Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Phytostabilization of Zn and Cd in Mine Soil Using Corn in Combination with Manure-Based Biochar and Compost

Version 1 : Received: 30 April 2019 / Approved: 5 May 2019 / Online: 5 May 2019 (12:11:59 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Sigua, G.C.; Novak, J.M.; Watts, D.W.; Ippolito, J.A.; Ducey, T.F.; Johnson, M.G.; Spokas, K.A. Phytostabilization of Zn and Cd in Mine Soil Using Corn in Combination with Biochars and Manure-Based Compost. Environments 2019, 6, 69. Sigua, G.C.; Novak, J.M.; Watts, D.W.; Ippolito, J.A.; Ducey, T.F.; Johnson, M.G.; Spokas, K.A. Phytostabilization of Zn and Cd in Mine Soil Using Corn in Combination with Biochars and Manure-Based Compost. Environments 2019, 6, 69.

Journal reference: Environments 2019, 6, 69
DOI: 10.3390/environments6060069

Abstract

Mining activities could produce a large volume of spoils, waste rocks, and tailings, which are usually deposited at the surface and become sources of metal pollution. Phytostabilization of the mine spoils could limit the spread of these heavy metals. Phytostabilization can be enhanced by using soil amendments like manure-based biochar capable of immobilizing metal(loid)s when combined with plant species that are tolerant of high levels of contaminants while simultaneously improving properties of mine soils. However, the use of manure-based biochar and other organic amendments for mine spoil remediation are still unclear. In this greenhouse study, we evaluated the interactive effect of biochar application and compost on shoots biomass yield (SBY), roots biomass yield (RBY), uptake, and bioconcentration factor (BCF) of Zn and Cd in corn (Zea mays L.) grown in mine soil. Biochar sources (BS) consisted of beef cattle manure (BCM); poultry litter (PL); and lodge pole pine (LPP) were applied at 0, 2.5, and 5.0% (w/w) in combination with different rates (0, 2.5, and 5.0%, w/w) of cattle manure compost (CMC), respectively. Shoots and roots uptake of Cd and Zn were significantly affected by BS, CMC, and the interaction of BS and CMC. Corn plants that received 2.5% PL and 2.5% BCM had the greatest Cd and Zn shoot uptake, respectively. Corn plants with 5% BCM had the greatest Cd and Zn root uptake. When averaged across BS, the greatest BCF for Cd in the shoot of 92.3 was from the application BCM and the least BCF was from the application of PL (72.8). Our results suggest that incorporation of biochar enhanced phytostabilization of Cd and Zn with concentrations of water-soluble Cd and Zn lowest in soils amended with both manure-based biochars while improving biomass productivity of corn. Overall, phytostabilization technique and biochar application have the potential to be combined in the remediation of heavy metals polluted soils.

Subject Areas

biochar; phytoextraction; corn; uptake; mine soils; heavy metals; root biomass; shoot biomass

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