ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0004.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: sea ice; Cryosphere; Arctic Ocean; Arctic sea ice change; Arctic climate change; remote sensing retrieval; satellite remote sensing; APP; APP-x; trend study
Online: 28 March 2022 (04:13:23 CEST)
Arctic sea ice characteristics have been changing rapidly and significantly in the last few decades. Using a long-term time series of sea ice products from satellite observations - the extended AVHRR Polar Pathfinder (APP-x), trends in sea ice concentration, ice extent, ice thickness, and ice volume in the Arctic from 1982 to 2020 are investigated. Results show that the Arctic has become less ice-covered in all seasons, especially in summer and autumn. Arctic sea ice thickness has been decreasing at the rate of -3.24 cm per year, resulting in about a 52% reduction in thickness from 2.35 m in 1982 to 1.13 m in 2020. Arctic sea ice volume has been decreasing at the rate of -467.7 km3 per year, resulting in about a 63% reduction in volume, from 27590.4 km3 in 1982 to 10305.5 km3 in 2020. These trends are further examined from a new perspective, where the Arctic Ocean is classified into open water, perennial, and seasonal sea ice-covered areas based on the sea ice persistence. The loss of the perennial sea ice-covered area is the major factor in the total sea ice loss in all seasons. If the current rates of sea ice changes in extent, concentration, and thickness continue, the Arctic is expected to have ice-free summer by the early 2060s.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0072.v1
Online: 3 November 2022 (07:47:15 CET)
Artic root is a well-known plant adaptogen with multipotential pharmacological properties. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) – screening followed by diode-array high-performance liquid chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy proved to be a reliable and convenient method for simultaneous determination of quality of various herbal raw materials and supplements. This combination allowed for comparing and differentiating arctic root samples as well as defining their authenticity. The study provided information on the chemical and biological properties of the seven chosen samples as well as qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the quality markers: rosavin, salidroside, and p-tyrosol. The absence of rosavin, salidroside, and p-tyrosol in three samples was detected using TLC-screening and confirmed by HPLC-DAD and NMR. The paper highlighted the importance of quality control and strict regulation for herbal medicine supplements and preparations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0134.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: risk; resilience; pandemic; prioritization; risk management; Arctic
Online: 4 June 2021 (10:40:38 CEST)
The Arctic is a remote region that has become increasingly globalised yet remains extremely vulnerable to many risks. The COVID-19 pandemic presented new challenges to the region. Using the Search, Appraisal, Synthesis and Analysis (SALSA) approach to conduct a meta-synthesis of the academic and grey literature on the impacts of the pandemic, an assessment is conducted of the types of risks that have been presented by the COVID-19 pandemic, the scales, and the national response strategies for mitigating the risks. Two case studies are explored, Iceland and Greenland, island nations that exemplify the extremes of the Arctic and reliance on tourism, a sector that was nearly entirely suspended by the pandemic. An evaluative matrix is employed which combines five different scales of risk – nano, micro, meso, macro and cosmic – with a sustainability categorisation of impacts. The risks of the pandemic cut across the respective scale and categories, with the potential for macro-scale events (systemic risk) to unfold linked to economic spillover effects driven by the curtailment of tourism and various supply chain delays. Both Iceland and Greenland have exemplified risk mitigation strategies which prioritise health over wealth, very strictly in the case of the latter. Strict border controls and domestic restrictions have enabled Iceland and Greenland to have much lower case and death numbers than most nations. In addition, Iceland has led the way, globally, in terms of testing and accumulating scientific knowledge concerning the genetic sequencing of the virus. The academic contribution of the paper concerns its broadening of understanding concerning systemic risk, which extends beyond financial implications to includes sustainability dimensions. For policymakers and practitioners, the paper highlights successful risk mitigation and science-based measures that will be useful for any nation tackling a future pandemic, regardless of whether they are island states, Arctic nations or another country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0381.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Rossby wave; quasi-stationary wave; stratosphere; Arctic; ozone
Online: 29 March 2022 (11:26:45 CEST)
The purpose of this work is to study Rossby wave parameters in total ozone over Arctic in 2000–2021. We consider the averages in the January–March period, when stratospheric trace gases (including ozone) in sudden stratospheric warming events are strongly disturbed by planetary waves. To characterize the wave parameters, we analyzed ozone data at the latitudes of 50° N (the sub-vortex area), 60° N (the polar vortex edge) and 70° N (inner region of the polar vortex). Total ozone column (TOC) measurements during 22-year time interval were used from Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) / Earth Probe and Ozone Mapping Instrument (OMI) / Aura satellite observations. The total ozone zonal distribution and variations in the parameters of the Fourier spectral components with zonal wave numbers m = 1–5 are presented. Daily and interannual variations in TOC, amplitudes and phases of spectral wave components, and linear trends of the quasi-stationary wave 1 (QSW1) amplitudes are discussed. The positive TOC peaks inside the vortex in 2010 and 2018 alternate with negative ones in 2011 and 2020. The latter TOC anomalies correspond to severe depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Arctic in the strong vortex conditions due to anomalously low activity of planetary waves. Variations in TOC in sub-vortex region exhibit the statistically significant negative trend –4.8±5.4 DU decade–1 in QSW1 amplitude, while the trend is statistically insignificant at the vortex edge region due to increased TOC variability. Processes associated with polar vortex dynamics are discussed, including quasi-stationary vortex asymmetry and quasi-circumpolar migration of the wave-1 phase at the vortex edge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0004.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: hydrological changes; wetlands; Arctic; Subarctic; microwave remote sensing
Online: 1 December 2021 (10:32:31 CET)
Specific emissivity features of swamps and wetlands of Western Siberia were studied for changing seasonal conditions with the use of daily data of satellite microwave sounding. The research technique involved the analysis of brightness temperatures of the underlying surface at the test sites. Variations in seasonal dynamics of brightness temperatures were mainly caused by different rates of seasonal freezing of the upper waterlogged layer of the underlying surface and dielectric characteristics of water containing natural media (water body, soil, vegetation). We analyzed long-term trends in seasonal and annual dynamics of brightness temperatures of the underlying surface and estimated hydrological changes in the Arctic and Subarctic. The findings open up new possibilities for using satellite data in the microwave range for studying natural seasonal dynamic processes and predicting hazardous hydrological phenomena.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0510.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry & Petrology Keywords: vanadium mineralization, mineralogy, Paleoproterozoic, Kola region, Arctic zone, Fennoscandian Shield
Online: 26 September 2018 (13:29:00 CEST)
In the northern Fennoscandian Shield, a vanadium mineralization occurs in the Paleoproterozoic Pechenga–Imandra-Varzuga (PIV) riftogenic structure. It is localized in sulfide ores hosted by sheared basic and ultrabasic metavolcanics in the Pyrrhotite Ravine and Bragino areas and was formed at the latest stages of the Lapland-Kola orogeny 1.90–1.86 Ga ago. An additional formation of vanadium minerals derived from contact metamorphism and metasomatism produced by the Devonian Khibiny alkaline massif in the Pyrrhotite Ravine area. Vanadium forms its own rare minerals (karelianite, coulsonite, kyzylkumite, goldmanite, mukhinite, etc.), as well as it can be an isomorphic admixture in rutile, ilmenite, crichtonite group, micas, chlorites, etc. Vanadium originated from two sources: (1) basic and ultrabasic volcanics initially enriched in vanadium and (2) metasomatizing fluids that circulated along shear zones. The crystallization of vanadium and vanadium-bearing minerals was accompanied by chromium and scandium mineralization. Vanadium mineralization in Paleoproterozoic formations throughout the world is briefly considered. The simultaneous development of vanadium, chromium and scandium mineralizations is a unique feature of the Kola sulfide ores. In other regions sulfide ores contain only two of these three mineralizations produced by one ore-forming process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0188.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: ground temperature; monitoring; permafrost degradation; climate change; Arctic coastline; tundra area
Online: 15 February 2022 (11:21:39 CET)
An increase in air temperature leads to a significant transformation of the relief and landscapes of the Arctic. The rate of permafrost degradation, posing a profound change in the Arctic landscape, depends on air temperature, vegetation cover, type of soils, surface and ground waters. The existing international circumpolar programs dedicated to monitoring the temperature state of permafrost TSP (Thermal State Permafrost) and active layer thickness CALM (Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring) are not sufficient for a comprehensive characterization of geocryological conditions. Yet, no standardized protocol exists for permafrost monitoring and related processes. Here, we propose a novel multi-parameter monitoring protocol and implement for two sites in the European part of the Russian Arctic: the Yary site along the coast of the Baydaratskaya Bay in the Kara Sea (68.9°N) within the continuous permafrost area and the Hanovey site in the Komi Re-public (67.3°N) within the discontinuous permafrost one. The protocol includes drilling boreholes, determining the composition and properties (vegetation cover and soils), snow cover measure-ment, geophysical imaging, active layer estimation and continuous ground temperature meas-urements. Ground temperature measured in 2014 – 2020 revealed that amplitudes of surface tem-perature fluctuation had no significant difference between the Yary and Hanovey sites, while that the mean annual temperatures between the areas had a considerable difference of greater than 3.0 °C. The period of the presence of the active layer changed with the year (e.g., ranging between 135 and 174 days in the Yary site), showing longer when the air temperatures in summer and the preceding winter were higher. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) allowed determining the permafrost distribution and active layer thicknesses. Thermometry results were consistent with our geophysical data. Analyzing the composition and properties of frozen soils helped better interpret the data of geophysical and temperature measurements. Our work by integrating the study of the soil properties, ground temperatures, and ERT allowed fully characterize these sites, suggesting that it helps better understand the thermal state in any other research sites in the European north of Russia. Our suggested monitoring protocol enables calibrating and verifying the numerical and analytical models of the heat transfer through the earth’s surface.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0261.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: sea ice; atmospheric circulation; Rossby waves; climate changes; Arctic; numerical modeling
Online: 11 August 2021 (13:17:14 CEST)
The amplified Arctic warming is one of several factors influencing atmospheric dynamics. In this work, we consider a series of numerical experiments to identify the direct role of the Arctic sea ice reduction process in forming climatic trends in the northern hemisphere. Aimed at this, we used two more or less independent mechanisms of ice reduction. The first is traditionally associated with increasing the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere from the historic level of 360 ppm to 450 ppm and 600 ppm. This growth increases air temperature and decreases the ice volume. The second mechanism is associated with a reduction in the reflectivity of ice and snow. We assume that comparing the results of these two experiments allows us to judge the direct role of ice reduction. The most prominent consequences of ice reduction, as a result, were the weakening of temperature gradient at the tropopause level in mid-latitudes, the slower zonal wind at 50-60∘N, intensification of wave activity in Europe, Western America, and Chukotka, and its weakening in the south of Siberia and Kazakhstan. We also consider how climate change may alter regimes such as blocking and stationary Rossby waves. The study used the INM-CM48 climate system model .
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0154.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: active layer; Arctic hydrology; cold regions hydrology; linguistic relativity; permafrost hydrology
Online: 13 May 2019 (10:20:01 CEST)
Permafrost hydrology is an emerging discipline, attracting increasing attention as the Arctic region is undergoing rapid change. However, the research domain of this discipline had never been explicitly formulated. Both 'permafrost' and 'hydrology' yield differing meanings across languages and scientific domains, hence 'permafrost hydrology' serves as an example of linguistic relativity. The differing views of permafrost as either an ecosystem class or a geographical region, and hydrology as a discipline concerned with either landscapes or generic water bodies, maintain a language-specific touch in the definition of permafrost hydrology. From this point of view, the English and Russian usage of this term is explained. A universal process-based definition is further proposed, developed on a specific process assemblage, including (i) water table dynamics caused by migration of an upper aquitard through freeze–thaw processes; (ii) water migration in soil matrix, driven by phase transitions in the active layer; (iii) transient water storage in solid state in the subsurface compartment. This definition is shown to fill the niche in existing vocabulary, and other definitions from northern hydrology field are revisited.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0226.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: eddy mass transport; subgrid-scale processes; parametrization; Arctic ocean; sensitivity study; clustering
Online: 13 December 2022 (04:19:37 CET)
The characteristics of the eddy mass transport are estimated depending on the values of the parameters of a large-scale flow that forms under the conditions of the shelf seas in the Arctic. For this, the results of numerical simulation of the Kara Sea with a horizontal resolution permitting the development of mesoscale eddies are used. The parameters resulting from numerical experiment are considered as a statistical sample and are analyzed using methods of sensitivity study and clustering of sample elements. Functional dependencies are obtained that are closest to the simulated distributions of quantities. These expressions make it possible, within the framework of large-scale models, to evaluate the characteristics of the cross-isobatic eddy mass transport in the diffusion approximation with a counter-gradient flux. Numerical experiments using the SibCIOM model showed that areas along the Fram branch of the Atlantic waters trajectory in the Arctic as well as the shelf of the East Siberian and Laptev seas with adjacent deep water areas are most sensitive to proposed parameterization of eddy exchanges. Accounting for counter-gradient eddy fluxes turned out to be less important.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0057.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Arctic ozone; QBO; 11-year solar cycle; sudden stratospheric warming; chemistry-climate model
Online: 2 April 2021 (11:40:56 CEST)
Arctic ozone amount in winter to spring shows large year-to-year variation. This study investigates Arctic spring ozone in relation to the phase of quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO)/the 11-year solar cycle, using satellite observations, reanalysis data, and outputs of a chemistry climate model (CCM) during the period of 1979–2011. For this duration, we found that the composite mean of the Northern Hemisphere high-latitude total ozone in the QBO-westerly (QBO-W)/solar minimum (Smin) phase is slightly smaller than those averaged for the QBO-W/Smax and QBO-E/Smax years in March. An analysis of a passive ozone tracer in the CCM simulation indicates that this negative anomaly is primarily caused by transport. The negative anomaly is consistent with a weakening of the residual mean downward motion in the polar lower stratosphere. The contribution of chemical processes estimated using the column amount difference between ozone and the passive ozone tracer is between 10–20% of the total anomaly in March. The lower ozone levels in the Arctic spring during the QBO-W/Smin years are associated with a stronger Arctic polar vortex from late winter to early spring, which is linked to the reduced occurrence of sudden stratospheric warming in the winter during the QBO-W/Smin years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0067.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: ice algae; brine channels; organic chemistry; Arctic sea ice; CICE model; mechanism development; biomacromolecules
Online: 12 April 2017 (05:12:28 CEST)
A numerical mechanism connecting ice algal ecodynamics with the buildup of organic macromolecules is tested within modeled pan-Arctic brine channels. The simulations take place offline in a reduced representation of sea ice geochemistry. Physical driver quantities derive from the global sea ice code CICE, including snow cover, thickness and internal temperature. The framework is averaged over ten boreal biogeographic zones. Computed nutrient-light-salt limited algal growth supports grazing, mortality and carbon flow. Vertical transport is diffusive but responds to pore structure. Simulated bottom layer chlorophyll maxima are reasonable, though delayed by about a month relative to observations due to uncertainties in snow variability. Upper level biota arise intermittently during flooding events. Macromolecular concentrations are tracked as proxy proteins, polysaccharides, lipids and refractory humics. The fresh biopolymers undergo succession and removal by bacteria. Baseline organics enter solely through cell disruption, so that the internal carbon content is initially biased low. By including exudation, agreement with dissolved organic or individual biopolymer data is achieved given strong release coupled to light intensity. Detrital carbon then reaches hundreds of micromolar, sufficient to support structural changes to the ice matrix.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0391.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: snow characteristics; optical remote sensing; snow albedo; PROMICE; Sentinel 3; OLCI; atmospheric correction; Arctic aerosol
Online: 30 November 2019 (11:23:46 CET)
We present a simplified atmospheric correction algorithm for the snow/ice albedo retrieval using single view satellite measurements. The validation of the technique is performed using Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) on board Copernicus Sentinel - 3 satellite and ground spectral or broadband albedo measurements from locations on the Greenland ice sheet and in the French Alps. Through comparison with independent ground observations, the technique is shown to perform accurately in a range of conditions from a 2100 m elevation mid-latitude location in the French Alps to a network of 15 locations across a 2390 m elevation range in seven regions across the Greenland ice sheet. Retrieved broadband albedo is accurate within 5% over a wide (0.5) broadband albedo range of the (N = 4,155) Greenland observations and with no apparent bias.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0056.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: Novaya Zemlya; Altimetry; Gravity; Russian High Arctic; Glaciers and Ice Caps; Remote Sensing; Climate Change;
Online: 3 October 2018 (14:37:48 CEST)
We examine the mass balance of the glaciers in the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago, located in the Russian High Arctic using time series of time-variable gravity from the NASA/DLR Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, laser altimetry data from the NASA Ice Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) mission, and radar altimetry data from the ESA CryoSat-2 mission. We present a new algorithm for detecting changes in glacier elevation from these satellite altimetry data and evaluate its performance in the case Novaya Zemlya by comparing the results with GRACE. We find that the mass loss of Novaya Zemlya increased from 10±5 Gt/yr over 2003-2009 to 14±4 Gt/yr over 2010-2016, with a brief period of near mass balance between 2009 and 2011. The results are consistent across the gravimetric and altimetric methods. Furthermore, the analysis of elevation change from CryoSat-2 indicates that 60\% of the mass loss occurs at low elevation, where thinning rates are highest. We also find that marine-terminating glaciers in Novaya Zemlya are thinning significantly faster than land-terminating glaciers, which indicates an important role of ice dynamics of marine-terminating glaciers. We posit that the glacier changes have been caused by changes in atmospheric and ocean temperatures. We find that the increase in mass loss after 2010 is associated with a warming in air temperatures, which increased the surface melt rates. There is no enough information on the ocean temperature at the front of the glaciers to conclude on the role of the ocean, but we posit that the temperature of subsurface ocean waters must have increased during the observation period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0107.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: climate change; cryosphere; Arctic; permafrost; sea ice; tipping elements; climate impacts; climate policy; Paris agreement
Online: 15 December 2017 (12:51:43 CET)
Arctic feedbacks will accelerate climate change and could jeopardise mitigation efforts. The permafrost carbon feedback releases carbon to the atmosphere from thawing permafrost and the sea ice albedo feedback increases solar absorption in the Arctic Ocean. A constant positive albedo feedback and zero permafrost feedback have been used in nearly all climate policy studies to date, while observations and models show that the permafrost feedback is significant and that both feedbacks are nonlinear. Using novel dynamic emulators in the integrated assessment model PAGE-ICE, we investigate nonlinear interactions of the two feedbacks with the climate and economy under a range of climate scenarios consistent with the Paris Agreement. The permafrost feedback interacts with the land and ocean carbon uptake processes, and the albedo feedback evolves through a sequence of nonlinear transitions associated with the loss of Arctic sea ice in different months of the year. The US’s withdrawal from the current national pledges could increase the total discounted economic impact of the two Arctic feedbacks until 2300 by $25 trillion, reaching nearly $120 trillion, while meeting the 1.5 °C and 2 °C targets will reduce the impact by an order of magnitude.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0176.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: persistent pollutants; risk assessment; arctic; glacial melt; climate change; human health; alaska; alpine glacier; Alaska Range
Online: 9 August 2018 (00:40:50 CEST)
To assess the presence of organochlorine pollutants (OCP) in Alaskan sub-Arctic latitudes, we analyzed ice core and meltwater samples from Jarvis Glacier, a polythermal glacier in Interior Alaska. Jarvis Glacier is receding as atmospheric warming continues throughout the region, increasing opportunity for OCP transport both englacially and into the proglacial watershed. Across all meltwater and ice core samples we identify the pesticides DDT, DDE and DDD, α- HCH and ϒ-HCH. OCP concentrations in ice core samples were highest at the 7-14 m depth (0.51 ng/L of DDT) and decreased gradually approaching the bedrock at 79m. Meltwater concentrations from the proglacial creek slightly exceeded concentrations found in the ice core, potentially indicating aggregate OCP glacial loss, with peak OCP concentration (1.12 ng/L of DDD) taken in July and potentially associated to peak melt. Ongoing use of DDT to fight Malaria in Asia, and the extended atmospheric range of HCH may account for concentrations in near-surface ice, correlating with use and atmospheric transport. The opportunity for biota bioaccumulation of OCPs, or human uptake of OCPs from glacial meltwater, may increase as glacial melt continues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0049.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: arctic hydrological cycle; terrestrial water storage; satellite gravimetry observation; permafrost distribution; global land data assimilation system
Online: 8 December 2017 (04:00:19 CET)
The Arctic freshwater budget is critical for understanding the climate in the northern regions. However, the hydrology of the Arctic circumpolar tundra region (ACTR) and the largest pan-Arctic rivers are still not well understood. In the present paper, we analyze the spatiotemporal variations in terrestrial water storage (TWS) of the ACTR, including three of its largest pan-Arctic river basins (Lena, Mackenzie, Yukon), using monthly Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data from 2002 to 2016. Together with global land reanalysis, river runoff, and inundation extent area (IEA) data, we identify declining TWS trends throughout the ACTR that we attribute largely to increasing evapotranspiration driven by increasing summer air temperatures. In terms of regional changes, large and significant negative trends in TWS are observed mainly over the North American continent. At basin scale, we show that, in the Lena River basin, the autumnal TWS signal persists until the winter of the following year, while in the Mackenzie River basin, the TWS levels in the autumn and winter has no significant impact on the following year. As global warming is expected to be particularly significant in the northern regions, our results are important for understanding future TWS trends, with possible further decline.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0185.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: summer-mean Arctic circulation patterns; extra-tropical synoptic cyclones; self-organizing maps (SOMs); cyclone detection and tracking
Online: 15 July 2019 (15:24:28 CEST)
The contribution of extra-tropical synoptic cyclones to the formation of summer-mean atmospheric circulation patterns in the Arctic is investigated by clustering the dominant Arctic circulation patterns by the self-organizing maps (SOMs) using the daily mean sea level pressure (MSLP) in the Arctic domain (≥ 60°N). Three SOM patterns are identified: one with prevalent low pressure anomalies in the Arctic Circle (SOM1) and two opposite dipoles with primary high pressure anomalies covering the Arctic Ocean (SOM2 and SOM3). The time series of summertime occurrence frequencies demonstrate the largest inter-annual variation in the SOM1, the slight decreasing trend in the SOM2, and the abrupt upswing after 2007 in the SOM3. The relevant analyses with produced cyclone track data confirm that the vital contribution. The Arctic cyclone activity is enhanced in the SOM1 because the meridional temperature gradient increases over the land–Arctic Ocean boundaries co-located with major extra-tropical cyclone pathways. The composite daily synoptic evolutions for each SOM reveal that the persistence of all the three SOMs is less than 5 days on average. These evolutionary short-term weather patterns have substantial variability at inter-annual and longer timescales. Therefore, the synoptic-scale activity is central to forming the seasonal-mean climate of the Arctic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0378.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: viscoelasticity; seismic attenuation; generalized standard linear solid; multiparameter inverse problem; subsea permafrost; Arctic shelf; methane hydrate stability zone
Online: 25 October 2022 (07:05:57 CEST)
One of the possible mechanisms causing significant emissions of methane into the atmosphere within the Arctic shelf may be the decomposition of gas hydrates. Their accumulations within the Arctic shelf formed during Ice Age almost simultaneously with the formation of permafrost, which contributed to the emergence of a zone of stable existence of gas hydrates. The subsequent flooding of the Arctic shelf led to the degradation of the permafrost and the violation of the conditions for the existence of hydrates. To assess the state of the stability zone, methods of mathematical numerical modeling are used. Standard seismic methods are widely used to localize gas hydrates, but monitoring their physical state requires the development of fundamentally new approaches based on solving multiparameter inverse seismic problems. In particular, the degree of attenuation of seismic energy is one of the objective parameters for assessing the consolidation of gas hydrates: the closer they are to the beginning of decomposition, the higher the attenuation, and hence the lower the quality factor. Thus, the methods of seismic monitoring of the state of gas hydrates in order to predict the possibility of developing dangerous scenarios should be based on solving a multi-parameter inverse seismic problem. This publication is devoted to the presentation of this approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0503.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: permafrost hydrology; Russian Arctic; water tracks; hydrological connectivity; stable water isotopes; dissolved organic carbon; electrical resistivity tomography; taliks
Online: 21 June 2021 (11:15:37 CEST)
Hydrochemical and geophysical data collected during a hydrological survey in September 2017, reveal patterns of small-scale hydrological connectivity in a small water track catchment, north-European Arctic. Elevated tundra patches underlain by sands were disconnected from the stream and stored precipitation water from previous months. At the catchment surface and in the water track thalweg, some circular hollows, from 0.2 to 0.4 m in diameter, acted as evaporative basins with low d-excess values, from 2 to 4‰. Other hollows were connected to shallow subsurface runoff, yielding d-excess values between 12 and 14‰. ‘Connected’ hollows yielded a 50% higher dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content, 17.5±5.3 mg/L, than the ‘disconnected hollows, 11.8±1.7 mg/L. Permafrost distribution across the landscape is continuous, but highly variable. Open taliks exist under fens and small hummocky depressions, as revealed by electric resistivity tomography surveys. Isotopic evidence supports upward subpermafrost groundwater migration through open taliks under water tracks and fens/bogs/depressions, and its supply to streams via shallow sub-surface compartment. Temporal variability of isotopic composition and DOC in water track and a major river system, the Vorkuta R., evidence the widespread occurrence of the described processes in the large river basin. Water tracks effectively drain the tundra terrain and maintain xeric veg-etation over the elevated inter-track tundra patches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0036.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Arctic-alpine flora; Extinction due to climate change; Narrow endemism; Papaver alpinum aggr; Scree species; Species distribution modelling
Online: 2 August 2020 (15:06:03 CEST)
Glacial relicts, especially those with very narrow habitat requirements, are particularly affected by global warming and thus good models for studying the future biodiversity patterns of the Alps. We have used as a model taxon Papaver occidentale, a glacial relict endemic to the Western Prealps, belonging to the alpine poppy complex (P. alpinum aggr.). All known localities were visited, each population was georeferenced and the number of individuals was estimated. Species Distribution Modelling (SDM) was used to evaluate the present and future potential distribution range and habitat suitability, taking into account the specificity of its habitat (calcareous screes). According to our study, there are globally 19 natural populations of P. occidentale. The total number of individuals was estimated at 30756 (with 72% of all individuals in canton of Bern). The taxon is a highly specialized alpine plant growing preferentially between 1900 and 2100 m a.s.l. on north facing screes. Predictions for the end of the 21st century indicate that suitable area will significantly decrease, for both the entire studied area (0-30% remaining) and sites nearby current P. occidentale populations (0-17% remaining). Under the most severe scenario, the species risks complete extinction. The long-term in situ conservation of P. occidentale, and all other taxa of the P. alpinum complex, is unlikely to be achieved without slowing global climate change. More generally, our fine-scale study shows that local environmental buffering of large-scale climate change in high-mountain flora may be very limited in specialised taxa of such patchy environments as screes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0189.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: Arctic conditions; Ice-Induced Vibrations; Offshore Wind Turbine Support Structures; Stress-Time Sequence; Damage Model; Rainflow counting; Markov chain method; Omission Level; Low-Temperature Fatigue
Online: 10 December 2021 (14:16:30 CET)
Fixed offshore wind turbines continue to be developed for high latitude areas where not only wind and wave loads need to be considered, but also moving sea ice. Current rules and regulations for the design of fixed offshore structures in ice-covered waters do not adequately consider effects of ice loading and its stochastic nature on fatigue life of the structure. Ice crushing on such structures results in ice-induced vibrations, which can be represented by loading the structure using a variable-amplitude loading (VAL) sequence. Typical offshore load spectra are developed for wave and wind loading. Thus, a combined VAL spectrum is developed for wind, wave, and ice action. To this goal, numerical models are used to simulate the dynamic ice-, wind-, and wave-structure interaction. The stress time-history at an exemplarily selected critical point in an offshore wind energy monopile support structure is extracted from the model and translated into a VAL sequence, which can then be used as a loading sequence for the fatigue assessment or fatigue testing of welded joints of offshore wind turbine support structures. This study presents the approach to determine combined load spectra and standardized time series for wind, wave, and ice action.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0137.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: Satellite altimetry, Topex/Poseidon, Jasons missions, self-crossover points, inter-crossover points, Sub-Arctic Seas, Southern Ocean, sea level, wind speed, wave height, virtual buoy
Online: 8 January 2021 (11:08:47 CET)
Satellite altimetry is successfully developing during the past three decades for the sea level, ocean dynamics, coastal oceanography, planetary waves, ocean tides, wind and wave, ice cover, Earth’s gravity field, and climatology research. We propose a new essential add-on of satellite altimetry related to the peculiarities of the orbits of the Topex/Poseidon and Jasons’ satellite missions which were not mentioned before in the scientific publications. Derived subsets of “self-crossover” and “inter-crossover” points in sub-polar latitudes are discussed in detail in the context of water exchange, and wind-wave dynamics, and potential challenges to be solved. The relatively short time lags between measurements at these crossovers provide additional information on anomalies of magnitudes and directions of ocean currents, and characteristics of wind-driven waves. Resulting data snapshots with constant space and time intervals can be regarded as time series of virtual buoys, an analog of continuous buoy measurements of the sea level, wind speed, and wave height. Areas of the World Ocean where these specific crossovers occur are described in the context of water exchange, wind wave studies, and potential challenges to be solved. The value of these special crossovers for studies and monitoring of the sub-polar seas is illustrated by a case study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0404.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Arctic conditions; Weldment fatigue; Temperature dependence of material fatigue; Fatigue and fracture mechanics testing at low temperatures; Fatigue and fracture transitions temperatures; Direct-current potential drop method; Scanning electron microscopy; FTT; FDBT; DBTT
Online: 26 January 2022 (18:42:43 CET)
The formation and propagation of cracks occurs through irreversible dislocation movements at notches, material defects and grain boundaries. Since this process is partly thermally controlled, the resistance to dislocation movements at low temperatures increases. This slows both fatigue initiation and fatigue crack propagation. From recent experimental data, it can be seen that fatigue crack growth is accelerated below the fatigue transition temperature (FTT) that correlates with the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) found by well-known fracture mechanics tests, i.e., Charpy impact, fracture toughness, and CTOD. Hence, this study investigates the relation between FTT and DBTT in S500 high-strength steel base material and welded joints at low temperatures using fatigue crack growth, fracture toughness tests as well as scanning electron microscopy. From the tests, an almost constant decrease in fatigue crack propagation rate is determined with decreasing test temperature even below the DBTT.