Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

The Determinants of Lifelong Learning in Europe

Version 1 : Received: 7 August 2022 / Approved: 10 August 2022 / Online: 10 August 2022 (09:59:09 CEST)

How to cite: Costantiello, A.; Laureti, L.; Leogrande, A. The Determinants of Lifelong Learning in Europe. Preprints 2022, 2022080200 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202208.0200.v1). Costantiello, A.; Laureti, L.; Leogrande, A. The Determinants of Lifelong Learning in Europe. Preprints 2022, 2022080200 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202208.0200.v1).

Abstract

The article affords the question of lifelong learning in Europe using data from the European Innovation Scoreboard-EIS in the period 2010-2019 for 36 countries. The econometric analysis is realized using WLS, Dynamic Panel, Pooled OLS, Panel Data with Fixed Effects and Random Effects. The results show that lifelong learning is, among other variables, positively associated to “Human Resources” and “Government procurement of advanced technology products” and is negatively associated, among others, to “Average annual GDP growth” and “Innovation Index”. A clusterization is realized using the k-Means algorithm with a confrontation between the Elbow Method and the Silhouette Coefficient. Subsequently, a Network Analysis was applied with the distance of Manhattan. The results show the presence of 4 complex and 2 simplified network structures. Finally, a comparison was made among eight machine learning algorithms for the prediction of the value of lifelong learning. The results show that the linear regression is the best predictor algorithm and that the level of lifelong learning is expected to growth on average by 1.12%.

Keywords

Innovation and Invention; Processes and Incentives; Management of Technological Innovation and R&D; Diffusion Processes; Open Innovation

Subject

SOCIAL SCIENCES, Economics

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