 to generate an added value of continuous improvement in sales processes, increase customer pene- 16 tration, leading to an improvement in customer experience and consequently, an increase in cus- 17 tomer loyalty.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0090.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: customer relationship management (CRM); social media; social CRM; customer information; small and medium enterprises (SMEs)
Online: 5 November 2018 (08:31:42 CET)
Social customer relationship management (SCRM) is a new philosophy influencing the relationship between customer and organization, where the customer gets opportunity to control relationship through social media. The paper aims on (a) identification of current level of SCRM and also on (b) influence of basic organizational characteristics on SCRM level. The data were gathered through the questionnaire distributed in 362 organization headquartered in the Czech Republic. The questionnaire comprised 54 questions focusing on the significance of marketing and CRM practices, establishing a relationship with the customer, online communities, the use of social media in marketing, and acquiring and managing information. The majority of questions were scalable and used typical five-level Likert scale. Results showed that larger firms more often set up their own online communities and manage them strategically, moreover they are able to manage information better. Contrariwise, small sized organizations use social networks as a way to establish communication with the customer more than large sized entities. Use of social media for marketing purposes is significantly higher in organizations oriented on consumer markets than on business markets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0367.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Recommender Systems; Customer Loyalty; Complex Networks
Online: 25 February 2020 (11:04:46 CET)
A good recommender system can infer customers’ preferences based on their historical purchase records, and recommend products that the customers may be interested in, saving them a lot of time and energy. For enterprises, it is difficult to recommend accurately to each customer, and the bad recommendation may be counterproductive. Customer loyalty is an indicator that measures the preference relationship between customers and products in the field of marketing. A hypothesis is proposed in this study: if companies can divide customers into different groups based on customer loyalty, the recommendation effect on certain groups is better than that on overall customers. In this study, customer loyalty is measured by four features of the RFML model. All customers are viewed as points on a four-dimensional space, which are clustered by the k-means model. Two recommendation algorithms based on complex networks are tested: recommendation algorithm based on bipartite graph and PersonalRank (BGPR), and recommendation algorithm based on a single vertex set network and DeepWalk (SVDW). The experimental results show that customer loyalty has improved the effectiveness of the two algorithms over 14%, and the recommendation effect is the best on customer groups with a loyalty level of 4 (the highest level is 5). The recommendation algorithms with customer loyalty are better than using them alone.
Subject: Social Sciences, Marketing Keywords: satisfaction; customer; taxi market; marketing; Russia
Online: 12 December 2019 (12:40:56 CET)
The purpose of this paper is to identify factors that influenced customer satisfaction in the Moscow taxi market. The previous researches in customer satisfaction of transportation services laid the foundation of factor model. The resulting list of factors was revised by taxi market experts. The augmented model provided the basis for quantitative survey. The research sample included 310 respondents who have been using taxi services in Moscow during past 2 years. Survey data was analyzed using multiple choice regression method. Analysis results show significant differences between frequent and casual taxi users and a certain number of passenger experience factors that have no influence on customer satisfaction:for frequent users it is discount, for regular users - trip environment, and for rare clients - technical support&security and trip comfort.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0359.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Marketing Keywords: digital marketing, social CRM, omnichannel CRM, customer experience management, customer engagement, marketing automation, B2B / B2C marketing
Online: 16 May 2021 (21:07:10 CEST)
This paper extends previous research on the influence of social media and digital channels on customer purchase behaviour by presenting a new omnichannel purchasing model. We characterise that model as a “virtuous circle” as it centres around customer use of social media and has potential to benefit both customers and companies. We illustrate that model with a worked example, discuss approaches to its implementation and evaluate its use in the context of a business case study. The model creates a framework that combines elements of digital marketing, social CRM, omnichannel CRM, and customer experience and engagement. This paper bridges academic and industry practitioner communities across those fields.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0107.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: Bus; Customer satisfaction; Intercity terminal; SERVQUAL Model
Online: 16 October 2017 (12:58:16 CEST)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the nature of relationship between service quality and customers’ satisfaction thorough SERVQUAL model. This study can be considered as an applied research, from purpose point of view and descriptive-survey, with regards to the nature and method. Passengers of Kaveh and Sofeh terminal in Isfahan have been considered as research population. Sample size included 200 passengers witch was determined by Cochran formula. Spss 19 was used to analyze collected data. Results show that there is a significant positive relationship between service quality and customers’ satisfaction. It is also proved that in terms of the importance of satisfactions’ dimensions, assurance is the most important aspect and then reliability, empathy, equipment appearance and responsiveness in sequence are the most important dimensions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0145.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Sustainability; Customer-Centric; Business strategy; Marketing; Bibliometric analysis
Online: 6 August 2020 (10:07:14 CEST)
Firms are increasingly organized around the client. At the same time, there is customer pressure on green and sustainable organizations. The purpose of this paper is to map the current state of the research in the domain of customer-centric organizations from a sustainable perspective. We conducted a bibliometric analysis from published documents between 1990 and 2020. Key findings indicate that research on customer centricity and sustainability has increased in recent years and that the topic is structured into 3 clusters: (1) Sustainability; (2) Customer-Centric Perspective, and Sustainable Development; and (3) Customer Experience and Sales. Moreover, new concepts and technologies have been introduced during the last three years. The implementation of a bibliometric methodology and the focus given to the definition, the relationships, and the evolution of the three main clusters within the topic are the characteristics that differentiate our study from other publications or reviews in the field of research. This paper is beneficial for practitioners who aim to deploy the customer centricity approach in their firms from a sustainable perspective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0181.v2
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Service Quality; E-Supply Chain Management; Customer Satisfaction; online shopping
Online: 20 December 2021 (11:33:13 CET)
The purposes of this study are to introduce the concept of Service Quality (SQ) in E-Supply Chain Management (E-SCM) and its impact on increasing Customer Satisfaction (CS) and provide insightful enhancements to the literature. In addition, the paper also examines the influence of SQ of E-SCM on CS in online shopping. After a comprehensive literature review, four key factors for measuring the E-Supply Chain (Process Control, Interaction with Supplier, Management Support, and Focus on Customers), four key factors for measuring CS (Informing Customers, Attention to Customers’ Needs, Staff Performance Accuracy, and Easy Access to Services), and four factors for measuring the quality of identification services (Assurance, Accountability, Tangibility and Reliability) were selected. The proposed conceptual model was then presented. This model was validated by data collected through a survey of 150 respondents in order to identify customer satisfaction, including that of customers of online websites in Iran. The sample data was analyzed using SPSS21, after which the interrelationships between the model and factors were examined based on the Partial Least Square-Structural (PLS). Model fit indices were then calculated for the dataset. The proposed model was validated using factor analysis and structural equation modeling techniques. The results indicated that E-SCM has a direct impact on CS. The effect of SQ was also confirmed. A positive and significant relationship was identified between E-SCM and CS, E-SCM and SQ, as well as SQ and CS (P> 0.05). The first limitation was to convince respondents to cooperate with the researchers. The second one was the lack of research-related background due to the subject being relatively new. This study, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, is the first empirical analysis on the CS assessment of SQ of E-Supply Chain in online shopping. This important link to online shopping has rarely been explored. It is expected that by filling this gap, this study will help in strengthening online shopping, which needs a change in the marketing area.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0368.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: mobile marketing; customer behavior; structural equations; decision making; individual knowledge
Online: 30 November 2020 (11:10:36 CET)
Nowadays, customers play a very important and vital role in the field of global economy. As a result, companies give special significance to the customers to survive and grow in the field of economic competition in the modern world and increase their relationship with the buyers of their products and services throughout their lifetime. Marketing growth through mobile phones has provided further motives for performing more researches in the field of customer behavior and attitude in mobile marketing. The goal of the current study is to analyze the effective factors on customer behavior in mobile marketing. The variables used in this study are perceived ease of use, individual knowledge, user’s mobile phone technology, customers’ negative attitudes, and customers’ positive attitudes. The current research is practical in terms of objective and is descriptive-analytic in terms of methodology. Data were gathered by distributing a questionnaire among 284 students of Tehran University. Data were analyzed by structural equation modeling using Lisrel and Expert Choice software. Test results showed that ease of use, individual knowledge, mobile phone technology, positive attitude, and negative attitude variables have a meaningful effect on customer behavior in mobile marketing. The confirmation of all the assumptions of the research supports the importance of the customer behavior analysis in mobile phone services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0530.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: KTAS; simulation; clinical decision-making ability; job satisfaction; customer orientation; nurse
Online: 26 October 2020 (14:14:54 CET)
This study focused on the development and implementation of an educational simulation program based on Korean Triage and Acuity Scale (KTAS) for nurses in emergency medical centers who completed KTAS training. We also examined its educational effects based on the evaluation of clinical decision-making ability, job satisfaction, and customer orientation. The study participants were 30 nurses in the emergency medical center of a general hospital. Data were collected from May 3 to 24, 2017, and analyzed using SPSS 22.0. There was a significant difference in the mean scores in clinical decision-making ability, job satisfaction, and customer orientation before and after simulation education. In other words, emergency nurses who received KTAS-based simulation education program improved their clinical decision making ability, job satisfaction, and customer orientation. Based on the results of this study, it is expected that it can be used for KTAS education, and it was found that simulation-based education is a useful learning method for triage nurses in emergency medical center.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0128.v2
Subject: Keywords: nudge; behavioural science; supermarket; customer experience; plastic bag ban; plastic waste
Online: 29 July 2020 (17:31:13 CEST)
Despite good intentions, the increasing number of plastic bag bans aimed at alleviating marine plastic pollution saw a correlated increase in the number of unintended consequences that emerged alongside the bans, suggesting that human behavior towards plastic bag consumption have not changed, but merely shifted, and are feeding into other major international environmental catastrophes. Nudge theory, which helps people make better choices for themselves without inhibiting their free will, is a potential solution that has been shown to play a subtle but important role in providing options under circumstances where complex information needs to be streamlined for the wider community, avoiding any unintended consequences and behavioural shifts that might arise from instruments that diminishes autonomy. It is therefore timely to look into the insights of nudge theory to encourage a positive behavioural change to reduce plastic bag consumption. Here we apply a systematic literature review to show how successful applications of nudges in supermarkets can be leveraged to reduce plastic bag consumption. We find that the current applications of nudges in various industries worldwide, including supermarkets have produced positive and encouraging results, as well as producing lasting behavioural change among the wider community. Supermarkets are identified as a powerful deployment site of these nudges due to their positioning as a dominant provider of plastic bags to the wider community, as well as being the largest and leading provider of daily food needs. Finally, we synthesise our findings to produce a coherent and testable framework of actionable interventions that supermarkets can employ to nudge customers towards reduced plastic bag reliance, accompanied with a visual timeline of a customer shopping in a supermarket experiencing these nudges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0504.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, attitudinal loyalty, behavioral loyalty, relationship between satisfaction and loyalty, communication, trust, commitment, perceived value, value co-creation, veterinarian, veterinary medicine, pet-owner
Online: 26 September 2018 (09:27:13 CEST)
Loyalty is one of the greatest intangible assets that any organization can possess and improving client loyalty is a primary marketing goal that can have a significant financial impact on any business. This quantitative study examined the mediating role of communication on the relationship between satisfaction and loyalty (attitudinal and behavioral) in veterinary clinics, along with the moderating roles of trust, commitment, perceived value, and relational characteristics. Responses collected from 351 pet-owners through social media were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results show that attitudinal loyalty (AL) has a strong positive relationship with communication at multiple points in a veterinary clinic whereas the relationship with behavioral loyalty was not as clear. Additional findings suggest that AL, which is influenced by trust in the veterinarian, communication from staff members and commitment, has a strong positive relationship with behavioral intentions, increases the number of products and services that a pet-owner consumes at his or her primary veterinary clinic, and attenuates the role of cost in receiving veterinary care. These findings can help veterinary clinic owners and managers in developing and implementing relationship strategies that improve pet-owner loyalty. The article that follows is a synopsis of the author’s dissertation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0294.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Residential electricity distribution; PLS-SEM; CB-SEM; quality of service; customer satisfaction
Online: 17 January 2022 (12:14:14 CET)
The main objective of this study is to apply structural equation modeling with partial least squares and based on covariance to assess the satisfaction of residential electricity consumers. The methodology used compares the results of both structural equation models to indicate the model that best fits the problem of measuring the satisfaction of residential consumers of electricity concessionaires and licensees. The sample used in the survey contained questionnaire responses from 86.175 individuals considering the period from 2014 to 2018. The constructs evaluated were satisfaction, quality, value, loyalty, and trust. Confidence interval analysis shows that all weights are significant, demonstrating the importance of all the indicators that represent the constructs. The trust, quality, and value constructs can explain 74.4% of the variability of the satisfaction construct, so the explanatory capacity of this relationship is considered substantial. Finally, the evaluation of the performance of the service provided by the electric energy concessionaires/licensees, measured by customer satisfaction, allows for the continuous improvement of services and meeting, even if minimally, the expectations of its consumers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0359.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: food delivery; customer satisfaction; new normal; COVID-19; theory of planned behavior
Online: 19 February 2021 (10:01:10 CET)
Online food delivery service (OFDS) has been widely utilized during the new normal of COVID-19 pandemic especially in a developing country such as Indonesia. The purpose of this study was to determine factors influencing customer satisfaction & loyalty in OFDS during the new normal of COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia by utilizing an extended Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) approach. 253 respondents voluntarily participated and answered 65 questions. Structural equation modeling (SEM) indicated that Hedonic Motivation (HM) was found to have the highest effect on customer satisfaction, followed by Price (P), Information Quality (IQ), and Promotion (PRO). Interestingly, this study found out that usability factors such as Navigational Design (ND) and Perceived Ease of Use (PEOU) were not significant to customer satisfaction and loyalty in OFDS during the new normal of COVID-19. This study can be the theoretical foundation that could be very beneficial for OFDS investors, IT engineers, and even academicians. Finally, this study can be applied and extended to determine factors influencing customer satisfaction and loyalty in OFDS during the new normal of COVID-19 in other countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0736.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Path analysis; in-store behavior; customer Clustering; indoor positioning; trajectory analysis; multilateration
Online: 30 November 2020 (15:57:36 CET)
With the rapid development of smart phones, tablets and their operative systems, many positioning enabled sensors have been built into these devices. Users can now accurately fix their location according to the function of GPS receivers. For indoor environments, as in the case we are studying, WiFi based positioning is preferred to GPS due to the attenuation or obstruction of signals. This paper deals with the automatic classification of customers in a Sports Shop Center on the basis of their movements around the shop's premises. To achieve this goal, we start by collecting (x,y) coordinates from customers while they visit the store. Consequently, any costumer's path through the shop is formed by a list of coordinates, obtained with a frequency of one measurement per minute. Then, a guess about the full trajectory is constructed and a number of parameters about these trajectories is calculated before performing an Unsupervised Learning Clustering Process. As a result, we can identify several types of customers, and the dynamics of their behavior inside the shop. This information is of great value to the company, to be used both in the long term and also in short periods of time, monitoring the current state of the shop at any moment, identifying different types of situation appearing during restricted periods, or predicting customer flow conditions
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0432.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: energy flexibility; retail stores; influential factors; employee engagement; customer engagement; utility collaboration
Online: 19 November 2018 (08:37:27 CET)
Retail buildings can provide energy flexibility to the grid with the possibility of load shifting and building automation systems. Demand response is a collective innovation in the smart grid domain. Various stakeholders should be involved in the demand response activities to ensure the success. The owners or senior management of retail buildings need to consider the stakeholders who are directly influenced by the demand response participation, e.g. customers and employees. Meanwhile, demand response activities are influenced by various factors, such as energy market structure, policy, etc. Therefore, this paper investigates the demand response readiness for retail buildings with three aspects: energy control preferences, stakeholder engagement, and cross-national differences. A questionnaire is designed and collected with store managers in Denmark (N=51) and the Philippines (N=36). The result shows that: 1) retail stores are much readier to participate in the implicit demand response by manual energy control compared to the utility control or building automation. Meanwhile, store managers have significant concerns about business activities and indoor lighting compared to other aspects; 2) the statistically significant influential factors for retail stores to participate in the demand response are related to whether the DR participation matches the company goals, influences business operation, and whether retail stores are lack of related knowledge; 3) retail stores believe that stakeholders should be informed about the DR activities but not involved in; 4) there are significant differences regarding the energy control preferences and concerns between retail stores in Denmark and the Philippines, but no significant difference regarding the stakeholder engagement.
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Water Conservation; Customer Segmentation; Pro-Environmental Behaviour; Smart Water Meters; Water-use Feedback
Online: 7 May 2021 (09:41:56 CEST)
In response to droughts, various media campaigns and water saving instructions are released, often however, with only temporary water conservation effects. A promising development is this regard are Digital Water Meters (DWM) that provide near real-time water-use feedback. Despite extensive DWM experience in some water-stressed regions, a profound understanding of the initial attitude towards DWM and message tailoring opportunities are rarely empirically explored. Therefore, we aim to obtain insights into the attitude towards the introduction of DWM and explore opportunities for message tailoring, a topic of extra relevance as we may be on the threshold of a large-scale implementation in many world regions. Messages tailored to (i) normative beliefs and attitudes on drinking water, (ii) water-use activity and (iii) phase of decision-making, seem particularly compatible with DWM. Through a survey (n=1037) in the Netherlands, we observe that 93% of respondents have no objections utility investments in DWM and that 78% would accept a free DWM because of improved leakage detection, lower costs and environmental considerations. Finally, instead of sociodemographic factors, we observed that an attitude-based customer segmentation approach proved an especially useful predictor of respondent’s motivation to endorse DWM and forms a promising basis for water conservation message-tailoring strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0015.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: expectancy disconfirmation theory; customer satisfaction; e-commerce personalized service; recommendation system; deep neural network
Online: 2 January 2020 (05:34:39 CET)
With the development of information technology and the popularization of mobile devices, collecting various types of customer data such as purchase history or behavior patterns became possible. As the customer data being accumulated, there is a growing demand for personalized recommendation services that provide customized services to customers. Currently, global e-commerce companies offer personalized recommendation services to gain a sustainable competitive advantage. However, previous research on recommendation systems has consistently raised the issue that the accuracy of recommendation algorithms does not necessarily lead to the satisfaction of recommended service users. It also claims that customers are highly satisfied when the recommendation system recommends diverse items to them. In this study, we want to identify the factors that determine customer satisfaction when using the recommendation system which provides personalized services. To this end, we developed a recommendation system based on Deep Neural Networks (DNN) and measured the accuracy of recommendation service, the diversity of recommended items and customer satisfaction with the recommendation service. The experimental results of is the study showed that both recommendation system accuracy and diversity would have a positive effect on customer satisfaction. These results can further improve customer satisfaction with the recommendation system and promote the sustainable development of e-commerce.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0652.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: supply chain management; logistics; collaboration; cooperation; supply chain design; customer satisfaction; distribution; regression; noodles
Online: 29 October 2018 (04:45:36 CET)
The degree of collaboration among supply chain partners and the structure of the network are important determinants of the level of satisfaction customers derive from the products or services. However, the effects of these dimensions on customer satisfaction at the downstream section of the supply chain remain under-researched in Nigeria. This study precisely examined the effects of collaboration and supply chain design on customers’ satisfaction at the downstream end of the chain using Ekiti State as study area. The study employed descriptive survey design with the use of structured Likert scale questionnaire administered to 381 retailers of noodles in Ekiti State. The research hypotheses were analysed using simple linear regression as statistical technique with the aid of SPSS version 22.0. At the end of the study, it was observed that both collaboration and supply chain design were significant predictors of customers’ satisfaction of instant noodles in Ekiti State. However, collaboration among supply chain partners emerged as stronger determinant of customers’ satisfaction than supply chain design. The study concludes that these two practices of supply chain management are highly important criteria any manufacturing firm especially in the noodles industry must pay close attention to in order to satisfy her consumers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0275.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: customer- oriented service; behaviour; distribution channel; commissions and fees; objective and subjective advice; sustainable insurance brokerage
Online: 24 January 2020 (10:36:31 CET)
This research focuses on the customer orientation of insurance brokers, whose activity is regulated by the Law of 26/2006 of July 17 on the mediation of private insurances and reinsurances. The goal is to ascertain whether the intermediation inherent in the insurance broker’s activity, which implies a customer-oriented service, entails a positive behaviour that transcends the immediate environment, reaching society. This study presents a comparative analysis between the insurance brokerage society, characterised by providing a personalised customer service, and banks’ advisory services on insurance. To this end, we study the evolution of the total volume of business and new production, compared for a portfolio of insurance products. The results presented in this research suggest that the customer values the advisory service provided by the broker. However, for a particular business segment in standardised insurance products and products related to banking assets, customers are more likely to resort to the bank’s services. In addition, the results indicate that the commission percentages applied by the entities operating in the banking insurance channel exceed those perceived by the insurance broker. With all this, intermediation in the development of the insurer’s activity can entail an ethical and social behaviour that involves customer-orientation and, possibly, social service, which does not always benefit the insurer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0074.v1
Subject: Keywords: Marketing Automation; Customer Relationship Management (CRMS); Automation; Machine Learning; Simulation; Marketing Simulation; Little’s Framework for Marketing Automation
Online: 6 May 2021 (11:53:13 CEST)
In order to be able to face competition, thriving corporations have to be compelled to maintain an awfully smart relationship with their existing customers and additionally to be able to anticipate their future wants. Thus, corporations do not target customers as teams, however they’re attempting to focus on them as individuals. However, to be able to use this information, corporations have to be compelled to use promoting automation tools. Marketing Automation was an idea first introduced in 2001 by John D.C. Little in his presentation at the 5th Invitational Choice Symposium UC Berkeley 2001. This survey paper assesses prominent research on Marketing Automation and suggests how it can be modified to adapt to the current marketing scenario.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0249.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Grocery Delivery, Energy-Savings, CO2-Savings, Munich, Break-Even Point, Electric Delivery Vehicle, Customer Pickup, Modal Shift
Online: 20 December 2018 (12:46:13 CET)
TThe number of supermarkets offering a grocery delivery has been increasing during the last years. Many studies deduce CO2 emission savings using this concept. Since the delivery of groceries also consumes energy and produces emissions, break-even points can be calculated, from where the delivery has environmental advantages compared to the customer pickup. In this paper, influences of differing vehicle use on break-even points for savings of energy and CO2 emissions are analyzed for the case of Haidhausen Süd, a city district of Munich in Germany. Internal combustion engine and electric vehicles are investigated to depict current as well as future trends. After an introduction to the used methodology, the potential to save energy and CO2 emissions related to the delivery of groceries in the chosen district of Munich is evaluated. Afterwards, influences on the break even points are presented and discussed. As the results show, a delivery of groceries leads to energy and carbon dioxide savings in a wide range of private vehicle use for grocery shopping trips. Nevertheless, if the complete customer vehicle fleet is electrified, the use of delivery vehicles with an internal combustion engine can cause an additional environmental impact at the current modal split for shopping trips in Germany.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0281.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Optical networks; software-defined networks; fifth-generation wireless network(5G); network service orchestrators; customer- specific requirements; Quality of service, flexibility.
Online: 19 July 2022 (07:44:11 CEST)
Optical networks offer a wide range of benefits to the telecommunication sector world- wide with its provision of higher bandwidth which leads to faster data speed, longer transmission distance, and improved latency. Currently, the complexity associated with advancements in optical networks poses problems to network flexibility, reliability, and quality of service. Over the years, many reviews and proposals have been implemented by several literatures to provide solutions for optical networks using software-defined networks and network service orchestrators. This paper reviews the significant challenges in current optical network applications, the various solutions rendered by software-defined networks as well as network service orchestration, the impediments, and gaps in these software – defined networks. This paper will go a step further to look into the various improvements and implementations of software-defined networks tailored to solve specific optical network problems. This paper further proposes a flexible orchestration architecture for software-defined networks for solving flexibility and scalability problems in optical networks. This proposal uses Open Network System (ONOS) SDN controller, leveraging on dockerisation as well as kubernetes clusterisation and orchestration. This solution presents a more flexible, reliable, customable, and higher quality of service which is an improvement upon current solutions in literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0294.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: Data preprocessing; data validation; recommendation engine; E-commerce; Click-through rate; Buy-through rate; online customer behavior; non-parametric outlier removal; personalization
Online: 1 February 2019 (10:22:37 CET)
E-commerce businesses employ recommender models to assist in identifying a personalized set of products for each visitor. To accurately assess the recommendations’ influence on customer clicks and buys, three target areas—customer behavior, data collection, user-interface —will be explored for possible sources of erroneous data. Varied customer behavior misrepresents the recommendations’ true influence on a customer due to the presence of B2B interactions and outlier customers. Non-parametric statistical procedures for outlier removal are delineated and other strategies are investigated to account for the effect of a large percentage of new customers or high bounce rates. Subsequently, in data collection we identify probable misleading interactions in the raw data, propose a robust method of tracking unique visitors, and accurately attributing the buy influence for combo products. Lastly, user-interface issues discuss the possible problems caused due to the recommendation widget’s positioning on the e-commerce website and the stringent conditions that should be imposed when utilizing data from the product listing page. This collective methodology results in an exact and valid estimation of the customer’s interactions influenced by the recommendation model in the context of standard industry metrics such as Click-through rates, Buy-through rates, and Conversion revenue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0184.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: pharmacy; patient communication; pharmacy communications; interpersonal communications; automated telemarketing telephone calls; telephone messages; automated messages; communication theory; customer relation management; CRM; pharmacy practice
Online: 16 April 2018 (04:31:24 CEST)
Pharmacy personnel often answer telephones to respond to pharmacy customers (subjects) who received messages from automated systems. This research examines the communication process in terms of how users interact and engage with pharmacies after receiving automated messages. No study has directly addressed automated telephone calls and subjects’ interactions. The purpose of this study is to test the interpersonal communication (IC) process of uncertainty in subjects in receipt of automated telephone calls from pharmacies. Subjects completed a survey of validated scales for Satisfaction (S); Relevance (R); Quality (Q); Need for Cognitive Closure (NFC). Relationships between S, R, Q, NFC, and subject preference to an automated telephone call (ATC) were analyzed to determine whether subjects contacting pharmacies display information seeking behavior. This research demonstrates that seeking information occurs if subjects: are dissatisfied with the content of the ATC; perceive that the Q of the ATC is high; perceive that the Q of ATC is high, and like receiving the ATC or with high NFC, and do not like receiving ATCs. Other interactions presented complexities amongst uncertainty and tolerance of NFC within the IC process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2030071
Subject: Keywords: telescopes; lightweight telescope mirrors; adaptive optics; better resolution; increased accuracy; more bandwidth; cluster of satellites; innovative platform; more capabilities into smaller packages; far-shorter time from click to customer
Online: 9 September 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
The use of Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (i.e., LASERs or lasers) by the U.S. Department of Defense is not new and includes laser weapons guidance, laser-aided measurements, even lasers as weapons (e.g., Airborne Laser). Lasers in support of telecommunications is also not new. The use of laser light in fiber optics shattered thoughts on communications bandwidth and throughput. Even the use of lasers in space is no longer new. Lasers are being used for satellite-to-satellite crosslinking. Laser communication can transmit orders-of-magnitude more data using orders-of-magnitude less power and can do so with minimal risk of exposure to the sending and receiving terminals. What is new is using lasers as the uplink and downlink between the terrestrial segment and the space segment of satellite systems. More so, the use of lasers to transmit and receive data between moving terrestrial segments (e.g., ships at sea, airplanes in flight) and geosynchronous satellites is burgeoning. This manuscript examines the technological maturation of employing lasers as the signal carrier for satellite communications linking terrestrial and space systems. The purpose of the manuscript is to develop key performance parameters (KPPs) to inform U.S. Department of Defense initial capabilities documents (ICDs) for near-future satellite acquisition and development. By appreciating the history and technological challenges of employing lasers rather than traditional radio frequency sources for satellite uplink and downlink signal carrier, this manuscript recommends ways for the U.S. Department of Defense to employ lasers to transmit and receive high bandwidth, large-throughput data from moving platforms that need to retain low probabilities of detection, intercept, and exploitation (e.g., carrier battle group transiting to a hostile area of operations, unmanned aerial vehicle collecting over adversary areas). The manuscript also intends to identify commercial sector early-adopter fields and those fields likely to adapt to laser employment for transmission and receipt.