Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

The Yeast Atlas of Appalachia: Species and Phenotypic Diversity of Herbicide Resistance in Wild Yeast

Version 1 : Received: 16 February 2020 / Approved: 17 February 2020 / Online: 17 February 2020 (15:37:11 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Barney, J.B.; Winans, M.J.; Blackwood, C.B.; Pupo, A.; Gallagher, J.E. The Yeast Atlas of Appalachia: Species and Phenotypic Diversity of Herbicide Resistance in Wild Yeast. Diversity 2020, 12, 139. Barney, J.B.; Winans, M.J.; Blackwood, C.B.; Pupo, A.; Gallagher, J.E. The Yeast Atlas of Appalachia: Species and Phenotypic Diversity of Herbicide Resistance in Wild Yeast. Diversity 2020, 12, 139.

Journal reference: Diversity 2020, 12, 139
DOI: 10.3390/d12040139

Abstract

Saccharomyces cerevisiae are a phenotypically diverse species that adapt to a wide variety of environments by exploiting standing genetic diversity and selecting for advantageous mutations. Glyphosate and copper-based herbicides/ fungicides affect non-target organisms, these incidental exposures can impact microbial populations. In this study, glyphosate resistance was found in the historical collection of yeast which was collected over the last century, but only in yeast isolated after the introduction of glyphosate. The highest glyphosate-resistant yeasts were isolated from agricultural sites. However, herbicide application at these sites was not recorded. In an effort to assess glyphosate resistance and impact on non-target microorganisms, yeast were harvested from 15 areas with known herbicidal histories, including an organic farm, conventional farm, remediated coal mine, suburban locations, state park, and a national forest. Yeast representing 23 genera were isolated from 237 samples of plant, soil, spontaneous fermentation, nut, flower, fruit, feces, and tree material samples. Saccharomyces, Candida, Metschnikowia, Klyveromyces, Hanseniaspora, and Pichia were other genera commonly found across our sampled environments. Managed areas had less species diversity and at the brewery, only Saccharomyces and Pichia were isolated. A conventional farm growing RoundUp Ready™ corn had the lowest phylogenetic diversity and the highest glyphosate resistance. The mine was sprayed with multiple herbicides including a commercial formulation of glyphosate; however, the yeast did not have elevated glyphosate resistance. In contrast to the conventional farm, the mine was exposed to glyphosate only one year prior to sample isolation. Glyphosate resistance is an example of the anthropogenic selection of nontarget organisms.

Subject Areas

Fungal diversity; Saccharomyces; genetic diversity; glyphosate-based herbicides; copper-based fungicides; RoundUp Ready™ corn; phylogenetics

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