REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0572.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Digital Smile Design; digital dentistry; dentistry software; dentistry design software
Online: 21 April 2021 (11:46:39 CEST)
Without impacting the dental sciences, breakthroughs in technology and applications could not be accomplished. In the advancement of technology and information technology, dentistry and dental materials have been fully active, so much so that they have revolutionized dental techniques. Material & methods; We want to produce the first series of articles in this review on the use of digital techniques and software, such as Smile Concept Digital. The goal is to gather all the findings on the use of this program and to highlight the fields of use. The analysis included forty-nine articles, the latter discussing the use of Digital Smile Design and the area of use. The research aims to classify the dental fields are using "digitization." Change is constant in this field and will be increasing Interest in dentistry by recommending the speed and reliability of outcomes for care planning. Conclusion: As seen in the study, the digital workflow facilitates recovery that is reliable both from an aesthetic and functional point of view. The current area of use of Digital Smile Design techniques in the different branches of medicine and dentistry as well as knowledge have emerged from this research
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0571.v1
Online: 27 January 2021 (16:35:15 CET)
In the pursuit of better treatments, the concept of a chemically-active material, responding to local conditions by causing reactions, or reacting to produce substances that are deemed beneficial, seems laudable. Ultimately, the goal appears to be to recruit natural biological processes such that a natural ‘repair’ is effected. This goal seems to be the reason for prefixing “bio-“ to many terms with a view to advertising the desire, yet without presenting evidence that it has occurred, or indeed that it is capable of occurring, relying instead on non-biological processes to justify the claims. The dogma is such that all work where local ‘responsive’ chemistry is involved must receive the label “bioactive” to legitimize and promote. Nevertheless, the primary evidence adduced is flawed, and the claim must fail. A rethink to restore scientific sense and confidence in the endeavour is essential if real progress is to be made.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0685.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: additive manufacturing; dentistry; application
Online: 27 May 2021 (15:09:52 CEST)
(1) In recent ten years, with the fast development of digital and engineering manufacturing technology, additive manufacturing has already been more and more widely used in the field of dentistry, from the first personalized surgical guides to the latest personalized restoration crowns and root implants. (2) Especially, the bioprinting of teeth and tissue is of great potential to realize organ regeneration and finally improve the life quality. (3) In this review paper, we firstly presented the workflow of additive manufacturing technology. Then we summarized main applications and recent research progresses of additive manufacturing in dentistry. (4) Lastly, we sketched out some challenges and future directions of additive manufacturing technology in dentistry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0260.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: evidence-based dentistry; public health dentistry; google trends; real-time analytics; predictive analytics
Online: 16 November 2018 (10:34:04 CET)
BACKGROUND Epidemiological sciences have been evolving at an exponential rate paralleled only by the comparable growth within the discipline of data science. Digital epidemiological studies are playing a vital role in medical science analytics for the past few decades. To date, there are no published attempts at deploying the use of real-time analytics in connection with the disciplines of Dentistry or Medicine. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES We deployed a real-time statistical analysis in connection with topics in Dental Anatomy and Dental Pathology represented by the maxillary sinus, posterior maxillary teeth, related oral pathology. The purpose is to infer the digital epidemiology based on a continuous stream of raw data retrieved from Google Trends database. MATERIALS AND METHODS Statistical analysis was carried out via Microsoft Excel 2016 and SPSS version 24. Google Trends database was used to retrieve data for digital epidemiology. Real-time analytics and the statistical inference were based on encoding a programming script using Python high-level programming language. A systematic review of the literature was carried out via PubMed-NCBI, the Cochrane Library, and Elsevier databases. RESULTS The comprehensive review of databases of the literature, based on specific keywords search, yielded 491813 published studies. These were distributed as 488884 (PubMed-NCBI), 1611 (the Cochrane Library), and 1318 (Elsevier). However, there was no single study attempting real-time analytics. Nevertheless, we succeeded in achieving an automated real-time stream of data accompanied by a statistical inference based on data extrapolated from Google Trends. CONCLUSION Real-time analytics are of considerable impact when implemented in biological and life sciences as they will tremendously reduce the required resources for research. Predictive analytics, based on artificial neural networks and machine learning algorithms, can be the next step to be deployed in continuation of the real-time systems to prognosticate changes in the temporal trends and the digital epidemiology of phenomena of interest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0161.v1
Online: 16 September 2019 (10:51:10 CEST)
Among the different applicable irrigants for root canal disinfection, sodium hypochlorite 5.25% is one of the most attractive ones. The quality of root canal disinfection is dependent on some factors such as the employed approach, type of flow rate of irrigant and the size of needle. The majority of studies in the field of root canal disinfection are experimentally carried out. In the current article, Computation Fluid Dynamic (CFD) is used for modeling the antimicrobial liquid flow in the root canal and evaluate the effects of needle size and flow rate. Two needles, G28 and G30, are used for irrigation in three volumetric rates of flow including 0.10 mL⁄s , 0.20 mL⁄s and 0.30 mL⁄s. The results of numerical simulations revealed the improved quality of root canal disinfection by augmentation in the rate of flow and decrease in the inner diameter of the needle. According to the outcomes of the modeling, the highest average wall shear stress obtained in the case of using G28 needle and 30 mL⁄s flow rate, which was approximately 10.21 Pa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0241.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: carbon-footprint; dentistry; environment; management; sustainability
Online: 18 May 2022 (10:43:57 CEST)
Background There is increasing awareness of problems associated with global warming but a lack of a systematic approach on how to deliver more environmentally sustainable dental care. A sustainable world aims to ensure that basic needs and quality of life of everyone are met, now and for future generations. The carbon footprint is an indicator of environmental sustainability. Aim The aim is to suggest an environmental management change for the dental practice focusing on the objective of carbon footprint reduction. Environmental management change design The management change is based on the concept of “Plan-Do-Check-Act”, as recommended by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) and described through the environmental aspects of the dental practice. The approach focuses on establishing and implementing environmental objectives, followed by monitoring results and taking actions to improve continually. The environmental aspects considered for the dental practice are activities causing an impact on the carbon footprint: energy use, travel, product purchasing, waste production, emission to air, water use, and contamination of land. Conclusions The “Plan-Do-Check-Act” ISO 14100-2015 model can be effectively integrated into the dental practice setting for its environmental management. A reduction of the carbon footprint of the dental practice is achieved by applying the environmental management change described for each activity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0307.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: bio-aerosol; reduction; procedures; dentistry; review
Online: 25 June 2020 (12:24:48 CEST)
Microbe laden air particles, known as bio-aerosols, are routinely generated, in clinical dentistry due to the operative instrumentation within a milieu rich in salivary organisms. As the major mode of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 appears to be airborne aerosols and droplets, there has been an intense focus on such aerosol generating procedures (AGP). As there has been no systematic reviews on the efficacy of bio-aerosol reducing measure in dentistry, the objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the literature on three major AGPs, rubber dam application, pre-procedural oral rinse, and high-volume evacuation (HVE) aimed at reducing dental bio-aerosols. Method: PubMed via Ovid MEDLINE, EBSCO host, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases between January 01, 1985, and April 30, 2020, were searched.Results: A total of 156 records in the English language literature were identified, of which 17 clinical studies with 724 patients were included in the final analyses. The eligible reviewed articles revealed the inadequacy of the afore mentioned three principal AGPs used in contemporary dental practice to minimise bio-aerosols. HVE appears to be the most efficacious method, although no single approach provides total elimination of bio-aerosols. Conclusion:This, the first systematic review on methods of controlling bio-aerosols in dental operatory settings, indicates that employing combination strategies of rubber dam, with a pre-procedural antimicrobial oral rinse, and HVE can significantly minimize bio-aerosols. As the quality of the currently available data on dental bio-aerosols are rather poor, further, controlled, multi-centre studies are essential to address this critical issue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0022.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: bibliometric analysis; citation analysis; dentistry; most cited
Online: 1 February 2021 (12:28:10 CET)
This bibliometric review is aimed to analyze the top 100 most-cited publications in dentistry and to compare its outcomes with similar analysis done by Feijoo et al., . A literature search was performed using the Elsevier's Scopus without any restriction of language, publication year or study design. Of 336381 articles, the top 100 were included based on their citation count which ranged from 638 to 4728 citations (Feijoo et al., 326 to 2050). Most productive decade was the 2000s with 40 articles on the list (Feijoo et al., 1980s: 26). Marx RE (7%) was the major contributor in this study (Feijoo et al., Socransky SS: 9%) and a whopping 48% articles generated from the USA. 26% of top 100 articles focused periodontology (Feijoo et al., periodontology: 43%), while 17% of the total were published in the Journal of Dental Research (Feijoo et al., Journal of Clinical Periodontology: 20%). Most of the publications were narrative reviews/expert opinion (36%), (Feijoo et al., case series: 22%) and were within the evidence level V (64%) (Feijoo et al., 54%). The citation count that a paper secures is not necessarily a reflection of research's quality, however, the current analysis provides latest citation trends in dentistry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0754.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: ME/CFS; dentistry; interdisciplinary care; oral health
Online: 31 July 2020 (14:02:48 CEST)
Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a disabling condition affecting millions of adults and children worldwide. Despite the development of multiple criteria sets for defining this disorder, agreement on the core symptoms and other implications of ME/CFS point to the importance of understanding their role in oral health care. Overall, care for the homebound and bedbound population with ME/CFS issues has been under-addressed in the literature to date and there has been little consideration of the oral health needs of this population. Evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of dental concerns may be hindered by many of the diverse symptoms of ME/CFS. The present paper utilizes the International Consensus Criteria (ICC) in discussing treatment considerations for the most severely affected patients with ME/CFS, both in oral evaluation and active care. While no specific dental pathology is linked to ME/CFS, proper care for the patient so affected must take into account the disorder’s symptoms and severity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0139.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Dentistry; hyperthyroidism; hypothyroidism; management; oral manifestations; thyroid gland.
Online: 8 January 2021 (10:41:21 CET)
The thyroid gland secretes essential hormones for the growth regulation and the metabolic activity of the body. Thyroid dysfunction includes many conditions that can indirectly affect dental treatments. Therefore, the practitioner must be aware of these pathologies and their signs and symptoms in order to elaborate specific dental treatment plans, thus avoiding any per- and/or postoperative complications. Moreover, the dentist can help in the screening of undiagnosed thyroid dysfunction among patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0315.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; Omicron; biosafety protocol; dentistry; orthodontics; sustainability
Online: 8 April 2022 (03:58:00 CEST)
With arrival of highly transmissible Omicron variants in global pandemic, dentistry is facing another challenge to preserve biosafety of dental care. With a mission to protect both patients and healthcare workers, adaptability to the changing epidemiologic situation is required from dental professionals. This work presents a prospective sustainable biosafety setting for routine orthodontic care. The protocol is composed from combination of available technologies focused on the air-borne part of a virus pathway. Introduced biosafety protocol has been clinically evaluated after 18 months of application in the real clinical environment. The protocol has three fundamental pillars: (1) UVC air disinfection; (2) air saturation with certified virucidal oils through nebulizing diffusers; (3) complementary solutions. As a method of evaluation pseudonymous on-line smart form was used. Protocol operates with premise that everybody as a hypothetical asymptomatic carrier. Results from 115 patient feedbacks imply that with this protocol in place, there was no observed or reported translation of virus from patient to another patient or from patient to doctor or nurse and vice versa, albeit nine patients have retrospectively admitted visiting the clinic as probably infectious. Despite promising results, a larger clinical sample and exposition to current mutated strains is necessary for reliable conclusions about protocol virucidal efficiency.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0009.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-2; Dentistry; Infection Control; Coronavirus; Disinfection
Online: 3 May 2021 (16:03:40 CEST)
The onset of the Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has challenged the worldwide healthcare sector, including dentistry. The highly infectious nature of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus and risk of transmission through aerosol generating procedures has profoundly impacted the delivery of dental care services globally for months causing prioritization of critical dental needs and suspension of routine dental procedures. As dental practices with strengthened infection control strategies and preventive measures are re-opening in the “new normal” period, it is the responsibility of healthcare professionals to constantly analyze new data and limit the spread of COVID-19 in dental care settings. With the new variants of SARS-CoV-2 rapidly emerging in different geographic locations, a definite need to comply more than ever with the rigorous public health measures to mitigate COVID -19 transmission exists. The aim of this article is to provide dental clinicians with essential information regarding both the spread of SARS-CoV-2 virus and protective measures against COVID-19 transmission in dental facilities. By compiling guidance and standard protocols recommended by credible national and international organizations, this article serves as an aid to navigating through this unprecedented time with ease. Much to learn about COVID-19 exists and because of constant ongoing research, we are not aware of all of the newly found information. However, in this paper, we reviewed the available literature recommended for the best current practices that must be taken for a dental office to function safely and successfully.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: COVID-19; pandemics; pediatric dentistry; oral health prevention; coronavirus
Online: 16 May 2020 (18:11:49 CEST)
During the period of health emergency linked to the current COVID-19 pandemic, the management of children's oral health presents specific problems related to the infectious spread of the disease. These problems must be faced on the one hand by acting on the oral health prevention methods, and on the other by implementing specific protocols relating both to the conditions of oral pathologies that normally do not represent an emergency, and to those clinical situations that fall into the category of pediatric dental emergencies. In this perspective, in addition to defining rigorous and highly effective infection control protocols in the dental settings, it is of fundamental importance to work on remote communication and education aimed at maintaining the oral health of the children. This article, after an analysis of the risk factors from COVID-19 associated with pediatric dental treatment, presents a series of considerations on potential oral prevention strategies and on the management of emergency and non-emergency dental procedures in a context of disease transmission control, proposing new approaches and models of treatment based also on remote interaction techniques which will then retain their usefulness even at the end of the current emergency period.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0357.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: coronavirus; COVID-19; SARS-CoV2; dentistry; oral health; transmission
Online: 20 April 2020 (02:14:36 CEST)
On March 11th 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV2) as a pandemic. Until an effective treatment or a vaccine is developed, the current recommendations are to contain the disease, and control its transmission. It is now clear that the primary mode of SARS-CoV2 transmission is aerosol/droplet spread, and by contacting virus contaminated surfaces acting as fomites (inanimate vectors). Furthermore, recent data indicate that the live virus particles are present in saliva, and, more alarmingly, asymptomatic individuals may transmit the infection. By virtue of the nature of the practice of dentistry where intrinsically, a high volume of aerosols are produced, as well as the close proximity of dentists and patients during treatment, dentists and allied dental staff are considered the highest risk health professional group for acquiring SARS-CoV2 during patient management. Therefore, several organizations and specialty associations have proposed guidelines and recommendations for limiting the transmission of SARS-COV2 from carriers to dentists and vice versa. This paper aims to provide a review of these guidelines, and concludes with a brief look at how the practice of dentistry may be impacted by COVID-19, in the post-pandemic era.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0316.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: intraoral scanners; digital dentistry; trueness; precision; accuracy; 3D printing; materials
Online: 14 May 2021 (08:05:37 CEST)
Introduction: The current generation of 3D printers are lighter, cheaper, and smaller, making them more accessible to the chairside digital dentist than ever before. 3D printers in general in the industrial and chairside setting can work with various types of materials including, metals, ceramics, and polymers. Evidence presented in many studies show that an ideal material used for dental restorations is characterised by several properties related to durability, cost-effectiveness, and high performance. This review is the second part in a 3D Printing series that looks at the literature on material science and applications for these materials in 3D printing as well as a discussion on the potential further development and future evolution in 3D printing materials. Conclusions: Current materials in 3D printing provide a wide range of possibilities for providing more predictable workflows as well as improving efficiency through less wasteful additive manufacturing in CAD/CAM procedures. Incorporating a 3D printer and a digital workflow into a dental practice is challenging but the wide range of manufacturing options and materials available mean that the dentist should be well prepared to treat patients with a more predictable and cost effective treatment pathway. As 3D printing continues to become a commonplace addition to chair side dental clinics, the evolution of these materials, in particular reinforced PMMA, resin incorporating zirconia and glass reinforced polymers offer increased speed and improved aesthetics that will likely replace subtractive manufacturing milling machines for most procedures.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0221.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: 3D printing; intraoral scanners; digital dentistry; trueness; precision; accuracy; history
Online: 10 May 2021 (15:57:02 CEST)
Introduction: The term 3D printing is commonly used to depict an assembling method whereby the final form of an object is the result of the addition of different layers to build the frame of an object. This procedure is more accurately portrayed as additive manufacturing and is likewise alluded to as fast prototyping. The term 3D printing, in any case, is generally new and has been an active part of current developments in Dentistry. Much publicity encompasses the evolution of 3D printing, which is hailed as an innovation that will perpetually change CAM manufacturing, including in the dental sector. This review is the first part in a 3D Printing series that looks at the history of 3D Printing, the technologies available and reviews the literature relating to the accuracy of these technologies. Conclusions: The recent advancement in digital dentistry to incorporate these tools has modernised dental practices by paving the way for computer-aided design (CAD) technology and rapid prototyping. The use of 3D printing has led to 3D digital models produced with intraoral scanners (IOS), which can be manipulated easily for diagnosis, treatment planning, mockups, and a multitude of other uses. Combining 3D Printing with a 3D intraoral scan eliminates the need for physical storage but makes it to retrieve a 3D models for use within all dental modalities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0309.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: fine motor skill; learning theories; dentistry; self-consciousness; working memory
Online: 12 April 2021 (13:53:10 CEST)
Learning dental procedures is a complex task involving the development of fine motor skills. The reported use of theories and/ or evidence for designing learning activities to develop the fine motor skills needed for dental practice is limited. The aim of this review is to explore the available body of knowledge related to learning fine motor skills in dentistry. Evidence from studies investigating motor skill learning highlights the negative impact of self-focus and self-regulation on learning outcomes, particularly during the early stages of learning. The development of activities and schedules that enable novices to demonstrate characteristics similar to experts, without the reported long period of ‘deliberate practice’, is clearly of value. Outcomes of learning implicitly are important in dentistry because working under stressful conditions is common, either during undergraduate study or in practice. It is suggested that learning implicitly in the simulation stage can reduce disrupted performance when transitioning to clinical settings. Therefore, further investigation of effective methods for learning dental fine motor skills is indicated, using approaches that result in robust performance, even under stressful conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0121.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: cytokine; gene expression; osteoclast; root resorption; pediatric dentistry; protein expression
Online: 27 October 2016 (12:10:55 CEST)
The present study was performed to examine that transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) in root-surrounding tissues on deciduous teeth during the physiological root resorption regulates the differentiation induction into odontoclast. We prepared root-surrounding tissues with (R) or without (N) physiological root resorption scraped off at three regions (R1-R3 or N1-N3) from the cervical area to the apical area of the tooth and measured both TGF-β and the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activities. The TGF-β activity level was increased in N1-N3, whereas the TRAP activity was increased in R2 and R3. In vitro experiments for RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation revealed that TGF-β in N1-N3 and R1-R3 enhanced the TRAP activity in RAW264 cells. A genetic study indicated that the mRNA level of TGF-β1 in N1 and N2 was significantly increased, and corresponded with that of osteoprotegerin (OPG). In contrast, the expression level of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) was increased in R2 and R3. Our findings suggest that TGF-β is closely related to the regulation of OPG induction and RANKL-mediated odontoclast differentiation depending on the timing of RANKL and OPG mRNA expression in the root-surrounding tissues of deciduous teeth during physiological root resorption.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0438.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Biomaterial; Dental composite; Luting agents; Core build-up materials; Application in dentistry
Online: 19 February 2021 (13:25:19 CET)
Composite materials are widely used in the dental field in clinics as biomaterials. For example, it has been used as a biomaterial to repair caries and restore masticatory function, and as a cement to adhere the restoration to the tooth substrate. In order to demonstrate its function, dental biomaterials are measured their mechanical strength. From such basic research, we explained the potential of dental biomaterials, especially flexural strength and modulus of elasticity. Mechanical properties of dental biomaterials similar to those of the tooth, thermal stimulation, and aesthetic elements in the oral cavity. In this part, we will introduce the commercialized products of composites suitable for the characteristics and tooth quality, and provide the reader with the characteristics from the flexural characteristics of the composite materials used in clinical dentistry. In clinical performance, it might be advisable to delay polishing when composite biomaterials are used for luting materials, filling materials and core build-up materials since improved the flexural strength and the flexural modulus of elasticity were displayed after 1-day storage. And it is thought that flexural strength or characteristics is a significant important mechanical property of oral biomaterials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0358.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Covid-19; HVE; Aerosol; Dentistry; Particle; Suction; External; PM1; PM2.5; PM10; Drilling
Online: 16 September 2020 (11:12:31 CEST)
(1) Introduction: External high volume extraction devices may offer a way to reduce any aerosol particulate generated. The aim of this study was to measure the particle count during dental aerosol procedures and compare the results to when a High Volume Extraction device is used; (2) Methods: A comparative clinical study measuring the amount of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 aerosol particulate with and without the use of an external High Volume Extraction device was undertaken. In total, 10 restorative procedures were monitored with an an industrial Trotec PC220 particle counter. The air sampler was placed at the average working distance of the clinicians involved in the study - 420mm.; (3) Results: In the present study aerosol particulate was recorded at statistically significantly increased levels during dental procedures without an external high volume extraction device versus with the device. The null hypothesis was rejected, in that significant differences were found between the results of the amount of aerosol particle count with and without a High Volume Extraction device.; (4) Conclusion: If the results of the present study are repeated in an in vivo setting, an external high volume suction device may potentially lower the risk of transmission of viral particulate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0074.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Clinical Skills; Clinical Training; Competency; Cross-sectional Studies; Dental Education; Dentistry; Self-perception.
Online: 4 January 2023 (08:48:49 CET)
The transition from undergraduate dental student to the actual practicing dentist is a crucial phase and ensuring the preparedness of graduates for the complexity and demands of contempo-rary dental practice is a challenging task. This study aimed to evaluate the self-perceived prepar-edness of undergraduate dental students and house officers in the dental colleges of Pakistan. Cross-sectional national study was planned to collect the information from dental students and new graduates in Pakistan. The pre-validated Dental Undergraduates Preparedness Assessment Scale (DU-PAS) was used. Purposive sampling technique was utilized to recruit house officers and undergraduate dental students from 27 dental schools in Pakistan. The data analysis was car-ried out using the R statistical environment for Windows (R Core Team, 2015). The total of 862 responses with 642 females and 219 males were analyzed in the study. Overall, clinical skills score was 30.56+9.08 and score for soft skills was 30.54+10.6. The mean age of the participants was 23.42+1.28. Deficiencies were reported in various soft skills and clinical skills attributes.The results highlighted the strengths and weaknesses of dental students and new graduates in Pakistani den-tal institutions. The findings may be used to further develop and strengthen teaching and training of dental students in Pakistan.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0372.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: sars-cov-2, covid, covid-19, masks, dentistry, respirator, n99, n95, ffp2, ffp3,
Online: 18 August 2020 (04:30:45 CEST)
This literature review has been compiled to form an evidenced-based review on the standards for Dental Practices in their choice and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) within the COVID-19 Pandemic and beyond: it is prepared on the basis of the current best available evidence. The review encompasses risk management strategies for both Dental Personnel and Patients in the application and use of Face Masks & Respirators.In summation, from the evidence available, it is apparent that in the lab setting N95/FFP2 masks are superior in their efficiency but in the clinical setting such a difference is not seen as clearly. As such the minimum standard of care should be that of a standard surgical mask. Faced with the emergence of the virulent disease that is Covid-19, it is logical to use FFP2/N95 respirator masks in aerosol generating procedures where they offer greater resistance to fluid penetration and a better face seal when adequately fit tested as a gold standard. But if a dry field isolation technique involving high volume evacuation is used, there is no clear benefit of respirator masks (N95/FFP2 or N99/FFP3) when balanced with the extra risk of compliance, cost and comfort in wearing a standard fluid-resistant surgical mask.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0490.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: CAD/CAM; dental ceramics; dental technology; digital dentistry; dental education; dental innovation; disruptive technology
Online: 25 November 2021 (20:06:23 CET)
Digital dentistry, including CAD/CAM dentistry, is perhaps the most disruptive innovation in dentistry to date. The rapid development of digital dentistry technologies over the past several decades has enabled clinicians to improve patient care by significantly reducing the time necessary for the restorative phase of treatment. Advancements in intra-oral scanning and computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM), in conjunction with new dental CAD/CAM ceramic materials, have simplified patient care and made same-day dentistry a reality. This review aims to present the most recent advancements described in current literature as well as to document the successful implementation of digital dentistry into a predoctoral program. The overall process of CAD/CAM same-day dentistry and the accompanying advancements in software and materials were presented and discussed. Implementation of technology and personnel requirements were reviewed. CAD/CAM dentistry has been influential in shaping and improving dental practice and education, and this influence will only continue with time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0165.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Intraoral Scanners; Intra-Oral Scanners; CAD/CAM; Digital Dentistry; Trueness; Precision; Accuracy; Scanners; Lab Scanners
Online: 10 May 2021 (10:44:19 CEST)
(1) Background: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the full arch scan accuracy (precision and trueness) of nine digital intra-oral scanners and four lab scanners. Previous studies have compared the accuracy of some intra-oral scanners, but as this is a field of quickly developing technologies, a more up-to-date study was needed to assess the capabilities of currently available models.; (2) Methods: The present in vitro study compared nine different intraoral scanners (Omnicam 4.6; Omnicam 5.1; Primescan; CS 3600; Trios 3; Trios 4; Runyes; i500 and DL206) as well as four lab light scanners (Einscan SE; 300e; E2 and Ineos X5) to investigate the accuracy of each scanner by examining the overall trueness and precision. Ten aligned and cut scans from each of the intra-oral and lab scanners in the in vitro study were brought into CloudCompare. A comparison was made with the master STL using the CloudCompare 3D analysis best-fit algorithm. The results were recorded along with individual standard deviation and a colorimetric map of the deviation across the surface of the STL mesh; a comparison was made to the master STL, quantified at specific points. ; (3) Results: In the present study, the Primescan had the best overall trueness (17.3 ± 4.9). Followed by (in order of increasing deviation) the Trios 4 (20.8 ± 6.2), i500 (25.2 ± 7.3), CS3600 (26.9 ± 15.9), Trios 3 (27.7 ± 6.8), Runyes (47.2 ± 5.4), Omnicam 5.1 (55.1 ± 9.5), Omnicam 4.6 (57.5 ± 3.2) and Launca DL206 (58.5 ± 22.0). Regarding the lab light scanners, the Ineos X5 had the best overall trueness with (0.0 ± 1.9). Followed by (in order of increasing deviation) the 3Shape E2 (3.6 ± 2.2), Up3D 300E (12.8 ± 2.7), and Einscan SE (14.9 ± 9.5); (4) Conclusions: This study confirms that all current generations of intra-oral digital scanners can capture a reliable, reproducible full arch scan in dentate patients. Out of the intra-oral scanners tested, no scanner produced results significantly similar in trueness to the Ineos X5. However, the Primescan was the only one to be statistically of a similar level of trueness to the 3Shape E2 lab scanner. All scanners in the study had mean trueness of under 60-micron deviation. While this study can compare the scanning accuracy of this sample in a dentate arch, the scanning of a fully edentulous arch is more challenging. The accuracy of these scanners in edentulous cases should be examined in further studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0112.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: forensic medicine; forensic dentistry; forensic anthropology; 3D CNN; AI; deep learning; biological age determination; sex determination; 3D cephalometric; AI face estimation; growth prediction
Online: 5 November 2021 (10:00:56 CET)
Three-dimensional convolutional neural networks (3D CNN) as a type of artificial intelligence (AI) are powerful in image processing and recognition using deep learning to perform generative and descriptive tasks. The advantage of CNN compared to its predecessors is that it automatically detects the important features without any human supervision. 3D CNN are used to extract features in three dimensions where input is a 3D volume or a sequence of 2D pictures e.g., slices in a cone-beam computer tomography scan (CBCT). The main aim of this article was to bridge interdisciplinary cooperation between forensic medical experts and deep learning engineers. With emphasis activating clinical forensic experts in the field with possibly basic knowledge of advanced artificial intelligence techniques with interest in its implementation in their efforts to advance the forensic research further. This paper introduces a novel workflow of 3D CNN analysis of full-head CBCT scans. Authors explore and present 3D CNN method for forensic research design concept in five perspectives: (1) sex determination, (2) biological age estimation, (3) 3D cephalometric landmark annotation, (4) growth vectors prediction, (5) facial soft-tissue estimation from the skull and vice versa. In conclusion, 3D CNN application can be a watershed moment in forensic medicine, leading to unprecedented improvement of forensic analysis workflows based on 3D neural networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0141.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Regenerative dentistry; 3D printing; biomimetic; bioinspired materials; MSC; cell colonization; Tissue engineering; Regenerative medicine; Oral Bone; Tissue Regeneration; biocolonization; CDHA, MTT; LDH; SEM; FDM
Online: 8 November 2022 (03:03:17 CET)
This paper presents a proof-of-concept study on the biocolonization of 3D-printed hydroxyapatite scaffolds with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Three-dimensional (3D) printed biomimetic bone structure made of Calcium Deficient HydroxyApatite (CDHA) intended as future bone graft was made from newly developed composite material for FDM printing. The biopolymer polyvinyl alcohol serves in this material as a thermoplastic binder for 3D molding of the printed object with a passive function and is completely removed during sintering. The study presents the material, the process of fused deposition modeling (FDM) of CDHA scaffolds and its post-processing at three temperatures (1200, 1300, 1400 °C), as well it evaluates the cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of scaffolds with MTT and LDH release assays after 14 days. The study also includes a morphological evaluation of the cellular colonization with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in two different filament orientations (rectilinear and gyroid). The results of the MTT assay showed that the tested material was not toxic, and cells were preserved in both orientations, with most cells present on the material fired at 1300°C. Results of the LDH release assay showed a slight increase in LDH leakage from all samples. Visual evaluation of SEM confirmed the ideal post-processing temperature of the 3D-printed FDM framework for samples fired at 1300°C and 1400°C, with a porosity of 0.3 mm between filaments. In conclusion, the presented fabrication and colonization of CDHA scaffolds have great potential to be used in the tissue engineering of bones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0049.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: dental pattern; forensic anthropology; forensic odontology; forensic dentistry; forensic radiolo-gy; forensic chemistry; forensic science; machine learning; identification; dental materials; acid solution; dissolution; sulfuric acid; dentition; teeth; acid degradation
Online: 24 February 2022 (03:41:16 CET)
(1) Teeth, represent in humans the most resilient tissues. However, exposure to concentrated acids might lead to their obliteration, thus making human identification difficult. Teeth often contain dental restorations from materials that are even more resilient to acid impact. This paper introduces novel method of 3D reconstruction of dental patterns as a crucial step for digital identification with dental records.; (2) With combination of modern methods of Micro-Computer Tomography, Cone Beam Computer Tomography, Attenuated Total Reflection in conjunction with Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Artificial Intelligence Convolutional Neural Network algorithms, the paper presents the way of 3D dental pattern reconstruction and human remains identification. Research studies morphology of teeth, bone, and dental materials (Amalgam, Composite, Glass-ionomer cement) under different periods of exposure to 75% sulfuric acid; (3) Results reveal significant volume loss in bone, enamel, dentine, and as well glass-ionomer cement. Results also reveal significant resistance of composite and amalgam dental materials to sulfuric acid impact, thus serving as strong parts in the dental pattern mosaic. Paper also introduces probably first successful artificial intelligence application in automated forensic CBCT segmentation.; (4) Interdisciplinary cooperation utilizing mentioned technologies can solve problem of human remains identification with 3D reconstruction of dental patterns and their 2D projections over existing ante-mortem records.