ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0078.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Ethanol; corn; dry-grind process; bolt-on process; corn fiber; soaking in aqueous ammonia pretreatment; cellulase; cellulosic ethanol.
Online: 5 September 2018 (01:40:11 CEST)
Corn fiber is a co-product of commercial ethanol dry-grind plants, which is processed into distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and used as animal feed, yet it holds high potential to be used as feedstock for additional ethanol production. Due to the tight structural make-up of corn fiber, a pretreatment step is necessary to make the cellulose and hemicellulose polymers in the solid fibrous matrix more accessible to the hydrolytic enzymes. A pretreatment process was developed in which whole corn kernels were soaked in aqueous solutions of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 wt% ammonia at 105oC for 24 h. The pretreated corn then was subjected to a conventional mashing procedure and subsequently ethanol fermentation using a commercial strain of natural Saccharomyces cerevisiae with addition of a commercial cellulase. Pretreatment of the corn with 7.5 wt% ammonia solution plus cellulase addition gave highest ethanol production, which improved the yield in fermentation using 25 wt% solid from 334 g ethanol/kg corn obtained in the control (no pretreatment and no cellulase addition) to 379 g ethanol/kg corn (a 14% increase). The process developed can potentially be implemented in existing dry-grind ethanol facilities as a “bolt-on” process for additional ethanol production from corn fiber, and this additional ethanol can then qualify as “cellulosic ethanol” by the EPA’s Renewable Fuels Standard and thereby receive RINS (Renewable Identification Numbers).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0378.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: DON; corn; corn products; exposure; risk assessment
Online: 15 March 2021 (12:04:05 CET)
The study focused on investigating the natural incidence of deoxynivalenol (DON) in corn and products from corn producing districts of Punjab, Pakistan. The analysis was carried out using HPLC with UV detector and immunoaffinity cleanup columns. The detection limit (LOD) and limit of quantification were 25 and 50 µg/kg, respectively. Total 1220 samples of corn and products were analyzed to detect the DON, and 539 (44.2%) samples were observed to be contaminated with DON (n ≥ LOD). Furthermore, 92 (7.5%) samples of corn & products have DON levels, elevated than the proposed limits of the EU. The data is significantly different from a normal distribution for DON in corn and products samples and from different locations (p < 0.05) for Shapiro-Wilk and Kolmogorov-Smirnov values. However, a significant difference in DON levels was found between corn and corn derived-products types (p ≤ 0.05). The lowest and highest exposure & hazard quotient (HQ) of 0.92 and 9.68 µg/kg bw/d were documented in cornflour samples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0159.v1
Online: 12 April 2018 (06:11:34 CEST)
This paper examines the regional changes of corn production and the relationship between ethanol production and corn production. The underlying hypothesis is that the rapid growth in ethanol production causes regional expansion of corn production outside the traditional regions. This paper introduces the information approach developed by entropy theory to describe these regional changes. The results support the hypothesis that ethanol production leads to expansion of corn production outside traditional corn producing regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0695.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: deoxynivalenol; corn; cultivar; grains; flour; bread; Pakistan
Online: 29 March 2021 (13:15:34 CEST)
The objectives of the current research were to determine the levels of deoxynivalenol (DON) in four different cultivars of corn and subsequently to investigate the fate of DON during pro-cessing steps involved for the production of cornbread. The samples (n = 30) of each cultivar which were found positive were selected for the study. The average level of DON was ranged from LOD to 650 µg/kg. The amount of DON in cornflour samples were ranged from LOD to 630 µg/kg and insignificantly lower than the levels found in corn grain samples (p ≥ 0.05). Further-more, the levels of DON in corn dough samples were insignificantly higher than the levels in cornflour samples (p ≥ 0.05), with levels ranged from LOD to 645 µg/kg. However, the amount of DON in cornbread samples was significantly different from the levels found in corn grains sam-ples (p ≤ 0.05), with levels ranged from LOD to 611.5 µg/kg. The percentage reduction of DON in grains to cornbread samples was 22.4%, 35.6%, 44.5%, and 42.6% in type 1, type 2, type 3, and type 4 cultivars, respectively. The highest dietary exposure and hazard quotient (HQ) of DON was 0.13 and 0.17 µg/kg bw/d, in male and female individuals resulted from the consumption of cornbread samples, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0222.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: bioethanol, fruits, Corn Threshing Residue, fermentation, distillation
Online: 30 March 2017 (17:49:30 CEST)
Alcoholic fermentations were performed adapting the technology to exploit the residual thermal energy (hot water at 83-85°C) of a cogeneration plant and to valorize agricultural wastes. Substrates were apple, kiwifruit and peaches wastes and Corn Threshing Residue (CTR). Saccharomyces bayanus was chosen as biocatalyst. The fruits, fresh or blanched, were mashed; CTR was gelatinized and liquefied by adding Liquozyme® SC DS (Novozyme); saccharification simultaneous to fermentation was carried out using the enzyme Spirizyme® Ultra (Novozyme). Lab-scale static fermentations were carried out at 28°C and 35°C, using raw fruits, blanched fruits and CTR, monitoring the ethanol production. The highest ethanol production was reached with CTR (10,22%9 and among fruits with apple (8,71%). Distillations at low temperatures and under vacuum, to exploit warm water from cogeneration plant, were tested; distillation at 80°C and 200 mbar or 400 mbar allowed to recover 93,35 and 89,59 % of ethanol respectively. These results support a fermentation process coupled to a cogeneration plant, fed with apple wastes and with CTR when apple wastes are not available, where hot water from cogeneration plant is used in blanching and distillation phases. The scale up in a pilot plant was also carried out.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0391.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Genetically modified organism (GMO); corn; asynchronous regulation; trade
Online: 21 November 2022 (11:55:07 CET)
The stringency of GMO regulation affects trade of agricultural products among countries. On that account, our investigation attempts to shed the light on the complexity of the impact of genetically modified organisms (GMO) regulations among countries on bilateral trade with a focus on GMO approvals. We develop a framework extending Xiong and Beghin (2014) and their decomposition of export supply and imports demand effects. Our approach encompasses the supplemental effect of GMO regulation laxity in production on the exporter’s productivity. It decomposes three effects that impact bilateral trade flows between trade partners: productivity in the source country, sorting cost from bilateral dissimilarity in regulations, and stringency impact on import demand. We estimate the model using a panel dataset of corn trade and two econometric approaches (PPML, Heckman sample-selection). We find that GMO laxity in production of exporters has the most prominent and robust effect of enhancing bilateral trade of corn. The effect of GMO laxity in demand appears to be smaller than the export booster effect of GMO adoption. Finally, bilateral dissimilarity in regulations does not appear to matter, once we account for the impact of GMO in production of the exporters and laxity in demand differentiated for importer and exporters. Hence, GMO approval regulations have dominating multilateral effects rather than bilateral ones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0220.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: agroforestry; Populus; Ulmus; cotton; corn; microclimate; evapotranspiration; irrigation
Online: 22 June 2019 (11:30:43 CEST)
Across Central Asia, agriculture largely depends on irrigation due to arid and semi-arid climatic conditions. Water is abstracted from rivers, which are largely fed by glacier melt. In the course of climate change, glaciers melt down so that a reduced glacier volume and reduced water runoffs are expected being available for irrigation. Tree wind breaks are one option to reduce water consumption in irrigated agriculture and build resilience against climate change. This paper therefore assessed water consumption of major crops (cotton, wheat, corn, rice, potato, and barley) in Kyrgyzstan and adjacent areas in combination with tree wind breaks. Crop water consumption was assessed through the Penman Monteith approach. Tree wind break types investigated were single rows from poplars and multiple rows with undergrowth by elm and poplar, respectively. Tree water consumption was determined through sapflow measurements. Seasonal ETo for field crops was 876 mm to 995 mm without wind breaks and dropped to less than half through multiple row wind breaks with undergrowth (50 m spacing). Tree water consumption was 1125 mm to 1558 mm for poplar and 435 mm for elm. Among the wind break crop systems, elm wind breaks resulted in highest reductions of water consumption, followed by single row poplars, at spacing of 50 m and 100 m, respectively. Yet, elm grows much slower than poplar so that poplars might be more attractive for farmers. Furthermore, single row wind breaks might by much easier to be integrated into the agrarian landscape, as they consume less space.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0681.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: chiseling depth; spring corn; canopy characteristics; photosynthesis quality
Online: 29 October 2018 (12:02:03 CET)
Subsoil tillage loosens compacted soil for better plant growth, but promotes water loss, which is a concern in areas commonly irrigated. Therefore, our objective was to determine the physiological responses of high yield spring corn (Zea mays L.) to Subsoil tillage depth when grown in the western plain irrigation area of Inner Mongolia that leads to the best water use efficiency. The experiment during 2014 and 2015 used Zhengdan958 and Xianyu335 with three differing subsoil tillage depths (30, 40, or 50 cm) as trial factor and shallow rotary as a control. Subsoil tillage increased shoot dry matter accumulation, leading to a greater shoot/root ratio. Subsoil tillage helped retain greater leaf area index in each growth stage, increase the leaf area duration, net assimilation rate, and relative growth rate, with greater effects as tillage was deeper, effectively delaying the aging of the blade. Grain yields were increased by 0.7%–8.9% on average in subsoil tillage treatments compared to conventional soil treatment shallow rotary, Water use efficiency were increased by 1.93%–18.49% on average in subsoil tillage treatment compared to shallow rotary, resulting in net income increases by 2.24% to 6.97% compared to shallow rotary. Among the three different subsoil tillage depth treatment, the grain yield, water use efficiency, and net income is the best under the treatment of subsoil tillage depth of 50 cm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0371.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: carboxymethy chitosan; corn peptide; antioxidant activity; antibacterial activity; film
Online: 17 May 2021 (07:59:06 CEST)
Active films based on carboxymethyl chitosan incorporated corn peptide were developed. Physicochemical properties of the films, including thickness, opacity, moisture content, color, mechanical properties, water vapor permeability, and oil resistance, were measured. Biological activities of the films, including the antioxidant and antibacterial activities, were characterized in terms of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity, reducing power, the total antioxidant activity, and the filter disc inhibition zone method. The results indicated that the incorporation of corn peptide caused interactions between carboxymethyl chitosan and corn peptide in Maillard reaction and gave rise to the films light yellow appearance. Compared with the Control, the degree of glycosylation, browning intensity, thickness, opacity, tensile strength, antioxidant activity, and antibacterial activity of films were increased, but the elongation, vapor permeability, and oil resistance of films were decreased. The films based on corn peptide and carboxymethyl chitosan can potentially be applied to food packaging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0636.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: sorghum silage; corn silage; buffalo cows; milk; serum biochemistry
Online: 25 November 2020 (11:49:47 CET)
The influence of replacing corn silage with sorghum silage in the diet of dairy buffalo cows on metabolic status and on milk yield, chemical characteristics and fatty acid profile was studied. Forty dairy buffalo cows were included in the trial and divided into two homogeneous groups (SS, sorghum and CC, corn). Blood was collected at the end of the trial (120 days), individual milk yield was registered daily. Samples of milk were monthly collected and analyzed for fat, protein and lactose. Moreover, fatty acid profiles of silages and milk were determined. Buffalo cows fed sorghum silage showed an average milk yield higher than group CS (kg/d 10.120 vs 9.270; P<0.05), probably due to the lower lignin content of sorghum silage (31 vs 47 g/kg dry matter, respectively for SS and CS diets) and by consequence to its energy value, higher than expected. The percentage of linoleic acid was significantly higher in milk of group CS (C18:2: 1.27% vs 2.05%; P<0.01) due to the higher content of these acids in corn than in sorghum silage. The omega 6/omega 3 ratio was significantly lower in milk from buffalo cows fed sorghum than corn silage (7.8 vs 12.9; P<0.01). Serum biochemistry showed no negative effects of the corn replacing with sorghum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0042.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: fitness; life table; cotton bollworm; corn earworm; toxin; resistance management
Online: 5 July 2020 (04:42:07 CEST)
Insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are valuable tools for pest management worldwide, contributing to the management of human disease insect vectors and phytophagous insect pests of agriculture and forestry. Here, we report the effects of dual and triple Bt toxins expressed in transgenic cotton cultivars on the fitness and demographic performance of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), a noctuid pest known as cotton bollworm and corn earworm. Life-history traits were determined for individuals of three field populations from a region where H. zea overwintering is likely. Triple-gene Bt cotton cultivars expressing Cry and Vip3Aa toxins killed 100% of the larvae in all populations tested. In contrast, dual-gene Bt cotton expressing Cry1Ac+Cry1F and Cry1Ac+Cry2Ab2 allowed population growth with the intrinsic rate of population growth (rm) 38% lower than on non-Bt cotton. The insects feeding on Bt cotton plants expressing Cry1Ac+Cry2Ab2, Cry1Ac+Cry1F, or Cry1Ab+Cry2Ae exhibited reduced larval weight, survival rate, and increased development time. Additionally, fitness parameters varied significantly among the insect populations, even on non-Bt cotton plants, likely because of their different genetic background and/or previous Bt toxin exposure. This is the first report of the comparative fitness of H. zea field populations on dual-gene Bt cotton after the recent reports of field resistance to certain Bt toxins. These results document the population growth rates of H. zea from an agricultural landscape with 100% Bt cotton cultivars. Our results will help to refine models designed to predict resistance evolution and improve insect resistance management for Bt crops.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0086.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: activated carbon; barley husk; corn cob; agave leaves; biomass; thermogravimetry
Online: 14 December 2017 (07:46:00 CET)
Biomass is a promising alternative and renewable energy source that can be transformed into other value-added products such as activated carbon. In this research, barley husk, corn cob and Agave salmiana leaves were characterized to determine their chemical composition and morphology to evaluate their potentiality as precursors of activated carbons. Based on the main composition results obtained, the biomass samples have suitable chemical and physical characteristics to be considered as good precursors of activated carbons, such as carbon contents greater than 40%, ash content less than 10%, moisture content less than 30%, high volatile contents with values from 75 to 80% and a porous and fibrous morphology. The results indicate that the main compositions in the biomass were cellulose and lignin. The cellulose content was more than lignin (15–26%) for the residues selected. Specifically, a-cellulose contents with values from 52% to 79%, β-cellulose contents of 13–44%, γ-cellulose contents less than 11%, and holocellulose contents of 82–83% were determined. The thermal decomposition for the biomass samples proceeded with five stages attributed to the evaporation of some volatile compounds (70–150 ºC), to the degradation of hemicellulose (180–230 ºC), to the cellulose volatilization (250–350 ºC), to the lignin decomposition (380–550 ºC), and to the degradation of complex polymers and inorganic salts, respectively. The stage corresponding to the cellulose decomposition showed rapid mass decreased in the three residues. This results show that the cellulose and lignin content is another important parameter to evaluate the pyrolysis characteristics of a good precursor of activated carbon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0517.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Zea may L.; bioactive compound; floral corn; by-products; bee pollen
Online: 26 September 2018 (14:31:15 CEST)
Corn tassel is a by-product from hybrid corn seed production and a new source of phytochemicals including compounds with antioxidant activity. Four tassel development stages were evaluated in eight commercial corn varieties. Corn varieties and tassel developmental stages showed significant variations (P0.01) for all parameters. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were highest in field corn. KGW1, a purple waxy variety, had the highest anthocyanin content and carotenoid content at tassel development stages at 50% and 75% of pollen shed, whereas the tassel developmental stages at the 1st day of pollen shed and 50% of pollen shed had the highest of anthocyanin yield and carotenoid yield. The most suitable time for tassel harvest should be between the 1st day of pollen shed to 50% of pollen shed. Phytochemicals and antioxidants that are extracted from corn tassel can be used as a functional food supplement, natural pharmaceuticals and cosmetic products.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0062.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: carbon cycling; nutrient cycling; soil amendment; manure; biochar; corn; maize; soybeans; fertilizer
Online: 3 February 2022 (15:58:58 CET)
Plant and animal agriculture is a part of a larger system where the environment, soil, water, nutrient management interact. Biochar (a pyrolyzed biomass) has been shown to affect the single components of this complex system positively. Biochar is a soil amendment, which has been documented for its benefits as soil enhancer particularly to increase soil carbon, improve soil fertility, and better nutrient retention. These effects have been documented in the literature. Still, there is a need for a broader examination of these single components and effects that aims at the complementarity and synergy attainable with biochar and the animal and crop production system. Thus, we report a comprehensive dataset documenting the interactions of biochar with manure, soil, and plants. We evaluated three biochars mixed with manure alongside both manure and soil controls for improvement in soil quality, reduction in nutrient movement, and increase in plant nutrient availability. We explain the experiments and the dataset which contains the physicochemical properties of each biochar-manure mixture, the physicochemical properties of soil amended with each biochar-manure mixture, and the biomass and nutrient information of plants grown in biochar-manure mixture amended soil. This dataset is useful for continued research examining both the short and long-term effects of biochar-manure mixtures on both plant and soil systems. In addition, these data will be beneficial to extent the findings to field settings for practical and realized gains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0019.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: biochar; phytoextraction; corn; uptake; mine soils; heavy metals; root biomass; shoot biomass
Online: 5 May 2019 (12:11:59 CEST)
Mining activities could produce a large volume of spoils, waste rocks, and tailings, which are usually deposited at the surface and become sources of metal pollution. Phytostabilization of the mine spoils could limit the spread of these heavy metals. Phytostabilization can be enhanced by using soil amendments like manure-based biochar capable of immobilizing metal(loid)s when combined with plant species that are tolerant of high levels of contaminants while simultaneously improving properties of mine soils. However, the use of manure-based biochar and other organic amendments for mine spoil remediation are still unclear. In this greenhouse study, we evaluated the interactive effect of biochar application and compost on shoots biomass yield (SBY), roots biomass yield (RBY), uptake, and bioconcentration factor (BCF) of Zn and Cd in corn (Zea mays L.) grown in mine soil. Biochar sources (BS) consisted of beef cattle manure (BCM); poultry litter (PL); and lodge pole pine (LPP) were applied at 0, 2.5, and 5.0% (w/w) in combination with different rates (0, 2.5, and 5.0%, w/w) of cattle manure compost (CMC), respectively. Shoots and roots uptake of Cd and Zn were significantly affected by BS, CMC, and the interaction of BS and CMC. Corn plants that received 2.5% PL and 2.5% BCM had the greatest Cd and Zn shoot uptake, respectively. Corn plants with 5% BCM had the greatest Cd and Zn root uptake. When averaged across BS, the greatest BCF for Cd in the shoot of 92.3 was from the application BCM and the least BCF was from the application of PL (72.8). Our results suggest that incorporation of biochar enhanced phytostabilization of Cd and Zn with concentrations of water-soluble Cd and Zn lowest in soils amended with both manure-based biochars while improving biomass productivity of corn. Overall, phytostabilization technique and biochar application have the potential to be combined in the remediation of heavy metals polluted soils.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0402.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Corn Stover; Hydrothermal carbonization; Hydro-char characterization; Kinetics of major compounds; Structural evolution.
Online: 22 November 2022 (03:13:44 CET)
In this work, the effect of reaction time and biomass-to-H2O ratio on the structural evolution of hydro-char and kinetic of by hydrothermal processing of corn Stover with hot compressed H2O, have been systematically investigated. The experiments were carried out at 250 °C, heating rate of 2.0 °C/min, biomass-to-H2O ratio of 1:10, and reaction times of 60, 120, and 240 minutes, and at 250 °C, 240 minutes, heating rate of 2.0 °C/min, and biomass-to-H2O water ratio of 1:10, 1:15, and 1:20, using a pilot scale stirred tank reactor of 5 gallon. The characterization of solid phase products performed by thermo-gravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and elemental analysis (C, N, H, S). The physical-chemistry properties of solid phase analyzed in terms of dry matter (DM), total organic content (TOC), and ash. The yields of solid and gas phases decrease linearly with decreasing biomass-to-H2O ratio, while that of liquid phases increases linearly. For constant biomass-to-H2O ratio, the yields of solid, liquid, and gaseous reaction products varied between 52.97 and 35.82% (wt.), 44.84 and 54.59% (wt.), and 2.19 and 9.58% (wt.), respectively. The yield of solids decreases exponentially by decreasing the reaction time, while the yields of liquid and gas phases increase exponentially. For constant biomass-to-H2O ratio, TG/DTG curves shows that reaction time of 60 minutes was not enough to carbonize corn Stover. For constant reaction time, TG/DTG curves shows that increasing the H2O-to-biomass ratio worse the carbonization of corn Stover. For constant biomass-to-H2O ratio, the SEM images show the main morphological structure of the corn Stover remains practically unchanged, while for constant reaction time, SEM images show that plant microstructure retains part of its original morphology, demonstrating that a decrease on biomass-to-H2O ratio worse the carbonization of corn Stover. For constant biomass-to-H2O ratio, the EDX analysis shows that the carbon content in hydro-char increases with reaction time, while for constant reaction time, the carbon content decreases with increasing biomass-to-H2O ratio. The kinetic of corn Stover degradation was correlated with a pseudo-first order exponential model, exhibiting a root-mean-square error (r2) of 1.000, demonstrating that degradation kinetics of corn Stover with hot compressed H2O, expressed as hydro-char formation, is well described by an exponential decay kinetics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0737.v1
Subject: Biology, Horticulture Keywords: allelopathy; bioherbicides; corn gluten meal; essential oils; mustard seed meal; pathogens; plant extracts
Online: 31 October 2018 (07:50:29 CET)
Over the last five decades, weed management systems have relied primarily on synthetic herbicides. Due to the concerns over the potential impact of chemicals on human health and the environment, efforts are being made to reduce the heavy reliance on synthetic herbicides. To reduce the use of synthetic herbicides, the use of natural products such as essential oils, plant extracts, allelochemicals, agricultural by-products, and some microbes are gaining attention because of their short environmental half-life and low toxicity. They are a good alternative to synthetic herbicides, especially in organic agriculture, since they focus on environmental protection, and ecological stability. Most of the commercially available natural herbicides are non-selective and require careful application in order to preserve the cash crops. Although many studies in this direction have been undertaken, the use of these natural products is still not common because of their cost the difficulties in their synthesis due to their complex structure, cost effectiveness, poor performance, and rapid degradation. When used singly, these natural herbicides do not perform as well as the chemical herbicides. An integrated approach may provide better results. Using a combination of natural herbicides may be more effective than using just one.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0315.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: biochar; greenhouse gas emissions; incubation; soil; corn; switchgrass; CO2; N2O; cropping system; diversity
Online: 15 October 2018 (13:10:52 CEST)
Biochar application to soil has been proposed as a means for reducing soil greenhouse gas emissions and mitigating climate change. The effects, however, of interactions between biochar, moisture and temperature on soil CO2 and N2O emissions, remain poorly understood. Furthermore, the applicability of lab-scale observations to field conditions in diverse agroecosystems remains uncertain. Here we investigate the impact of a mixed wood gasification biochar on CO2 and N2O emissions from loess-derived soils using: (1) controlled laboratory incubations at three moisture (27, 31 and 35%) and three temperature (10, 20 and 30°C) levels, and (2) a field study with four cropping systems (continuous corn, switchgrass, low diversity grass mix, and high diversity grass-forb mix). Biochar reduced N2O emissions under specific temperatures and moistures in the laboratory and in the continuous corn cropping system in the field. However, the effect of biochar on N2O emissions was only significant in the field, and no effect on cumulative CO2 emissions was observed. Cropping system also had a significant effect in the field study, with soils in grass and grass-forb cropping systems emitting more CO2 and less N2O than corn cropping systems. Observed biochar effects were consistent with previous studies showing that biochar amendments can reduce soil N2O emissions under specific, but not all, conditions. The disparity in N2O emission responses at the lab and field scales suggests that laboratory incubation experiments are not reliable for predicting the impact of biochar at the field scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0471.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Zea mays; maize; corn; rhizosphere; 16S rRNA gene; ITS; fungicide; plant growth promoting rhizobacteria
Online: 21 August 2020 (05:10:34 CEST)
The targeted application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) provides the key for a future sustainable agriculture with reduced pesticide application. PGPR interaction with the indigenous microbiota is poorly understood but essential to develop reliable applications. Therefore, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila SPA-P69 was applied as seed coating and in combination with a fungicide based on the active ingredients fludioxonil, metalaxyl-M, captan and ziram. Plant performance and rhizosphere composition of treated and non-treated maize plants of two field trials were analyzed. Plant health was significantly increased by treatment; however overall corn yield was not changed. By applying high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA and the ITS genes, the bacterial and fungal changes in the rhizosphere due to different treatments were determined. Despite treatments had a significant impact on the rhizosphere microbiota (9- 12%), the field site was identified as main driver (27- 37%). Soil microbiota composition from each site was significantly different, which explains the site-specific effects. In this study we were able to show first indications how PGPR treatments increase plant health via microbiome shifts in a site-specific manner. This way first steps towards a detailed understanding of PGPRs and developments of consistently efficient applications in diverse environments are set.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0216.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Aflatoxin treated corn; Aspergillus flavus; atoxigenic aflatoxin; bee community; biological pesticide; saprophytic soil fungus
Online: 12 March 2020 (14:18:11 CET)
A saprophytic soil fungus, Aspergillus flavus, produces aflatoxin (toxigenic strains) in the kernels of corn (Zea mays L.) and seeds of many other crops. Many strains of A. flavus do not produce toxigenic aflatoxin, and soil application of these atoxigenic strains is a suppressive control tactic to assist in controlling toxigenic conspecifics. Effects of atoxigenic A. flavus applications on honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) and other bees are unknown, and basic information on bee occurrences in corn fields treated with and without this biological pesticide is needed to inform integrated pest management in corn. Fields with atoxigenic A. flavus applications were compared to nearby control fields in three counties in corn production regions in eastern Texas. In each corn field, twenty bee bowl traps were deployed along four equal transects located between corn rows, with contents of the bowls (i.e. bees) retrieved after 24 hours. Eleven bee genera from four families were collected from corn fields, with only two honey bees collected and zero honey bees observed in transects. The sweat bee genus Agapostemon (primarily composed of the Texas-striped sweat bee A. texanus) was most abundant in corn fields (44% of the total number of bees collected) followed by long-horned bees (Melissodes spp., 24%). The southernmost county (i.e. San Patricio) produced over 80% of the total number of bees collected. Bee communities occurring in corn production fields with applications of atoxigenic A. flavus applications were not significantly different from nearby control fields. While little is known of bee resource use in corn production systems in Texas, the abundant yet variable bee communities across latitudes in this study suggests a need to investigate the influence of farming practices on bee resources in regional corn production systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0514.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: corn starch; maleic anhydride; lactic acid; methyl acrylate; hydrophobically modified; in-situ solid phase polymerization
Online: 21 November 2018 (05:04:32 CET)
Three kinds of hydrophobic groups grafted starches of maleic anhydride grafted starch (MAH-g-starch), lactic acid grafted starch (LA-g-starch), and methyl acrylate grafted starch (MA-g-starch) were prepared by in-situ solid phase polymerization. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were confirmed successful grafting. The grafting ratios of MAH-g-starch, LA-g-starch and MA-g-starch were 6.50%, 12.45%, and 0.57%, respectively. Influenced by the grafting ratio, LA-g-starch had the best hydrophobic properties and the largest molecular weight, and those for MA-g-starch was the worst. The surfaces of grafted starches were covered with graft polymer, with obvious surface roughness and bond degree of MAH-g-starch and LA-g-starch. The crystalline structure of grafted starches showed some damage, with LA-g-starch exhibiting the greatest decrease in crystallinity, and less of a change for MA-g-starch. Overall, the grafting reaction improved thermoplasticity, with LA-g-starch the most improved, followed by MAH-g-starch, and then MA-g-starch.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0249.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Fungal diversity; Saccharomyces; genetic diversity; glyphosate-based herbicides; copper-based fungicides; RoundUp Ready™ corn; phylogenetics
Online: 17 February 2020 (15:37:11 CET)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae are a phenotypically diverse species that adapt to a wide variety of environments by exploiting standing genetic diversity and selecting for advantageous mutations. Glyphosate and copper-based herbicides/ fungicides affect non-target organisms, these incidental exposures can impact microbial populations. In this study, glyphosate resistance was found in the historical collection of yeast which was collected over the last century, but only in yeast isolated after the introduction of glyphosate. The highest glyphosate-resistant yeasts were isolated from agricultural sites. However, herbicide application at these sites was not recorded. In an effort to assess glyphosate resistance and impact on non-target microorganisms, yeast were harvested from 15 areas with known herbicidal histories, including an organic farm, conventional farm, remediated coal mine, suburban locations, state park, and a national forest. Yeast representing 23 genera were isolated from 237 samples of plant, soil, spontaneous fermentation, nut, flower, fruit, feces, and tree material samples. Saccharomyces, Candida, Metschnikowia, Klyveromyces, Hanseniaspora, and Pichia were other genera commonly found across our sampled environments. Managed areas had less species diversity and at the brewery, only Saccharomyces and Pichia were isolated. A conventional farm growing RoundUp Ready™ corn had the lowest phylogenetic diversity and the highest glyphosate resistance. The mine was sprayed with multiple herbicides including a commercial formulation of glyphosate; however, the yeast did not have elevated glyphosate resistance. In contrast to the conventional farm, the mine was exposed to glyphosate only one year prior to sample isolation. Glyphosate resistance is an example of the anthropogenic selection of nontarget organisms.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: total P; bray 1 available P; P sorption; P saturation; P release; P fertilizer input; corn yield
Online: 21 February 2020 (07:14:59 CET)
High rates of phosphorus (P) currently being applied to soils for the production of vegetables in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam has led to the concern of its negative effect on the economics and the environment. This research presents a comprehensive study on the determination of P supplying capacity in this region of Vietnam to examine the possibility of reducing P fertilizer input. One hundred twenty (120) soil samples were collected to evaluate total P and Bray 1 available P in the soils. Phosphorus maximum sorption, degree of P saturation, P release, and the effect of P fertilizer on corn (Zea mays L.) yield in greenhouse and fields were also determined. Total P concentrations of 56.7% soil samples evaluated yielded high P concentrations (>560 mg P/kg), while 74.2% of the samples had high Bray 1 available P concentrations (>20 mg P/kg soil). Maximum P sorption ranged from 149 to 555 mg P/kg soil, respectively and has negative correlation to available P (r = - 0.63*), degrees of P saturation ranged from 0.63 to 5.46% correlated to available P (r = 0.98**) and maximum P release ranged from 1.2 to 61.9 mg P/kg soil, respectively correlated to available P (r = 0.96**). Corn grown in soils with available P concentrations >15 mg P/kg did not respond to P fertilizer in greenhouse or field experiments. We conclude that many farmers in this region can reduce P fertilizer input, thus increasing their profits and reducing negative environmental impacts associated with excess soil P for sustainable agriculture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0028.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Expired Plant Variety Protection (ex-PVP); maize; nitrogen stress; Nitrogen Use Efficiency (NUE); U.S. Corn Belt Germplasm
Online: 4 November 2017 (07:39:11 CET)
Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in maize (Zea mays L.) is an important trait to maximize yield with minimal input of nitrogen (N) fertilizer. Expired Plant Variety Protection (ex-PVP) Act-certified germplasm may be an important genetic resource for public breeding sectors. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the genetic variation of N-use traits and to characterize maize ex-PVP inbreds adapted to the U.S. Corn Belt for NUE performance. Eighty-nine ex-PVP inbreds [36 stiff stalk synthetic (SSS), and 53 non-stiff stalk synthetic (NSSS)] were genotyped using 26,769 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, then 263 single-cross maize hybrids derived from these inbreds were grown in eight environments from 2011 to 2015 at two N fertilizer rates (0 and 252 kg N ha−1) and three replications. Genetic utilization and the yield response to N fertilizer were stable across environments and were highly correlated with yield under low and high N conditions, respectively. Cluster analysis identified inbreds with desirable NUE performance. However, only one inbred (PHK56) was ranked in the top 10% for yield under both N-stress and high N conditions. Broad-sense heritability across 12 different N-use traits ranged from 0.11 to 0.77, but was not associated with breeding value accuracy. Nitrogen-stress tolerance was negatively correlated with the yield increase from N fertilizer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0203.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Northern Corn Leaf Blight (Exserohilum); Gray Leaf Spot (Cerospora); Common Rust (Puccinia sorghi); Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN); Neuroph Studio
Online: 21 February 2019 (13:04:05 CET)
Plant leaf diseases can affect the plants’ leaves to an extent that the plants can collapse and die completely. These diseases may drastically drop the supply of vegetables and fruits to the market, and result in a low agricultural economy. In the literature, different laboratory methods of plant leaf disease detection have been used. These methods were time consuming and could not cover large areas for the detection of leaf diseases. This study infiltrates through the facilitated principles of the Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) in order to model a network for image recognition and classification of these diseases. Neuroph was used to perform the training of a CNN network that recognized and classified images of the maize leaf diseases that were collected by use of a smart phone camera. A novel way of training and the methodology used, expedite a quick and easy implementation of the system in practice. The developed model was able to recognize 3 different types of maize leaf diseases out of healthy leaves. The Northern Corn Leaf Blight (Exserohilum), Common Rust (Puccinia sorghi) and Gray Leaf Spot (Cerospora) diseases were chosen for this study as they affect most parts of Southern Africa’s maize fields.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0480.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Myrothecium verrucaria; lignocelluloses; Scanning electron microscope (SEM); Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR); pretreatment; degradation; co-composting; corn stover; cow manure
Online: 18 June 2021 (13:06:31 CEST)
In China, the production of crop straw has been estimated to be approximately 800 Million tons yearly of which about 40% was burned. Corn stover is one of the main agricultural wastes in China. It has shown that lignin in corn stover could be effectively removed byMyrothecium verrucaria. The effects of the pretreatment of corn strover by Myrothecium verrucaria on compost were studied. The results showed that corn stover pretreatment by Myrothecium verrucaria, the Cellulose, Hemicellulose, and lignin were degraded and the results were 33.43%, 11.53% and 18.70% respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis showed that the surface structure of corn stover was changed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis showed that the degradation products of lignin were increased. The exposed area of cellulose and hemicellulose was increased. Compared with the control group, the pH value was stable and the temperature was higher. The content of nitrogen in the material decreased, while the contents of total phosphorus and total potassium increased.The C/N ratio of materials decreased after composting.The results showed that the pretreatment of Myrothecium verrucaria improve the degradation of lignocelluloses, a great contribution was made to reduce the causes loss of plant nutrient and to fight against environmental pollution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0099.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: ovalbumin, allergy; advanced glycation; fructose; fructositis; receptor for advanced glycation end products; inflammation; asthma; chlorogenic acid; Ilex paraguariensis; high fructose corn syrup
Online: 28 February 2017 (10:41:10 CET)
One mechanism by which fructose could exert deleterious effect in metabolism and inflammation is via its potency vis-à-vis de Maillard reaction. We employed simulated stomach and duodenum digestion of ovalbumin to test the hypothesis that indeed AGEs are formed by fructose during simulated digestion of an ubiquitous food protein with intrinsic allergenic potential and under model physiological conditions. Methods: OVA was subjected to simulated gastric and intestinal digestion using standard models, in presence of fructose or glucose (0-100 mM). Peptide fractions were analyzed by fluorescence spectroscopy and intensity at Excitation: λ370 nm, Emission: λ 440nm. Results: AGE adducts form between fructose and OVA which can be found in peptide fractions (< 5 kDa) at times (30 min) and concentration ranges (10 mM) plausibly found in the intestines, whereas no reaction occurs with glucose. The reaction is inhibited by chlorogenic acid at concentrations compatible with those found in the gut. The reaction is inhibited by AG, a specific antiglycation agent. Conclusion: Our proof of principle study shows that fructose-AGE formation on an ubiquitous allergenic protein indeed occurs in one hour and thereby may pave the way for the study of yet another mechanism by which the excess fructose in our Western diets is contributing to disease: intestinal AGE formation, absorption and RAGE engagement.