ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0330.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: Sensors; Sensor research; Research fields; Technological trajectories; Biosensors; Wearable sensors; Wireless sensor network; Evolution of science; Dynamics of science; Scientific development
Online: 20 September 2021 (12:19:44 CEST)
The fundamental question in the field of sensor research is new directions of scientific fields, which play a vital role in the progress of science and technology. This study confronts this question here by developing a bibliometric analysis, which endeavors to explain the evolution of sensor research and new technologies that are critical to science and society. The database of Scopus concerning scientific documents and patents is used for statistical and computational analyses in these topics. Results suggest that emerging technological trajectories in sensors are wireless sensor networks, wearable sensors and biosensors. Main characteristics of these growing research fields and technologies in sensors are described for fruitful implications of research and innovation policy directed to science advances and technological change in society.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0271.v1
Online: 12 August 2021 (09:19:24 CEST)
This document evaluates the impact of computer use on wages in Colombia in 2018. For this analysis, a Propensity Score Matching model is used to evaluate the impact of the use of learning technologies on the wages and years of education of Colombians, based on the 2018 quality of life survey. The results show that the use of the computer, laptop, tablet, internet, transferred files, Excel and radio for learning have a positive impact on the wages of Colombians. This research allows a better understanding of the technological effects on wages and provides information for the design of public policies in the development of technological skills.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0380.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: Sustainability transitions; Transition management; technological innovation
Online: 14 April 2021 (13:51:32 CEST)
Sustainability transition theories analyse a systematic shift towards sustainability at micro (niche), meso (regime) and macro (landscape) level. The assessment of technological systems and structures at the firm level in sustainability transition literature is scant. The present study, taking the technological assessment perspective at the firm level, finds answers to questions like (a) how do established corporations move towards sustainable practices? (b) what role does technological innovation play in the firm’s transition towards sustainability? (c) what technological modes are adopted for sustainability transition? We find answers to these questions through an in-depth case analysis of two multi-national companies in the consumer goods industry. Internally developed and externally acquired technologies by firms in the last 15 years are plotted using qualitative and quantitative indicators on pre-designed templates. Technologies for all three sustainability dimensions, namely, environmental, social and economic, are mapped and the impact assessed. The analysis finds a sustainability transition landscape that shows the use of protected (patents, trademarks, designs) and unprotected technologies (open innovation) to generate impacts like production efficiency, consumption reduction, emission reduction, reduce-recycle-reuse among others. Companies implementing sustainable technologies do observe positive impacts. Implementation of reduce-reuse-recycle (3R)-based technologies enhance the achievement of sustainable development targets. Furthermore, the use of trademarks seems common in differentiating their technologies and identities. These and other results are detailed and used to comment on the role of managing intellectual property and harnessing the effect of technological innovations in sustainability transition.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Foreign direct investment; technological innovation; ARDL approach
Online: 20 May 2021 (11:04:28 CEST)
Fostering innovation is considered one of the key policy priorities in most governments' agendas in developing countries, and foreign direct investment (FDI) is considered a principal resource for financing sustainable development, corresponding to 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs). This study analyzes the extent to which inward FDI affects innovation (proxied with patent applications) in Sri Lanka using secondary data from 1990 to 2019. We used the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) cointegration procedure to examine the long-run relationships between variables. As per the study results, the coefficient of inward FDI is a negative sign while the coefficients of per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and high technology exports (HEX) show positive signs 2.142 and 0.414, respectively, and statistically significant in the long run. It is demonstrated that per capita GDP and high technology exports are an important variable in explaining technological innovation, and inward FDI and education expenditure (EDU) did not contribute towards widening technological innovation in Sri Lanka. Shaping the future of FDI in Sri Lanka is essential to foster innovation capability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0015.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Structural Decomposition Analysis; Technological Change; Primary Sectors
Online: 3 May 2021 (16:55:58 CEST)
This paper deals with the structural decomposition input-output for the economic analysis of agriculture, forestry and fishing in six EU-28 countries (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy and Spain) in the 2010-2015 period. The objective is to determine the causes of changes in production in these sectors with a particular focus on disaggregation technological change by distribution factors associated with a specific normalisation of the Leontief inverse. In calculating the net multipliers, an attempt was made to exclude sectors' own consumption appropriately. However, the treatment of own consumption upon introducing a time factor requires further investigation to avoid questionable quantifications. In general, typical characteristics of primary sectors include the accumulation of a significant amount of their own consumption, facilitated by symmetric accounting. Therefore, attention is drawn to these sectors so as to reveal possible analysis techniques that will provide nuance or validate existing techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1089.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: financial deepening; digital economy; technological innovation; mediation effect
Online: 15 June 2023 (07:30:34 CEST)
In resent years, China’s digital economy has achieved significant global recognition for its instrumental role in supporting sustainable economic and social development. Based on the panel data from China's provinces between 2013-2021, this paper investigates the impact and transmission mechanism of financial deepening on digital economy development. The study finds that financial deepening significantly improves digital economy development. Heterogeneity analysis indicates that financial deepening offers greater support to digital economy development in central and western regions than in the east. Further analysis shows that financial deepening improves technological innovation, which in turn promotes the digital economy development. After applying a test of robustness, the results proved significant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0711.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Quality of economic growth; environmental regulation; technological innovation
Online: 29 June 2021 (14:14:33 CEST)
Abstract：This paper uses the balanced panel data from 29 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) in China for a total of 17 years from 2000 to 2016 as a research sample, and establishes an empirical model to examine the impact of environmental regulations and technological innovation on the quality of economic growth. Then this paper test technological innovation as a threshold variable, in which play a regulatory role. Taking the provincial balanced panel data as a research sample, a fixed effect model, a system GMM model, and a panel threshold model were established for empirical testing and the robustness test. Based on the empirical results, this article draws the following conclusions: from a national perspective, environmental regulations and technological innovation can significantly promote the quality of economic growth; from a regional perspective, there are regional differences in impact effects. Under the constraints of environmental regulations, the promotion effect of technological innovation on the quality of economic growth will be reduced; the impact of environmental regulation on the quality of economic growth will have a "threshold effect", and environmental regulation can significantly promote the quality of economic growth only after crossing the threshold and the threshold of technological innovation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0293.v2
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Sensor research; Sensor technology; Network analysis; Technological trajectories; Technological change; Scientific change; Scientific development; Wireless sensor networks; Fiber optic sensors; Biosensors
Online: 5 October 2022 (15:28:11 CEST)
How do sensor research and technologies grow over time? This paper applies the network analysis with a new computational approach to map the structure and evolution of sensor research and technologies over a 30-year time frame (1990-2020).The goal of this study is to analyze the evolution of sensor research for forecasting emerging scientific and technological trajectories. Results show that the scientific interaction within ecosystem (represented with networks) of sensor generates a co-evolution of scientific fields supporting the accelerated growth of different technological tra-jectories, such as: wireless sensors, fiber optic and optical sensors, gas sensors and biosensors. These results suggest main theoretical implications that explain the evolution of sensor research with critical aspects of innovation management to support R&D investments towards new technological trajectories having a high potential of growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0470.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: General; Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives; Management of Technological Innovation; Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Intellectual Property and Intellectual Capital.
Online: 31 January 2022 (14:02:47 CET)
The determinants of enterprises providing ICT training in Europe are analyzed in this article. Data are collected from the European Innovation Scoreboard-EIS of the European Commission for 36 European countries in the period 2000-2019. Data are analyzed with Panel Data with Fixed Effects, Panel Data with Random Effects, Dynamic Panel, WLS and Pooled OLS. Results show that the number of enterprises providing ICT training in Europe is positively associate with “Innovation Index”, “Innovators”, “New Doctorate Graduates”, “Tertiary Education” and negatively associated with “Government Procurement of Advanced Technology Products”, “Human Resources”, and “Marketing or Organisational Innovators”. In adjunct a cluster analysis is performed by using k-Means algorithm optimized with the Silhouette Coefficient and we find the presence of four clusters. Finally, we use eight different machine learning algorithms to predict the value of the enterprises providing ICT training in Europe. We found that the Simple Tree Regression is the best predictor and that the number of enterprises providing ICT training in Europe is expected to growth of the 5,02%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1478.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Technological risks; Governance; Food Security; Food Innovations; Technologies; Ethics
Online: 22 May 2023 (08:51:53 CEST)
Recently, the world has experienced severe food insecurity problems with most countries having inadequate access to affordable, nutritious and safe foods. Consequently, many food innovations and technologies have been approved to secure sustainable access to food for millions of people. This study investigated the implementation of two technologies to address food insecurity, namely genetically modified foods (GMOs) and the use of antibiotics in crops and animal production. In particular, the study explored how their implementation can be governed responsibly through approved legislation. Therefore, the knowledge, attitudes and practices as well as the governance of antibiotic resistance risks and GMO foods were assessed. In-depth key interviews were conducted for the qualitative survey with triangulation with quantitative data sources. The findings showed that 46% of the population have little knowledge about GMOs with about 79% indicating that food with GM ingredients were being consumed in the country. The main concerns reported on GM foods by most respondents were impact on environment, human health and adverse effects on traditional farming practices with 36% indicating that it intensifies contamination and 32% indicating that it contributes to loss of biodiversity. Notably, 64%) reported that GMOs are a solution to food security and that they are safe. On the use of antimicrobials mainly meant to prevent diseases and access better markets, respondents perceived their use to be associated with antimicrobial resistance a “large level of risk” (score 2 in a scale of 1-3) (M = 1.85, SD = 1.06). Overall, the study found that efforts towards promoting awareness on antibiotic resistance risks and response in human health is relatively limited as reported by 56% of the respondents. Findings show that most of the respondents have only seen minimal or small-scale awareness campaigns. On governance of the two technologies, 71% and 50% of the respondents reported that scientists and elected officials respectively have the greatest role in governance of GMOs with small scale farmers playing a negligible role. Further, it was noted that all the respondents were knowledgeable in AMR and GMO technologies and these findings are crucial to the advancement of food innovations that are geared towards achieving food security in Kenya. This study highlights the risks associated with the poor governance and implementation of technologies and the need for a framework for technological risk governance that is sensitive to local values and socio-economic circumstances that will benefit the achievement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0170.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Technological Cooperation Networks; Biotechnology Sector; Bibliometrics; Social Network Analysis.
Online: 4 March 2021 (16:51:51 CET)
The present study aims to analyze scientific production about technological cooperation networks in biotechnology sector, based on bibliometrics network analysis. We used the Gephi software to identify groups of partnerships, proving that the cooperation relationship is a practice used, re-sulting technological development. Findings identify that in the path for new resources that com-plement skills and competences universities are an important player in this cooperative ecosystem, and The United States is a large hub, with an extensive network of global cooperation. A strong role of its researchers in the publication of scientific articles in cooperation is highlighted. This study contributes to the advancement of the discussion about cooperative networks, as well as to the development of policies aimed at the biotechnology sector advancements
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0143.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: expectations convergence; NAFTA; sustainable development; technological transfer; youth awareness
Online: 13 May 2019 (08:01:33 CEST)
Relying on the USA, Canada and Mexico extract from the cross-national data sample on the environmental affection and cognition of adolescent students (Niankara, 2019), along with seemingly unrelated bivariate weighted ordered probit regression modeling (Niankara and Zoungrana, 2018), this study reports on the convergence of technological awareness and expectations within the context of international trade. We achieve this by adopting a regional perspective in investigating the effects of affective, cognitive and situational factors on youth's awareness and expectations about genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and nuclear power technology (NPT) within the North American free trade block. Identification of model parameters is achieved using maximum simulated likelihood methods. The findings show that although it has been over 20 years as of 2015 that USA, Canada, and Mexico ratified the north American free trade agreement (NAFTA), the diffusion of technology and information within the trade block has not succeeded in homogenizing awareness and expectations about GMOs and Nuclear power technology, as observed in the youth population across the three countries. Indeed, with regards to technological awareness, compared to youth from the USA, those from Canada show 15% (GMOs) and 7.1% (NPT) more awareness respectively; while those in Mexico are respectively 34.4% and 19.5% less aware about GMOs and NPT. With respect to technological expectations, compared to youth from the USA, those from Canada and Mexico are respectively 34.4% and 39.9% more optimistic about GMOs, while 15% and 49.7% more optimistic about NPT. Overall, youth within NAFTA country members are respectively 2.5% and 6.7% more optimistic about GMOs and NPT for every level increase in their awareness about the two technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2008.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: technological innovation; financial agglomeration; real economy growth; space spillover effect
Online: 28 September 2023 (11:21:52 CEST)
Amidst China's new economic normal, the real economy faces various domestic and global challenges. Technological innovation, with its capital intensity and uncertain returns, is crucial to rejuvenate emerging industries and revamp the industrial structure. Meanwhile, financial agglomeration plays a dual role: directly fostering real economic development and indirectly affecting it through technological innovation. This study analyzes data from 30 mainland Chinese provinces and cities between 2011 and 2018, utilizing fuzzy matter-element analysis and location entropy method. Relying on a spatial econometric model, we explore the impact of technological innovation and financial clustering on real economic growth, including spatial ripple effects. The conclusions are derived from Chinese evidence and offer valuable insights into the evolving innovation and financial dynamics within the participating nations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0271.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: 7xxx superhard aluminum; Heat treatment technological; Alloy microstructure; Future direction
Online: 15 November 2021 (19:14:37 CET)
Since the first generation of 7xxx superhard aluminum alloy was investigated in 1930, hitherto the fifth generation aluminum alloy materials with high comprehensive properties such as high static strength, high strength, heat resistance, high toughness, damage resistance, low density and low quenching sensitivity have been improved and developed. This paper reviews the progress of 7xxx aluminum alloy materials in composition, microstructure, properties, preparation methods, heat treatment strengthening and applications from 2014 to 2021. The effect of adding trace elements on microstructure and properties of 7xxx series alloy and the problems existing in aging precipitation characteristics and reinforcement mechanism are discussed. The future development direction of 7xxx superhard aluminum alloy is prospected by optimizing heat treatment technological, adding appropriate trace elements to alloy and controlling alloy microstructure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0308.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: coltan; niobium; tantalum; critical raw materials; technological metals; mineral processing.
Online: 17 September 2021 (12:02:04 CEST)
Demand for niobium and tantalum is increasing exponentially as these are essential ingredients for the manufacture of, among others, capacitors in technological devices and ferroniobium. Mine tailings rich in such elements could constitute an important source of Nb and Ta in the future and so alleviate potential supply risks. This paper evaluates the possibility of recovering niobium and tantalum from the slags generated during the tin beneficiation process of mine tailings from the old Penouta mine, located in Spain. To do so, a simulation of the processes that would be required to beneficiate and refine both elements is carried out. After tin carbothermic reduction, the slags are sent to a hydrometallurgical process where at the end niobium oxide and tantalum oxide are obtained. Reagents, water and energy consumption, in addition to emissions, effluents and product yields are assessed. Certain factors were identified as critical, and recirculation was encouraged in the model to maximize production and minimize reagents use and wastes. With this simulation, considering 3000 production hours per year, the metal output from the tailings of the old mine could cover around 1% and 7.4% of the world annual Nb and Ta demand, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0350.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Peer-to-peer economy; Income distribution; Unemployment compensation; Technological change
Online: 15 July 2021 (10:06:46 CEST)
We show that an exponential income distribution will emerge spontaneously in a peer-to-peer economic network that shares the publicly available technology. Based on this finding, we identify the exponential income distribution as the benchmark structure of the well-functioning market economy. However, a real market economy may deviate from the well-functioning market economy. We show that the deviation is partly reflected as the invalidity of exponential distribution in describing the super-low income class that involves unemployment. In this regard, we find, theoretically, that the lower-bound u of exponential income distribution has a linear relationship with (per capita) unemployment compensation. In this paper, we test this relationship for the United Kingdom from 2001 to 2015. Our empirical investigation confirms that the income structure of low and middle classes (about 90% of populations) in the United Kingdom exactly obeys exponential distribution, in which the lower-bound u is exactly in line with the evolution of unemployment compensation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0044.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Sustainable activity; dimensions of sustainability; technological sustainability, sustainable business model
Online: 4 February 2019 (17:03:26 CET)
Enterprises that seek for sustainable development should align economic interests with environmental and social requirements. It is not enough to take into account just these basics components. Technology plays a significant role in company activity. The aim of this article is to highlight the relationship between the dimensions characterising sustainability and to take a deeper look at the structure of the concept of sustainability so that to understand in more detail the completeness of the dimensions of sustainability. For achieving this aim is necessary through the analysis of researchers’ opinions to apply the logical assessment, systematisation, and comparison of information, selects the most important information describing the sustainability of technology, highlights the relationships between the technological aspect of sustainability and other sustainability dimensions, evaluates the technological processes of the corporate product in terms of sustainability, clarifies and presents arguments highlighting the importance of the technological aspect in sustainable business activity, rejects inappropriate arguments, identifies links between the arguments, and, basing on the information, proves and/or formulates anew some logical considerations to justify the full competency of the technological dimension in the sustainable development framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0563.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: technological innovation; cloud computing; compound binomial options; investment risk; uncertainty
Online: 30 July 2018 (07:40:39 CEST)
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the timing of innovative investment in technology product life cycles using a compound binomial option with management flexibility. Considering the business cycles changes in the macroeconomic will affect consumer purchasing power. The focus is how to evaluate the optimal investment strategy and the project value. It was applied to different product stages (three stages including production innovation, manufacture innovation, and operation innovation) and factored to different risks to build a technology innovation strategy model. An aim of this study is the options premium of the best strategy timing for each innovation stage. Its application of the compound binomial options for the manufacture innovation will only be considered after the execution of the production innovation. The same condition is applied to the operation innovation, which will only be considered after the execution of the manufacture innovation. Then, this paper constructs the dynamic investment sequential decision model, assesses the feasibility of an investment strategy, and makes a decision on the appropriate project value and options premium for each stage under the possible change of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). This paper investigates the product life cycle innovation investment topic by using the compound binomial options method and will provide a more flexible strategy decision compared with other trend forecast criteria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0121.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicles; smart farming; precision agriculture; technological frames; case study
Online: 12 January 2020 (14:48:29 CET)
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are one of the most promising innovative technologies invented in recent years to promote precision agriculture and smart farming. UAVs can not only reduce labor requirements but also increase production output, reduce the use of pesticides, and protect the environment. However, previous studies on agricultural UAVs have mostly focused on technical problems such as software and hardware design. Few studies have examined users’ behaviors in the implementation process. On the basis of Orlikowski and Gash’s technological frames, this study explored the participants’ cognition and expectation of farmers, pesticide, sprayers, and agriculture officials, who are three key groups of stakeholders involved in the application of UAVs to pesticide spraying, regarding agricultural UAVs and examined how the conflicts between their cognition and expectation influenced the choice of using pesticide spraying UAVs. The conclusions of this study contributed to supplement the content and broaden the scope of application of technological frame theory and provided a crucial reference for the promotion of agricultural UAVs in practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0218.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: count data; Bayesian regression; technological sustainability; Poisson probability distribution; patent analysis
Online: 13 August 2018 (07:53:13 CEST)
Technology development changes society and society demands new and innovative technology development. We analyze technology to understand society and technology itself. Many researches have been introduced in various fields. Most of them were about patent analysis. This is because detailed and accurate results of research and development are patented. In this paper, we study on new patent analysis method based on count data model and Bayesian regression analysis. Using count data model, we analyze the technological keywords extracted from the collected patent documents. We use the posterior distribution of Bayesian statistics to reflect the experience and knowledge of the relevant technological experts in the analysis model. Moreover, we apply the proposed model to finding sustainable technologies. Finding and developing sustainable technologies is an important activity for companies and research institutes to maintain their technological competitiveness. To illustrate how our modeling could be applied to real domain, we carry out a case study using the patent documents related to artificial intelligence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0028.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: VOC; technological risk; exposure to risks; DRI; risk mapping; SIG; BTEX
Online: 13 September 2016 (03:42:52 CEST)
The population’s mobility in urban areas is a necessary variable in the modeling of risk scenarios caused by atmospheric contamination. The inclusion of this concept makes static models more dynamic while considering people within a city to be an entity with complex mobility processes. We propose a conceptual and methodological tool to make the representation of the social, economic and territorial components, as well as the patterns in the population´s mobility to delimitate risk areas for human health by exposure of contaminants. In the volatile organic compounds (VOC), benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene and xylene (BTEX) are amongst the most dominant substances in fugitive vapor emissions in gas stations (GS). In urban areas, the exposure to BTEX by residential proximity and proximity to other facilities, which cause intra-urban agglomeration, can impact and affect human health. This model seeks to facilitate the focalization, identification and prioritization of risk areas by BTEX environmental contamination. This article goes beyond de conceptual framework. It suggests methodological and instrumental aspects to be applied in other cities. The government agencies must consider these results when establishing rules, permissions and procedures to reduce environmental pollution for managing the risk in a complex urban environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1754.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: аrtificial neural network; electric drive system; database; stability; training algorithm; technological mechanisms
Online: 27 October 2023 (04:55:14 CEST)
Keywords: Аrtificial neural network, electric drive system, database, stability, training algorithm, technological mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1532.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Aerospace Industry; Quality Management; Process Integration; Industry 4.0; Efficiency Sustainability; Technological Advancements
Online: 25 October 2023 (08:16:05 CEST)
This paper delves into the multifaceted domain of the aerospace industry, examining its evolution, current challenges, and imperative focus on quality management and process integration. The aerospace sector, driven by technological advancements and a burgeoning global demand for air travel and freight transport, necessitates a thorough analysis of its industrial fabric and operational intricacies. This research endeavors to analyze the dynamics of the aerospace industry, pinpoint its challenges, and propose an integrated approach to enhance efficiency, quality, and sustainability. The primary goals encompass understanding the evolving industry landscape, identifying critical challenges, and offering innovative solutions by amalgamating principles of Industry 4.0 into quality management and processes within the aerospace sector. Through an in-depth exploration of various facets, this research underscores the pivotal role of efficient processes and integrated quality management in achieving sustainable growth and competitiveness in the aerospace industry. By aligning with the paradigm of Industry 4.0, organizations can optimize their operations and contribute to the industry's advancement, delivering safer and more cost-effective aerospace products. The study adopts a multifaceted approach, incorporating extensive literature review, critical analysis of industry trends, examination of quality management frameworks, and a thorough evaluation of the integration potential of Industry 4.0 technologies. The research also involves case studies and expert insights to validate the proposed approach. The investigation reveals that by leveraging Industry 4.0 technologies and embracing an integrated approach to quality management, the aerospace industry can significantly enhance operational efficiency, product quality, and overall sustainability. The seamless integration of processes and the implementation of advanced quality frameworks pave the way for a more competitive and future-ready aerospace industry, meeting the evolving demands of a globalized world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1313.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Citrus by-products; Pectin extraction; Optimization; Characterization; Response surface methodology; technological properties
Online: 19 July 2023 (09:54:28 CEST)
Citrus peels are considered as a rich source of valuable biomolecules like pectin as polymer of polysaccharide acid. In this study, response surface methodology was used to optimize pectin extraction from Citrus clementina peels using citric acid as extraction solvent. The effect of parameters conditioning the extraction process and pectin yield (pH, temperature, extraction time, solid/liquid ratio, and raw material particle size) was investigated using a Box-Behnken design. The quality of the extracted pectin was assessed both chemically (moisture, ash, protein, and sugar content) and functionally (gelling power and emulsifying activity). According to the screening experiment, the factors pH, temperature, and particle size were the main factors influencing the pectin yield. The adjusted mathematical model enabled us to plot response surfaces in order to determine optimal extraction conditions. The highest production yield of pectin (26.6%) was obtained at the optimal conditions of: pH = 1.5; temperature 100 °C and particle size = 0.1 mm for an extraction time of 30min. Compared to the predicted value of 26.6%, the experimental extraction yield was about 21.4% of pectin. Concerning the functional properties, the extracted pectin has a high gelling power of 164°SAG and an emulsifying activity of 38.5%.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0533.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: 5G and Beyond; Smart Grids; Technological Innovation Systems; Energy Efficiency; Fogging Vehicular.
Online: 10 July 2023 (04:12:37 CEST)
This article provides a comprehensive review of the intersection of 5G technology and Beyond, and Smart Grids, focusing on the potential of Vehicle-to-Fog as an industrial alternative for addressing energy efficiency challenges in data processing. This study aims to investigate relevant articles and patents to understand the collaborative potential between 5G and Smart Grids. It explores how to establish new regulatory standards within the architectural framework of 5G to facilitate decentralized data processing and remodel energy consumption patterns. The hypothesis suggests that decentralized 5G architecture and Smart Grids can be most effectively applied through vehicular fogging powered by solar energy. A combined quantitative and qualitative methodology guides the exploration of articles and patents. The study concludes by advocating for new standards that embrace decentralized 5G data processing, emphasizing the potential of Vehicle-to-Fog and the future deployment of 6G technology in Smart Grids. These advancements can significantly enhance energy efficiency in the context of 5G and pave the way for future innovations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2107.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Serratia marcescens; cheese, blue-veined cheese; technological defect; colour defect; traditional cheeses
Online: 30 May 2023 (10:15:27 CEST)
Technological defects in the organoleptic characteristics of cheese (odour, colour, texture and flavour) reduce quality and consumer acceptance. A red colour defect in Cabrales cheese (a traditional, blue-veined, Spanish cheese made from raw milk) occurs infrequently but can have a notable economic impact on family-owned, artisanal cheesemaking businesses. This work reports the culture-based determination of Serratia marcescens strain R01 as the microbe involved in the appearance of red spots on the surface and nearby inner areas of such cheese. Sequencing and analysis of its genome revealed a cluster of 16 genes involved in the production of prodigiosin, a tripyrrole red pigment. HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of prodigiosin in methanol extracts of S. marcescens RO1 cultures. The same was also observed in extracts from red areas of affected cheeses. The strain showed low survival rates under acidic conditions, but was not affected by concentrations of up to 5% NaCl (the usual value for blue cheese). The optimal conditions for prodigiosin production by S. marscescens RO1 on agar plates were 32 ºC and aerobic conditions. Prodigiosin has been reported to possess antimicrobial activity, which agrees with the here-observed inhibitory effect of RO1 supernatants on different bacteria, its inhibition of Enterobacteriaceae, and the delayed development of Penicillium roqueforti during cheesemaking. The association between S. marcescens and the red colour defect was strengthened by recreating the fault in experimental cheeses inoculated with RO1. The data gathered in this study points towards the starting milk to be the origin of this bacterium in cheese. These findings should help in the development of strategies that minimize the incidence of pigmenting S. marcescens in milk, the red defect the bacterium causes in cheese, and its associated economic losses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0114.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: dry extract; antioxidant; collection of plant; phytopreparation; antioxidant compound medicine; technological parameters
Online: 7 February 2023 (02:59:51 CET)
This work is the first scientific study on the development of the composition and technology of a new antioxidant agent based on a combination of extracts of tree medicinal plants and the study of the technological parameters of a dry extract. Further draw up technological regulations for their production and their introduction into production. This study aims to the antioxidant activity of dry extract "Antioxim" was determined. In order to create this herbal collection of plant, first of all, to study the technological parameters of raw materials, such as mass size, porosity, dispersibility, free volume of layers of raw materials, water absorption coefficient of extractives, and technological process efficiency to study the effect of parameters, developed at the Department of "Industrial Technology of Medicines" of the Tashkent Pharmaceutical Institute:
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0120.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: Sustainable Cosmetics; Sustainable Packaging; Sustainability Strategies; Consumer Behavior; Corporate Social Responsibility; Technological Developments
Online: 2 August 2023 (11:03:18 CEST)
In spite of the significant progress towards sustainable cosmetics, mass-produced sustainable packaging has proven to be a challenge. The complexity of environmental, economic, social, technological and policy considerations in conjunction with varying consumer behaviors and corporate goals can make it difficult to select an optimal strategy across heterogeneous supply-chain components spread over the globe; and the cost and effort of developing, testing and validating alternative strategies discourages empirical exploration of potential alternatives. This review discusses the challenges that can be expected in the context of broader sustainability efforts, as well as the experience gained in related fields such as sustainable cosmetics and sustainable packaging, to identify potential pitfalls as well as promising trends towards development of sustainable cosmetics packaging. The findings suggest there may be little to be gained from attempting to induce customers to change their behavior; waiting for a significant increase in global recycling infrastructure; or expecting regulatory constraints to substitute for the lack of technological and business solutions. A research strategy is delineated towards development of sustainable packaging that, with appropriate policy support, could minimize externalities and provide mass-produced packaging that is acceptable to both consumers and producers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1119.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: cultural diversity; era of global connectivity; language and literature education; Multilingualism; technological advancements
Online: 18 July 2023 (03:12:20 CEST)
In an era of global connectivity, language and literature education faces the challenge of navigating multilingualism, cultural diversity, and technological advancements. This paper explores the challenges and opportunities in language and literature education in the era of global connectivity. Through a qualitative research approach, interviews, focus group discussions, and classroom observations were conducted with 30 Arts and Sciences students and teachers. The findings reveal significant themes related to cultural diversity, multilingualism, and the integration of technology in language learning. The study emphasizes the importance of inclusive pedagogies, critical thinking development, and the incorporation of authentic and diverse literary works. Recommendations are provided for educators and policymakers to promote intercultural understanding and enhance language and literature education. The limitations of the study suggest areas for future research, including long-term language proficiency and diverse contextual considerations. Overall, this paper calls for ongoing innovation and collaboration to meet the evolving needs of language and literature education in an interconnected world.
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: health innovation; technological innovation; social innovation; public health; global health; Ebola; Covid-19
Online: 30 March 2021 (10:29:41 CEST)
Health innovations are generally oriented on a techno-economic vision. In this perspective, technologies are seen as an end in themselves, and there is no arrangement between the technical and the social values of innovation. This vision prevails in sanitary crises, in which management is carried out based on the search for punctual, reactive, and technical solutions to remedy a specific problem without a systemic/holistic, sustainable, or proactive approach. This paper attempts to contribute to the literature on the epistemological orientation of innovations in the field of public health. Taking the Covid-19 and Ebola crises as examples, the primary objective is to show how innovation in health is oriented towards a techno-economic paradigm. Second, we propose a repositioning of public health innovation towards a social paradigm that will put more emphasis on the interaction between social and health dimensions in the perspective of social change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0349.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: humanity; culture; development and language; globalization; indigenous capabilities; knowledge creation and technological development
Online: 19 July 2018 (06:34:37 CEST)
Humanity, culture, societal development and language issues are mutually reinforcing much as they are intricately interwoven in a non-ceasing dynamic interrelationships within the matrix defined by language standardization or development, acquisition and use that mostly take up central place as unifying and propelling forces in language discourse. Within the confines of globalization which is neither homogenization nor convergence; but the beginning of drawing on the strength of indigenous capabilities to create knowledge ecology that would enliven socio-economic and scientific development of the world in far reaching interconnectivities and relationships across every clime, issues pertaining to language development, acquisition and use become imperative. It is against this background that this paper examines the development/standardization, acquisition and use of Esan language as one of several Nigerian indigenous languages to promote scientific and technological development through knowledge creation, preservation and dissemination. The obsession of using western model and epistemological outlook to achieve appropriate scientific and technological development to the utter neglect of home grown and culturally distilled efforts were also examined. In the light of the dare consequences and the harsh conditions globalization imposes on developing nations, this paper highlights standardization and use of indigenous languages in chatting appropriate trajectory for effectual developmental efforts in fast shrinking contemporary world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0015.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: 316L austenitic steel; selective laser melting; powder bed fusion; technological parameters; mechanical property characterization
Online: 1 March 2020 (15:36:32 CET)
The main aim of this study is to investigate the optimization of the technological process for selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing. The group of process parameters considered was selected from the first-stage parameters identified in preliminary research. Samples manufactured using three different sets of parameter values were subjected to static tensile and compression tests. The samples were also subjected to dynamic Split–Hopkinson tests. To verify the microstructural changes after the dynamic tests, microstructural analyses were conducted. Additionally, the element deformation during the tensile tests was analyzed using digital image correlation (DIC). To analyze the influence of the selected parameters and verify the layered structure of the manufactured elements, sclerometer scratch hardness tests were carried out on each sample. Basing on the research results it was possible to observe the porosity growth mechanism and its influence on the material strength (including static and dynamic tests). Parameters modifications that caused 20% lower energy density, elongation of the elements during tensile testing decreased twice, which was strictly connected with porosity growth. An increase of energy density by almost three times caused a significant reduction of force fluctuations differences between both tested surfaces (parallel and perpendicular to the building platform) during sclerometer hardness testing. That kind of phenomenon had been taken into account in the microstructure investigations before and after dynamic testing where it had been spotted a positive impact on material deformations based on fused material grains formation after SLM processing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0236.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Internet addiction; mobile phone addiction; online social network; university students; technological addictions; behavioral addictions
Online: 25 January 2018 (05:10:00 CET)
1) Background: It has been more than a decade since the concern about addictive use of the Internet and mobile phones was first expressed and its possible inclusion into the lists of mental disorders has been a popular topic of discussion recently, thus it seems to be a fitting moment to investigate the evolution of this issue over time. The aim of the present study was to analyze the evolution of the perception of problematic Internet and smartphone use in young people over the period 2006–2017; 2) Methods: To this end, a questionnaire on Internet use habits and the CERI and CERM questionnaires on negative consequences of Internet and smartphone use were administered to a sample of 792 university students and compared with data from former studies over the period 2006–2017; 3) Results: The perception of problematic Internet and mobile phone use has increased over the last decade, social networks are considered responsible for this increase, and females are the ones perceived to be more affected than males. The degree to which participants agree with the statement “I am addicted to the Internet” can be used as a screening item for problematic use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0288.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: Resilience, climate change, vulnerability, water management and urban planning, environmental technological design, nature-based solutions
Online: 16 December 2022 (01:59:42 CET)
The threat posed by climate change, the progressive erosion of natural resources, the polluting effects related to private motorization, energy waste, excessive consumption of agricultural and natural soils and their progressive waterproofing and reduction in vegetation cover, with the subsequent environmental degradation, have highlighted the need for a sustainable management of natural resources, in terms of an equitable and ethical development, to build inclusive communities able to adapt to the negative effects of emergency phenomena, through new capacities of economic, cultural and social resilience. This contribution presents the results of the activities conducted in the RivEr/Generation_LAB, a project organized by three CIVIS members (Sapienza University of Rome, Universitè libre de Bruxelles, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid) as a part of the CIVIS Project "RivEr/Generation_LAB. Linking resilience with inclusiveness in the urban built environment of Rome, Brussels, and Madrid", financed into the Hub4 Cities, Territories & Mobilities’ Call for proposals 2021. The project proposes a methodology of intervention in the Flaminio district, in particular on the 'Olympic Village' and its relationship with the Tiber River, in line with the Sustainable Development Goals, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and the New European Bauhaus, to establish new relationships between cities and the natural environment, favouring sustainable and inclusive public spaces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0530.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Informatics; Social Informatics; Information Systems; Information System Design; Disruptive Innovation; Technological Determinism; Software Life Cycle
Online: 22 July 2020 (14:07:18 CEST)
Motivation: there is a paradox at the heart of informatics where practical implementation generally fails to understand the socio-technical impact of novel technologies and disruptive innovation when adopted in `real-world’ systems. This phenomenon, termed technological determinism, is manifested in a time-lag between the adoption of novel technologies and an understanding of the underlying theory which develops following research into their adoption. Methods: we consider informatics theory as it relates to: social informatics and how humans’ function in society, the relationship between society and technology, information systems, information systems design, and human-computer interactions. The challenges posed by novel technologies and disruptive innovation are considered as they relate to information systems and information systems design. Open research questions with directions for future research are discussed with an introduction to and our proposed approach to socio-technical information system design. Significance: we conclude that the adoption of disruptive innovation presents both opportunities and threats for all stakeholders in computerised systems. However, determinism is a topic requiring research to generate a suitable level of understanding and technological determinism remains a significant challenge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0416.v2
Subject: Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Keywords: technological preparation of production; automation of production processes; small-scale production; single production; machine-building enterprises
Online: 28 November 2023 (17:01:21 CET)
The authors of the article analyze the existing methods and models of technological preparation of machine-building industries. The structure of a three-level simulation model with network-centric control, the structures of individual elements of the simulation model and the process of simulation modeling are described. The criteria for choosing a rational option for the processing technological route have been determined. During the research, a simulation program was implemented in C++. It allows you to select the optimal scenario for the operation of a production site based on two criteria: time and cost. The volume of implementation is about 2x103 lines of code. A diagram of the modeling algorithm for the implemented program, a description of the classes and their interactions are given in the article. The developed simulation model was tested at a machine-building enterprise using the example of the “Pusher” part, manufactured under single-unit production condi-tions. The technological equipment used for the manufacture of this part was formed in the form of input data of the simulation model. The results of simulation modeling for the selected part are described. For each variant of the technological processing route, the values of variable costs and the duration of the production cycle were determined.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1354.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: industrial hemp (IH); European kraft pulp mills (EKPM); casual aspects; cultivation aspects; technological aspect; application aspects
Online: 21 August 2023 (03:12:59 CEST)
The issue of suitability of industrial hemp (IH) for large-scale European pulp mills, referred to in this study as EKPM mills, was discussed, taking into account the causal, cultivation, technological, and application aspects of this issue. The work showed that there are premises for the use of non-wood fibrous raw materials (NFRM) in these mills. As for the IH, it was found that IH stalks are the best IH FRM for EKMP. There are few cultivation factors (CF) favouring the use of IH stalks in them and few, though important (e.g., small cultivation areas), factors not conducive to this use. Most of the technological factors (TF) favour the use of IH in EKPM, apart from the large differences in the length of the IH bast and woody-core fibres. The analysis of application factors (AF) indicates lower usefulness of IH than wheat/rye/triticale straws, Miscanthus giganteus, Virginia mallow, and kenaf due to the much greater availability of these cereal straws than IH and less variation in fibre length of cereal straw, Miscanthus giganteus, Virginia mallow, and kenaf than in IH stalks. The presence of IH variety/ies with fibre lengths more similar to wood would reduce the number of TF and AF factors unfavourable to their use in EKPM.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0014.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: climate change; decoupling; energy reductions; future; renewable energy; smart cities; smart grids; smart transport; sustainability; technological solutions
Online: 3 April 2023 (07:52:17 CEST)
Our planet faces several serious and urgent challenges to sustainability, not just climate change. Most researchers argue that technological solutions can solve these problems. This review paper first examines the prospects for decoupling environmental damages in general from economic growth, considered at the global level, then looks at whether the recent advances in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can help. It is argued that although absolute decoupling might have occurred in some countries, even after accounting for energy-intensive imports, it has not occurred at the global level, which is the relevant level for global sustainability problems. This conclusion is strengthened by the very high correlation over the past three decades found between GDP and several parameters relevant for sustainability, particularly for atmospheric CO2 ppm and ecological footprint as a function of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). ICT innovations relevant to energy use include smart grids and smart cities, especially smart urban transport. A review of recently published papers shows no definite findings of energy or carbon reduction, although some innovations show energy/carbon reduction potential, if given strong policy support. However, the needed policies could well give marked reductions even without ICT approaches. Overall, it is concluded that Earth’s sustainability challenges will necessitate deep energy reductions, which in turn require profound sociopolitical changes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0245.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Innovation, and Invention: Processes and Incentives; Management of Technological Innovation and R&D; Diffusion Processes; Open Innovation
Online: 14 November 2022 (08:26:39 CET)
We investigate the innovational determinants of “Patent Applications” in Europe. We use data from the European Innovation Scoreboard-EIS of the European Commission for 36 countries in the period 2010-2019. We use Panel Data with Fixed Effects, Panel Data with Random Effects, Pooled OLS, WLS and Dynamic Panel. We found that the variables that have a deeper positive association with “Patent Applications” are “Human Resources” and “Intellectual Assets”, while the variables that show a more intense negative relation with Patent Applications are “Employment Share in Manufacturing” and “Total Entrepreneurial Activity”. A cluster analysis with the k-Means algorithm optimized with the Silhouette Coefficient has been realized. The results show the presence of two clusters. A network analysis with the distance of Manhattan has been performed and we find three different complex network structures. Finally, a comparison is made among eight machine learning algorithms for the prediction of the future value of the “Patent Applications”. We found that PNN-Probabilistic Neural Network is the best performing algorithm. Using PNN the results show that the mean future value of “Patent Applications” in the estimated countries is expected to decrease of -0.1%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0393.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Innovation; and Invention: Processes and Incentives; Management of Technological Innovation and R&D; Diffusion Processes; Open Innovation
Online: 26 September 2022 (10:39:02 CEST)
In this article we have estimated the value of “Opportunity Driven Entrepreneurship” in Europe. We use data from European Innovation Scoreboard-EIS of the European Commission for 36 countries in the period 2010-2019. We use Panel Data with Fixed Effects, Panel Data with Random Effects, WLS, Pooled OLS, and Dynamic Panel. Our results show that “Opportunity Driven Entrepreneurship” is positively associated, among others, to “Innovation Friendly Environment” and “Turnover Share Large Enterprises”, while it is negatively associated, among others, to “Sales Impacts” and “R&D Expenditure Business Sectors”.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0166.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: innovation and invention: processes and incentives; management of technological innovation and R&D; diffusion orocesses; open innovation
Online: 13 September 2022 (09:50:32 CEST)
In this article we estimate the value of “Non-R&D Innovation Expenditures” in Europe. We use data from the European Innovation Scoreboard-EIS of the European Commission from the period 2010-2019. We test data with the following econometric models i.e.: Pooled OLS, Dynamic Panel, Panel Data with Fixed Effects, Panel Data with Random Effects, WLS. We found that “Non-R&D Innovation Expenditures” is positively associated among others to “Innovation Index” and “Firm Investments” and negatively associated among others to “Human Resources” and “Government Procurement of Advanced Technology Products”. We use the k-Means algorithm with either the Silhouette Coefficient and the Elbow Method in a confrontation with the network analysis optimized with the Distance of Manhattan and we find that the optimal number of clusters is four. Furthermore, we propose a confrontation among eight machine learning algorithms to predict the level of “Non-R&D Innovation Expenditures” either with Original Data-OD either with Augmented Data-AD. We found that Gradient Boost Trees Regression is the best predictor for OD while Tree Ensemble Regression is the best Predictor for AD. Finally, we verify that the prediction with AD is more efficient of that with OD with a reduction in the average value of statistical errors equal to 40,50%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0053.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Innovation, and Invention: Processes and Incentives; Management of Technological Innovation and R&D; Diffusion Processes; Open Innovation.
Online: 5 September 2022 (08:56:35 CEST)
In this article we investigate the determinants of “New Doctorate Graduates” in Europe. We use data from the EIS-European Innovation Scoreboard of the European Commission for 36 countries in the period 2010-2019 with Pooled OLS, Dynamic Panel, WLS, Panel Data with Fixed Effects and Panel Data with Random Effects. We found that “New Doctorate Graduates” is positively associated, among others, with “Human Resources” and “Government Procurement of Advanced Technology Products” and negatively, associated among others, with “Total Entrepreneurial Activity” and “Innovation Index”. We apply a clusterization with k-Means algorithm either with the Silhouette Coefficient either with the Elbow Method and we found that in both cases the optimal number of clusters is three. Furthermore, we use the Network Analysis with the Distance of Manhattan, and we find the presence of seven network structures. Finally, we propose a confrontation among ten machine learning algorithms to predict the value of “New Doctorate Graduates” either with Original Data-OD either with Augmented Data-AD. Results show that SGD-Stochastic Gradient Descendent is the best predictor for OD while Linear Regression performs better for AD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0374.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Innovation and Invention; Processes and Incentives; Management of Technological Innovation and R&D; Diffusion Processes; Open Innovation
Online: 22 August 2022 (04:51:50 CEST)
In this article we investigate the determinants of the European “Most Cited Publications”. We use data from the European Innovation Scoreboard-EIS of the European Commission for the period 2010-2019. Data are analyzed with Panel Data with Fixed Effects, Panel Data with Random Effects, WLS, and Pooled OLS. Results show that the level of “Most Cited Publications” is positively associated, among others, to “Innovation Index” and “Enterprise Birth” and negatively associated, among others, to “Government Procurement of Advanced Technology Products” and “Human Resources”. Furthermore, we perform a cluster analysis with the k-Means algorithm either with the Silhouette Coefficient and the Elbow Method. We find that the Elbow Method shows better results than the Silhouette Coefficient with a number of clusters equal to 3. In adjunct we perform a network analysis with the Manhattan distance, and we find the presence of 4 complex and 2 simplified network structures. Finally, we present a confrontation among 10 machine learning algorithms to predict the level of “Most Cited Publication” either with Original Data-OD either with Augmented Data-AD. Results show that the best machine learning algorithm to predict the level of “Most Cited Publication” with Original Data-OD is SGD, while Linear Regression is the best machine learning algorithm for the prediction of “Most Cited Publications” with Augmented Data-AD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0300.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Innovation; and Invention; Processes and Incentives; Management of Technological Innovation and R&D; Diffusion Processes; Open Innovation
Online: 17 August 2022 (04:33:29 CEST)
In this article we analyze the determinants and the export trend of European countries of medium and high technology products. The data were analyzed using various econometric models, namely WLS, Pooled OLS, Dynamic Panel, Panel Data with Fixed Effects, Panel Data with Random Effects. The results show that exports of medium and high-tech products are positively associated, among other variables, with the value of “Average Annual GDP Growth”, “Total Entrepreneurial Activity” and “Sales Impacts”, and negatively associated with, among other variables, “Human Resources”, “Government and Procurement of Advanced Technology Products” and “Buyer Sophistication”. A cluster analysis was realized with the k-Means algorithm optimized with the Silhouette coefficient. The result showed the presence of only two clusters. Since this result was considered poorly representative of the industrial complexity of the European Union countries, a further analysis was carried out with the Elbow method. The result showed the presence of 6 clusters with the dominance of Germany and the economies connected to the German economy. In addition, a network analysis was carried out using the distance to Manhattan. Four complex network structures and two simplified network structures were detected. A comparison was then made between 10 machine learning algorithms for predicting the value of exports of medium and high-tech products. The result shows that the best performing algorithm is the SGD. An analysis with Augmented Data-AD was implemented with a comparison between 10 machine learning algorithms for prediction and the result shows that the Linear Regression algorithm is the best predictor. The prediction with the Augmented Data-AD allows to reduce the MAE by about 0.0022131 compared to the prediction with the Original Data-OD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0200.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Innovation and Invention; Processes and Incentives; Management of Technological Innovation and R&D; Diffusion Processes; Open Innovation
Online: 10 August 2022 (09:59:09 CEST)
The article affords the question of lifelong learning in Europe using data from the European Innovation Scoreboard-EIS in the period 2010-2019 for 36 countries. The econometric analysis is realized using WLS, Dynamic Panel, Pooled OLS, Panel Data with Fixed Effects and Random Effects. The results show that lifelong learning is, among other variables, positively associated to “Human Resources” and “Government procurement of advanced technology products” and is negatively associated, among others, to “Average annual GDP growth” and “Innovation Index”. A clusterization is realized using the k-Means algorithm with a confrontation between the Elbow Method and the Silhouette Coefficient. Subsequently, a Network Analysis was applied with the distance of Manhattan. The results show the presence of 4 complex and 2 simplified network structures. Finally, a comparison was made among eight machine learning algorithms for the prediction of the value of lifelong learning. The results show that the linear regression is the best predictor algorithm and that the level of lifelong learning is expected to growth on average by 1.12%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0195.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: innovation; and invention: processes and incentives; management of technological innovation and R&D; diffusion processes; open innovation
Online: 10 August 2022 (07:53:45 CEST)
In this article we investigate the determinants of marketing or organizational innovators in Europe for 36 countries in the period 2010-2019. We have used data from the European Innovation Scoreboard-EIS of the European Commission. We perform different econometric models i.e. Dynamic Panel, Pooled OLS, Panel Data with Fixed Effects, Panel Data with Random Effects, WLS. Results show that the level of marketing or organizational innovators in positively associated, among others variables to “Innovation Index”, “Innovators” and “Knowledge Intensive Service Exports”, while is negatively associated with “Sales Impacts”, “Foreign Controlled Enterprises Share of Value Added” and “Government procurement of advanced technology products”.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0169.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: innovation, and invention: processes and incentives; management of technological innovation and R&D; diffusion processes; open innovation
Online: 13 June 2022 (05:21:48 CEST)
In the following article, the value of the "Knowledge Intensive Services Exports in Europe" in 36 European countries is estimated. The data were analyzed through a set of econometric models or: Poled OLS, Dynamic Panel, Panel Data with Fixed Effects, Panel Data with Random Effects, WLS. The results show that “Knowledge Intensive Services Exports” is negatively associated, among others, with "Buyer Sophistication", "Government Procurement of Advanced Technology Products", and positively associated with the following variables i.e. "Innovation Index", "Sales Impacts" and "Total Entrepreneurial Activity". Then a clusterization with k-Means algorithm was made with the Elbow method. The results show the presence of 3 clusters. A network analysis was later built and 4 complex network structures and three structures with simplified networks were detected. To predict the future trend of the variable, a comparison was made with eight different machine learning algorithms. The results show that prediction with Augmented Data-AD is more efficient than prediction with Original Data-AD with a reduction of the mean of statistical errors equal to 55,94%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0263.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Innovation and Invention; Processes and Incentives; Management of Technological Innovation and R&D; Diffusion Processes; Open Innovation
Online: 19 May 2022 (15:25:11 CEST)
The following article indicates the determinants of “Internet User Skills” among European countries based on the application of the database deriving from the DESI-Index. The data were analyzed using the following econometric models, namely: Panel Data with Fixed Effects, Panel Data with Random Effects, Pooled OLS, WLS, WLS corrected for heteroskedasticity. The Elbow method and the Silouette coefficient method were compared for the optimization of the number of clusters obtained by the k-Means algorithm. The result shows the presence of 5 clusters. A network analysis was carried out using the Euclidean distance with the result of identifying two network structures between some analyzed countries. subsequently a comparison was made between six different machine learning algorithms for the prediction of the future value of the variable of interest. The result shows that the best predictor algorithm is Gradient Boosted Tree Regression with an expected value of the predicted variable increasing by a value of 1.75%. Later a further comparison was made by comparing 6 algorithms with the increased data. The result shows that the best predictor is Simple Regression Tree. The interest variable is predicted to decrease by an amount equal to -6.099%. Statistical errors improve on average by 32.43% in the transition between the original data and the increased data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0216.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: innovation and invention: processes and incentives; management of technological innovation and R&D; diffusion processes; open innovation
Online: 25 April 2022 (04:40:06 CEST)
The following article analyzes the determinants of the innovation index in Europe. The data refer to the European Innovation Scoreboard-EIS of the European Commission for the period between 2010 and 2019 for 36 countries. The data are analyzed using the following econometric techniques: Panel Data with Random Effects, Panel Data with Fixed Effects, Dynamic Panel Data, Pooled OLS, WLS. The results show that the Innovation Index is negatively connected to some variables, among which the most significant are "GDP per capita", "R&D expenditure public sector", "Venture capital", "Tertiary education", and positively connected to some variables among which the most relevant are: "Government procurement of advanced technology products", "Average annual population growth", "Finance and support", "Human resources", "Marketing or organisational innovators", "Linkages". A clustering was then carried out using the unsupervised k-Means algorithm optimized with the Silhouette coefficient which shows the presence of 2 clusters per value of the Innovation Index. Eight machine learning algorithms has been used for prediction with real data. The Tree Ensemble Regression algorithm has been chosen as best performer. A further prediction has been made with the augmented data. The result shows that the best performing algorithm is Linear Regression with an innovation index value predicted to grow by approximately 3.38%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0088.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: innovation, and invention: processes and incentives; management of technological innovation and R&D; diffusion processes; open innovation
Online: 7 March 2022 (04:17:02 CET)
The following article estimates the value of ICT Specialists in Europe between 2016 and 2021 for 28 European countries. The data were analyzed using the following econometric techniques, namely: Panel Data with Fixed Effects, Panel Data with Random Effects, WLS and Pooled OLS. The results show that the value of ICT Specialists in Europe is positively associated with the following variables: "Desi Index", "SMEs with at least a basic level of digital intensity", "At least 100 Mbps fixed BB take-up" and negatively associated with the following variables: "4G Coverage","5G Coverage", "5G Readiness", "Fixed broadband coverage", "e-Government", "At least Basic Digital Skills", "Fixed broadband take-up", "Broadband price index", "Integration of Digital Technology". Subsequently, two European clusters were found by value of "ICTG Specialists" using the k-Means clustering algorithm optimized by using the Silhouette coefficient. Finally, eight different machine learning algorithms were compared to predict the value of "ICT Specialists" in Europe. The results show that the best prediction algorithm is ANN-Artificial Neural Network with an estimated growth value of 12.53%. Finally, "augmented data" were obtained through the use of the ANN-Artificial Neural Network, through which a new prediction was made which estimated a growing value of the estimated variable equal to 3.18%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0359.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Innovation, and Invention: Processes and Incentives; Management of Technological Innovation and R&D; Diffusion Processes; Open Innovation
Online: 28 February 2022 (12:10:28 CET)
The following article analyzes the determinants of e-government in 28 European countries between 2016 and 2021. The DESI-Digital Economy and Society Index database was used. The econometric analysis involved the use of the Panel Data with Fixed Effects and Panel Data with Variable Effects methods. The results show that the value of “e-Government” is negatively associated with “Fast BB (NGA) coverage”, “Female ICT specialists”, “e-Invoices”, “Big data” and positively associated with “Open Data”, “e-Government Users”, “ICT for environmental sustainability”, “Artificial intelligence”, “Cloud”, “SMEs with at least a basic level of digital intensity”, “ICT Specialists”, “At least 1 Gbps take-up”, “At least 100 Mbps fixed BB take-up”, “Fixed Very High Capacity Network (VHCN) coverage”. A cluster analysis was carried out below using the unsupervised k-Means algorithm optimized with the Silhouette coefficient with the identification of 4 clusters. Finally, a comparison was made between eight different machine learning algorithms using "augmented data". The most efficient algorithm in predicting the value of e-government both in the historical series and with augmented data is the ANN-Artificial Neural Network.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0226.v1
Online: 18 February 2022 (07:39:06 CET)
This article analyzes the determinants of the "Broadband Price Index" in Europe. The data used refer to 28 European countries between 2016 and 2021. The database used is the Digital, Economy and Society Index-DESI of the European Commission. The data were analyzed using the following econometric techniques, namely Panel Data with Random Effects, Panel Data with Fixed Effects, Pooled OLS, WLS and Dynamic Panel. The value of the "Broadband Price Index" is positively associated with the DESI Index, and "Connectivity" while it is negatively associated with "Fixed Broadband Take Up", "Fixed Broadband Coverage", "Mobile Broadband", "e-Government", "Advanced Skills and Development", "Integration of Digital Technology", "At Least Basic Digital Skills ", "Above Basic Digital Skills "," At Least Basic Software Skills ". A cluster analysis was carried out below using the k-Means algorithm optimized with the Silhouette coefficient. The analysis revealed the existence of three clusters. Finally, an analysis of the machine learning algorithms was carried out to predict the future value of the "Broadband Price Index". The result shows that the most useful algorithm for prediction is the Artificial Neural Network-ANN with an estimated value equal to an amount of 9.21%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0182.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: innovation and invention; processes and incentives; management of technological innovation and R&D; diffusion processes; open innovation
Online: 15 February 2022 (04:59:42 CET)
The determinants of the presence of “Foreign Doctorate Students” among 36 European Countries for the period 2010-2019 are analyzed in this article. Panel Data with Fixed Effects, Random Effects, WLS, Pooled OLS, and Dynamic Panel are used to investigate the data. We found that the presence of Foreign Doctorate Students is positively associated to “Attractive Research Systems”, “Finance and Support”, “Rule of Law”, “Sales Impacts”, “New Doctorate Graduates”, “Basic School Entrepreneurial Education and Training”, “Tertiary Education” and negatively associated to “Innovative Sales Share”, “Innovation Friendly Environment”, “Linkages”, “Trademark Applications”, “Government Procurement of Advanced Technology Products”, “R&D Expenditure Public Sectors”. A cluster analysis was then carried out through the application of the unsupervised k-Means algorithm optimized using the Silhouette coefficient with the identification of 5 clusters. Finally, eight different machine learning algorithms were used to predict the value of the "Foreign Doctorate Students" variable. The results show that the best predictor algorithm is the "Tree Ensemble Regression" with a predicted value growing at a rate of 114.03%.
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: sustainable leadership; digital era; technology; environmental sustainability; interconnectedness; carbon footprint; resource efficiency; organizational culture; technological innovation; sustainability goals
Online: 12 October 2023 (04:07:29 CEST)
This article explores the concept of sustainable leadership in the digital era and the role of technology in promoting environmental sustainability. As the world becomes increasingly interconnected through digital advancements, leaders are facing new challenges and opportunities to address environmental concerns. This article examines the key characteristics of sustainable leadership and discusses how technology can be utilized to promote environmental sustainability. It highlights various technological innovations and strategies that leaders can employ to foster a sustainable organizational culture. Moreover, the article discusses potential barriers and limitations of technology in achieving sustainability goals. Overall, it emphasizes the significance of sustainable leadership and technology integration in addressing environmental challenges in the digital era.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0628.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: climate change; climate equity; energy equity; energy reductions; fossil fuels; global sustainability; policy changes; renewable energy; technological optimism.
Online: 10 July 2023 (11:50:49 CEST)
Conventional methods of climate change (CC) mitigation have not ‘bent the curve’ of steadily rising annual anthropic CO2 emissions or atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. This study reviews the present position and likely future of such methods, using recently published literature with a global context. It particularly looks at how fast they could be implemented, given that the limited time available for avoiding catastrophic CC (CCC). The study then examines solar geoengineering, an approach often viewed as complementary to conventional mitigation. The review next introduces equity considerations, and shows how this will shorten even further the time available for effective action for CC mitigation. The main findings are as follows. Conventional mitigation approaches will be implemented too slowly to be of much help in avoiding CCC, partly because some suggested technologies are infeasible, while others are either of limited technical potential, or, like wind and solar energy, cannot be introduced fast enough. Because of these problems, solar geoengineering is increasingly advocated as a quick-acting and effective solution. However, it could have serious side effects, and given that there will be winners and losers at the international as well as the more regional level, political opposition may make it difficult to implement. The conclusion is that global energy consumption itself must be rapidly reduced to avoid catastrophic climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2073.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Other Keywords: green chemistry education; sustainability; scientific and technological literacy; science, technology and society; interdisciplinary studies; environmental education; chemical education
Online: 29 June 2023 (07:29:52 CEST)
In this paper, a distinction is first made between environmental, sustainable and green chemistry; the last two are then examined in relation to the more general problem of the environmental education. A brief historical digression on the STS (Science, Technology and Society) movement tries to dissect the reasons why chemistry is seen by the general public as a problem, not as a decisive resource for the realization of the ecological transition. Although sustainable and green chemistry can be decisive in overcoming the insularity of chemical disciplines in the high school, it fails to effectively embed itself in educational practices. Specific operational goals, supporting a real scientifical and technological literacy in sustainable and green chemistry, can help chemical educators. They are provided at the end of an examination of the founding axes of sustainable and green chemistry, according to the criteria of scientific and technological literacy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0188.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: bioactive compounds; biorefinery; coffee by-products; functional food ingredients; health benefits; nutraceuticals; sustainability; technological innovation; valorization; waste utilization
Online: 2 June 2023 (11:00:02 CEST)
Coffee production generates significant amounts of by-products, posing challenges for waste management in the industry. Recent research has revealed that coffee by-products are rich in bioactive compounds suitable to produce functional food ingredients and nutraceuticals. In this review, we explore biorefinery strategies for extracting and utilizing bioactive compounds from coffee by-products, including the production of bio-based chemicals and materials, as well as the extraction of phenolic compounds, antioxidants, and dietary fiber for food applications. We propose a stepwise approach for the development of functional food ingredients and nutraceuticals from coffee by-products, covering the identification of needs, comprehensive characterization, in vitro and in vivo research, unraveling the mechanism of action, food and nutraceutical formulation, sensory analysis, shelf-life stability, scale-up, randomized control trials, and biostatistic and bioinformatic integration. Additionally, we discuss the market potential, regulatory issues, and technological innovation surrounding the commercialization of coffee by-product-based products. Emphasizing the importance of regulatory compliance and sustainability in the coffee industry, this review highlights the potential of coffee by-products to be transformed from waste into valuable functional food ingredients and nutraceuticals, offering a promising avenue for waste reduction and promoting sustainability in the coffee industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0521.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: ChatGPT; GPT-3; OpenAI; chatbots; digital health; artificial intelligence; automation; technological advancement; human-AI interaction; collaboration; open science
Online: 28 January 2023 (07:56:35 CET)
Artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential to revolutionize research by automating data analysis, generating new insights, and supporting the discovery of new knowledge. The top 10 contribution areas of AI towards public health were gathered in this feasibility study. We utilized the “text-davinci-003” model of GPT-3, using OpenAI playground default parameters. The model was trained with the largest training dataset any AI had, limited to a cut-off date in 2021. This study aimed to test the ability of GPT-3 to advance public health and to explore the feasibility of using AI as scientific co-author. The AI was asked for input including scientific quotations and the human authors reviewed responses for plausibility. We found that GPT-3 was able to assemble, summarize, and generate plausible text blocks relevant for public health concerns, elucidating valuable areas of application for itself. However, most quotations were invented by GPT-3 and thus, invalid. Ac-cording to today’s rules, we conclude that AI can contribute to public health research as a team member. Nevertheless, good scientific practice needs to be also followed for AI contributions, and a broad scientific discourse on AI contributions is needed. Policies for good scientific practice should be updated timely following this discourse.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0474.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: ChatGPT; GPT-3; global trends; OpenAI; chatbots; digital health; artificial intelligence; automation; technological advancement; human-AI interaction; collaboration
Online: 26 January 2023 (08:37:22 CET)
This paper examines the potential of Artificial Intelligence (AI) to address societal megatrends, with a specific focus on OpenAI’s Generative Pre-Trained Transformer 3 (GPT-3). To do this, we con-ducted an analysis using GPT-3 in order to explore the benefits of AI for digitalization, urbanization, globalization, climate change, automation and mobility, global health issues and aging population. We also looked at emerging markets as well as sustainability in this study. Interaction with GPT-3 was done solely through prompt questions and generated responses were analyzed. Our results indicate that AI can significantly improve our understanding of these trends by providing insights into how they develop over time and what solutions could be implemented. Further research is needed to determine how effective AI will be in addressing them successfully but initial findings are encouraging. Our discussion focuses on the implications of our findings for society going forward and suggests that further investigation should be done into how best to utilize new technologies like GPT-3 when tackling these challenges. Lastly, we conclude that while there is still much work left to do before any tangible effects can be seen from utilizing AI tools such as GPT-3 on societal mega-trends; early indications suggest it may have a positive impact if used correctly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0510.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Metaverse; Key Characteristics; Theoretical Framework; Digitalization of Assets; Governance by Law; Combination of Virtual and Real; Rule of Technological Association
Online: 7 June 2023 (08:17:38 CEST)
This study delves into the essential characteristics of the Metaverse and its impact on the real world. The Metaverse, a parallel universe composed of countless 3D virtual worlds, has become a hot topic in technology. With the development of advanced technologies such as Virtual Reality (VR), Augmented Reality (AR), blockchain, and Artificial Intelligence, the Metaverse is gradually changing people's lifestyles and work methods, expanding the boundaries of the digital economy. This study profoundly investigates the attributes of the Metaverse, such as asset digitization, application scenario-based, scope economy, industry universality, integrated innovation, and the platform ecosystem. Additionally, we propose a theoretical framework to aid in understanding and shaping this emerging field. We conducted a thorough study and analysis of a specific case, explored the key features of the Metaverse, unveiled the profound impact of Metaverse characteristics on social and economic development, and verified our theoretical framework with this case. This research provides new perspectives and methods for academic studies and offers robust support and guidance for practical applications and decision-making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0414.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: computing paradigm; technological computing; biological computing; information transfer speed; information storage; lifelong learning; redundancy; temporal behavior; machine learning; artificial intelligence
Online: 16 March 2021 (11:33:04 CET)
Information is commonly considered as a mathematical quantity that forms the basis of computing. In mathematics, information can propagate instantly, so its transfer speed is not the subject of information science. In all kinds of implementations of computing, whether technological or biological, some material carrier for the information exists, so the information’s propagation speed cannot exceed the speed of the carrier. Because of this limitation, for any implementation, one must consider the transfer time between computing units. We need a different mathematical method to take this limitation into account: classic mathematics can only describe infinitely fast and infinitely small computing system implementations. The difference between the mathematical handling methods leads to different descriptions of the behavior of the systems. The correct handling also explains why biological implementations can have lifelong learning and technological ones cannot. The conclusion about learning evidences matches others’ experimental evidence, both in technological and biological computing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0300.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: umpiring and refereeing; technological assistance to match officials; justice and continuity in match officiating; ball trackers; goal-line technology; football; cricket; tennis
Online: 26 April 2019 (11:04:45 CEST)
This paper draws an earlier book (with Evans and Higgins) entitled Bad Call: Technology’s Attack on Referees and Umpires and How to Fix It (hereafter Bad Call) and its various precursor papers. These show why it is that current match officiating aids are unable to provide the kind of accuracy that is often claimed for them and that sports aficianados have been led to expect from them. Accuracy is improving all the time but the notion of perfect accuracy is a myth because, for example, lines drawn on sports fields and the edges of balls are not perfectly defined. The devices meant to report the exact position of a ball – for instance ‘in’ or ‘out’ at tennis – work with the mathematically perfect world of virtual reality, not the actuality of an imperfect physical world. Even if ball-trackers could overcome the sort of inaccuracies related to fast ball speeds and slow camera frame-rates the goal of complete accuracy will always be beyond reach. Here it is suggested that the purpose of technological aids to umpires and referees be looked at in a new way that takes the viewers into account.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1257.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Climate Change; Net Zero Emissions; Dairy Farming; Big Data; Artificial Intelligence (AI); Greenhouse Gas Emissions; Sustainable Agriculture; Technological Innovation; Policy Framework; Environmental Sustainability
Online: 20 November 2023 (16:16:51 CET)
This paper provides an in-depth exploration of the role of Big Data and Artificial Intelligence (AI) in advancing dairy farming towards net zero emissions, a critical goal in the face of the global climate crisis. The study emphasizes how these technologies significantly enhance the management of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and optimize resource use, thereby contributing to environmental sustainability in agriculture. A key aspect of this transition is the alignment with international climate commitments, such as the Paris Agreement, which are instrumental in steering global efforts toward emission reduction and mitigating climate change. The integration of Big Data and AI in dairy farming emerges as a powerful tool to reduce the sector's environmental impact while sustaining economic growth. The paper delves into the specific applications of these technologies in emission management, including predictive analytics for feed optimization, manure management, and energy efficiency enhancements. It also addresses the broader implications of technological integration in dairy farming, considering aspects like benchmarking standards, data privacy, and the role of policy in fostering sustainable practices. The study underscores the challenges inherent in adopting these advanced technologies, including the need for improved farmer training, data quality, and compatibility with existing systems. It also advocates for enhanced policy frameworks that support sustainable practices, encourage technological adoption, and balance economic viability with environmental responsibility. This comprehensive analysis offers valuable insights into harnessing digital technologies for climate change mitigation and delineates a path for the dairy industry towards achieving net zero emissions, thereby contributing significantly to global environmental sustainability efforts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1033.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Disabilities; Oral health; Vulnerable population; Poor oral hygiene; Barriers to oral care; Oral health needs assessment; Technological advancement; Social determinants; Upper extremity movement restriction
Online: 17 July 2023 (08:26:59 CEST)
Abstract: Background: This research aims to investigate the oral health status and needs of individuals with disabilities, a vulnerable population that is facing barriers in accessing and maintaining oral care. Methods: Data for this study were obtained through self-administered questionnaires distributed to individuals with disabilities who were receiving assistance from Helping Restore Ability and Neuro Assistance Foundation. The data were analyzed using statistical methods using SPSS and Microsoft Excel to identify patterns and associations related to oral health maintenance among individuals with disabilities. Results: The findings of this research indicate a high prevalence of poor oral hygiene, periodontal diseases, and untreated dental caries, risk factors of oral cancer among individuals with disabilities. Social determinants were found to have a significant influence on the oral health status of this population. The study also highlights the crucial role of caregivers in ensuring oral health maintenance. Conclusion: The results of this study underscore the urgent need for targeted interventions and improved caregiver awareness to address the oral health needs of individuals with disabilities. By addressing the disparities and barriers faced by people with disabilities in accessing dental care, we can mitigate the health, social, and economic burdens associated with poor oral health in this vulnerable population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0029.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: teaching and learning ıssues in mathematics; social ıssues in mathematics education; cultural ıssues in mathematics education; political ıssues in mathematics education; technological ıssues in mathematics education
Online: 5 June 2017 (06:13:28 CEST)
In this paper, we discuss major issues of mathematics teaching and learning in Nepal. The issues coming from theories such as social and radical constructivism suggest that teachers are not trained to use such approach in teaching mathematics, and there is a lack of teaching aids and materials and technological tools. The issues related to social aspects are gender issues, language issues, social justice issues, and issues related to the achievement gap. The cultural issues are related to the diversity of language and ethnicity. The issues related to political aspects are equity and access, economic status, pedagogical choice, and professional organizations and unions. The issues related to technology include the technological skills, use of technology, and affordance. Finally, we suggest that all the stakeholders should pay attention to resolving these issues by improving the curriculum, training teachers, resourcing the classroom with locally made and new technological tools.