Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

The Role of Synoptic Cyclones for the Formation of Arctic Summer Circulation Patterns as Clustered by Self-Organizing Maps

Version 1 : Received: 14 July 2019 / Approved: 15 July 2019 / Online: 15 July 2019 (15:24:28 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Lee, M.-H.; Kim, J.-H. The Role of Synoptic Cyclones for the Formation of Arctic Summer Circulation Patterns as Clustered by Self-Organizing Maps. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 474. Lee, M.-H.; Kim, J.-H. The Role of Synoptic Cyclones for the Formation of Arctic Summer Circulation Patterns as Clustered by Self-Organizing Maps. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 474.

Journal reference: Atmosphere 2019, 10, 474
DOI: 10.3390/atmos10080474

Abstract

The contribution of extra-tropical synoptic cyclones to the formation of summer-mean atmospheric circulation patterns in the Arctic is investigated by clustering the dominant Arctic circulation patterns by the self-organizing maps (SOMs) using the daily mean sea level pressure (MSLP) in the Arctic domain (≥ 60°N). Three SOM patterns are identified: one with prevalent low pressure anomalies in the Arctic Circle (SOM1) and two opposite dipoles with primary high pressure anomalies covering the Arctic Ocean (SOM2 and SOM3). The time series of summertime occurrence frequencies demonstrate the largest inter-annual variation in the SOM1, the slight decreasing trend in the SOM2, and the abrupt upswing after 2007 in the SOM3. The relevant analyses with produced cyclone track data confirm that the vital contribution. The Arctic cyclone activity is enhanced in the SOM1 because the meridional temperature gradient increases over the land–Arctic Ocean boundaries co-located with major extra-tropical cyclone pathways. The composite daily synoptic evolutions for each SOM reveal that the persistence of all the three SOMs is less than 5 days on average. These evolutionary short-term weather patterns have substantial variability at inter-annual and longer timescales. Therefore, the synoptic-scale activity is central to forming the seasonal-mean climate of the Arctic.

Subject Areas

summer-mean Arctic circulation patterns; extra-tropical synoptic cyclones; self-organizing maps (SOMs); cyclone detection and tracking

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