REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0327.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: adolescent; health reproductive; peer counselor
Online: 24 June 2022 (02:52:51 CEST)
The serious impact of Adolescent’s Free Sex Behavior will affect their developmental task. Having proper education and having optimal sex counseling are related to sexual behavior in adolescents. The alternative for this phenomenon recently has involved adolescents participating as peer counselors because they are more susceptible to peer influence. Online peer counselor programs may promote progression into depth understanding of sexual behavior among adolescents. This paper provides an overview of the effect of peer counselors on reproductive health among adolescents. It describes many conceptual frameworks about free sex behaviors, risk factors among adolescents, and the role of peer counselors in improving health reproductive behavior among adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0137.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: adolescent; behavior; cognition; mobile phone
Online: 12 January 2020 (18:15:25 CET)
Excessive cell phone use contributes to distracted driving, may increase risk for automobile accidents, and a minority of mobile phone users exhibit behaviors consistent with technological addiction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether cell phone beliefs and behaviors could be changed by a brief educational encounter. The Theory of Reasoned Action provided a lens for viewing attitudes and behavior. A one-week pre-post design with a thirty-day follow-up was used with participants (N = 215, 67.0% female, age = 20.0 + 1.6) assigned to a peer led intervention or comparison groups. The intervention included cell-phone educational materials. A short index of cell phone behavior was developed which showed good internal consistency with a Cronbach’s alpha of .81. The intervention group “agreed” or “strongly-agreed” more than the comparison group on five of the seven areas of cell phone beliefs and behaviors ( p < 0.05, item Cohen’s d = .32 to .47, total d = .50) at one-week following receipt of informational materials. We conclude that attitudes and behaviors regarding cell phones are malleable and susceptible to change in young-adults following a brief psychoeducational intervention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0258.v1
Online: 26 June 2019 (05:17:39 CEST)
Literature pertaining to youth development has identified the importance of understanding the physical, intellectual and emotional needs of adolescent youth. The purpose of this study was to compare the use of a ‘traditional’ and ‘progressive’ coaching style to train a general male youth population to improve sprint and jump performances, whilst assessing enjoyment to comment on long term application. Maximal sprint times, sprint kinematics, unilateral jump distances and repetitive tuck jump scores were measured alongside anthropometric variables to characterise performance. Results revealed significant (p>0.05) pre/post differences in anthropometric variables across all maturation groups, and each of the maturational levels displayed a tendency to favour a particular coaching or control condition. Pre-PHV groups responded most effectively to the progressive style of coaching, displaying improvements in horizontal jump performances, and -0.7 to -2.7% improvements in all sprint times, despite also showing the largest increase in tuck jump scores (25.8%). The circa-PHV group produced their greatest improvements in the traditional intervention, as displayed through significant improvements (p<0.05) in 20m sprint times and dominant-leg horizontal jump performance, whilst also revealing the greatest deterioration in tuck jump scores (14.2%). Post-PHV displayed the greatest improvements in the control setting, suggesting the natural benefits gained through adolescent development were greater than the influence of the training interventions. In conclusion, it is suggested that matching coaching strategies and delivery techniques to the period of biological maturation may have implications for both performance and athlete safety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0150.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Oral Health; Adolescent; Knowledge, Practice, Behaviour
Online: 11 January 2022 (15:48:40 CET)
The aims of this study were to assess oral health knowledge, attitudes, and practices among orthodontic patients between the ages of 15 and 17 years old compared to adolescents without orthodontic treatment. This cross-sectional study included 392 adolescents drawn from various French teaching hospitals. A closed-ended questionnaire was used to collect data. Adolescents undergoing orthodontic treatment had a higher knowledge of oral health than adolescents without orthodontic treatment. The majority of adolescents for both groups (69%) claimed to brush their teeth twice a day. Regarding complimentary dental material, 81.9% of adolescents without orthodontic treatment never used an interdental brush and 78.8% never used dental floss. For those undergoing orthodontic treatment, 48.5% never used interdental brush. Only 4% of adolescents without and 3% of adolescents with orthodontic treatment never consumed fizzy drinks, 4.9% and 3% never consumed sweets, 4% and 8.4% never ate fast-food. Adolescents without treatment consumed more sodas (p=0.04) and more fast food (p=0.03). Adolescents had insufficient knowledge of oral health. Health education programmes should be implemented to improve adolescents' knowledge and individual oral prophylaxis with interdental brushes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0211.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: suicidal ideation; adolescent; internet addiction; loneliness
Online: 9 July 2021 (09:59:03 CEST)
The Internet has become an essential tool for adolescents. It is part of their social integration within peers and supports their identity construction. The Internet can also become a source of addiction; especially when used as a coping strategy towards unpleasant life situations. The feeling of loneliness is an emotion present during the adolescence. However, when in excess, it can lead to suicidal ideations. We questioned ourselves on the impact of an excessive use of the Internet by adolescents, with their feeling of loneliness and the risks of suicidal ideations. We attempted to find an answer to this question by performing a literature review. We found one result matching our search criteria’s, which is itself a literature review. We noted the absence of studies with regards to the interaction between the feeling of loneliness, the addiction to the Internet, and the risk of suicidal ideations amongst adolescents. We established a theoretical model which could be used as a lead for future research. We insist on the importance that studies are made in this domain, in order to enable us to establish efficient preventive measure on the risks of suicidal ideations amongst adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0314.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: self-reflection; adolescent; Smoking Cessation Program
Online: 24 December 2019 (09:41:29 CET)
The study aimed to understand the experiences of adolescent smokers who participated in a smoking cessation program based on self-reflection, and to develop the theoretical basis for constructing similar programs. The participants, ten students from middle and high schools located in cities G and S, were interviewed after the program ended. Data were collected from August to November 2019 and analyzed using a phenomenological approach to understand participant experiences in depth. The analysis revealed five major themes: ‘Uniqueness of the Program,’ ‘Perception of Smoking Cessation,’ ‘Positive Reflection on Life,’ ‘Understanding Others,’ and ‘A Search for Hope and Vision in Life.’ The findings revealed that the smoking cessation program facilitated the development of self-identity and vision, which may indirectly strengthen the motivation for adolescent smokers to quit smoking. These findings suggest the need for a life-changing smoking cessation program that enhances self-concept and self-esteem. Moreover, it highlights the importance of follow-up research to ensure effectiveness, and the need to develop programs with creative content.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Breastfeeding; Infants; Bangladesh; Morbidity; Adolescent mothers; Mortality
Online: 25 January 2021 (10:04:09 CET)
Optimal breastfeeding practices among mothers have been proven to have health and economic benefits, but evidence on breastfeeding practices among adolescent mothers in Bangladesh is limited. Hence, this study aims to estimate breastfeeding indicators and factors associated with selected feeding practices. The sample included 2554 children aged 0-23 months of adolescent mothers aged 12-19 years from four Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys collected between 2004 and 2014. Breastfeeding indicators were estimated using World Health Organization indicators. Selected feeding indicators were examined against potential confounding factors using univariate and multivariate analyses. Only 42.2% of adolescent mothers initiated breastfeeding within the first hour of birth, 53% exclusively breastfed their infants, predominant breastfeeding was 17.3%, and 15.7% bottle-fed their children. Parity (2-3 children), older infants and adolescent mothers who made postnatal check-up after two days were associated with increased exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) rates. Adolescent mothers aged 12-18 years and who watched television were less likely to delay breastfeeding initiation within the first hour of birth. Adolescent mothers who delivered at home (adjusted OR=2.63, 95% CI:1.86, 3.74) and made postnatal check-up after two days (adjusted OR=1.67, 95% CI: 1.21, 2.30) were significantly more likely to delay initiation breastfeeding within the first hour of birth. Younger infants, adolescent mothers living in Barisal region and who listened to radio reported increased odds of predominant breastfeeding and increased odds for bottle-feeding included male infants, an infant aged 0-5 months, Adolescent mothers who had eight or more antenatal clinic visits and richest wealth quintiles. In order for Bangladesh to meet the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 2 and 3 by 2030, breastfeeding promotion programmes should discourage bottle-feeding among adolescent mothers from richest households and promote early initiation of breastfeeding especially among adolescent mothers who delivered at home and had late postnatal check-up after delivery
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0055.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: drug, impulsivity, sensation-seeking, peer conflict, adolescent.
Online: 5 March 2019 (11:29:30 CET)
(1) Background: The purpose of this study was therefore to analyze the predictive capacity of the three variables (impulsivity, sensation-seeking and drug use) in aggressors and victims of violence. (2) Methods: The design is cross-sectional quasi-experimental. A sample of 822 students aged 13 to 18 who had filled in an ad hoc questionnaire, the State Impulsivity Scale and the Sensation-Seeking Scale, was used for this. (3) Results: The results show that aggressors had high levels of gratification, automatism, attentional factor, disinhibition and susceptibility to boredom, and use alcohol and/or tobacco. The variables that could predict involvement as an aggressor in peer conflict are use of alcohol, smoking, high levels of gratification, automatism and attentional factors and a high degree of disinhibition and susceptibility to boredom. The disinhibition is the best predictor of aggressor. (4) Conclusions: Thus having available empirical evidence that facilitates detection of predictive variables for participation in violence is going to favor the design of effective education intervention for reducing risk behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0206.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: body self-image; adolescent; anthropometry; nutritional status
Online: 16 April 2018 (10:51:45 CEST)
The critical changes in physical appearance during adolescence can considerably influence the self-appraisal of body image. The purpose of this study is to analyze body self-image gender differences in Mediterranean adolescents, and his relationships to the anthropometric characteristics of this population in different phases of the adolescence. Participants were 809 Mediterranean teenagers (396 females) aged 11 to 17. A relative low prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image was observed among healthy urban Mediterranean adolescents (boys 17.3%; girls 22.7%). Girls showed statistically significantly higher mean BSQ scores than boys (M = 61.7, SD = 26.6 versus M = 56.3, SD = 27.1; p < 0.001). Girls in the late adolescence were more often classified as being dissatisfied (31%) in comparison to those in the early adolescent group (19.1%; p < 0.05). There was a good correlation of BSQ scores with all the anthropometric variables in males but not in females.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0105.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: energy drinks; adolescent lifestyle; alcohol; caffeine; sports
Online: 12 January 2018 (05:12:03 CET)
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has identified some risk factors for the occurrence of side effects linked to energy drinks (EDs) consumption by young people. Tachycardia, sleeplessness, caffeine addiction may be caused by excessive consumption of EDs during parties, sport matches, ect. EDs consumption has been evaluated in a sample of students in Italy together with some aspects of their lifestyle. The survey was performed in two high schools from September 2014 to June 2015. 583 students between 14 to 18 years were recruited and a standard questionnaire (EFSA checklist) was used to collect information on responders characteristics, beverages consumption, EDs with alcohol, and EDs and sports. 350 out of 583 responders (60%) consumed EDs and 146 out of 583 responders (25%) reported an occasional alcohol consumption. Despite 82 out of 146 alcoholic drinkers (56%) were EDs-alcohol consumers, only 70 out of 583 adolescents (12%) reported habitual EDs consumption. Moreover, 38 out of 379 (10%) of all physically active adolescents reported frequent EDs consumption before sportive trainings. Study results highlight the need for primary prevention measures in communication campaigns and training delivered by school to limit potential health threats related to excess of EDs consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0338.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: parental warmth; gratitude; prosocial behavior; school climate; adolescent
Online: 14 June 2021 (09:09:26 CEST)
Parental warmth plays an important role in the development of adolescents’ physical and mental health. There are numerous empirical studies indicating a relationship between parental warmth and prosocial behavior among adolescents, although the underlying mechanisms of this association remain unclear. Adopting a longitudinal design across two time points, the present study proposes a moderated mediation model to explore the mediating role of gratitude and the moderating role of the school climate between parental warmth and prosocial behavior. The sample consisted of 943 participants (483 boys and 451 girls) who participated in the second assessment and completed questionnaires assessing gratitude, school climate, and prosocial behavior in April 2019. Their parents participated in the first assessment and completed a questionnaire pertaining to parental warmth in October 2018. After controlling for the gender and age of the adolescents, the results showed that the positive association between parental warmth and prosocial behavior is mediated by gratitude, and school climate does play a moderating role in the second half of the mediating path. Specifically, the school climate can play a protective role in adolescents with low levels of gratitude. For adolescents with less gratitude, a strong school climate can promote more prosocial behaviors and can effectively alleviate the negative prediction of low levels of gratitude. This study provides a theoretical explanation for the generation of adolescents’ prosocial behavior, and provides theoretical guidance for the interventions of schools and parents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0288.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: adolescent; current smoking; smoking behavior; tobacco message exposure
Online: 24 May 2019 (08:34:44 CEST)
This study investigated the influence and interaction of tobacco promotional and control information with adolescents’ current smoking and smoking susceptibility. 12,278 students were recruited from junior, senior and vocational high schools located in Shanghai, China. The exposure to tobacco promotional and control message of participants over the past 30 days were examined, as well as current smoking and never smokers’ initiation susceptibility. Complex sample analysis was applied. Descriptive and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted. 89.3% and 91.5% of adolescents investigated were exposed to tobacco promotional and control message respectively, which separately increased and decreased the risk of current smoking and never-smokers’ smoking susceptibility, especially among males and junior high school students. The risk changed in consistency with the exposure level（Ptrend < 0.001）. Tobacco control message seemed to mitigate the influence of tobacco promotions in the risk of both current smoking (OR = 0.64, 95%CI: 0.41–0.99) and smoking susceptibility (OR = 0.65, 95%CI: 0.46–0.93). Tobacco-related message exposure was highly prevalent and associated with youth smoking risk and smoking susceptibility. It is important to enhance the comprehensiveness and enforcement of promotion bans. Given the improvement of tobacco control message on smoking risk brought by tobacco promotions, the publicity and dissemination of tobacco control information need to be consistently strengthened.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0271.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: family functioning; aggressive behavior; emotional intelligence; adolescent values
Online: 24 December 2018 (05:19:54 CET)
Aggressive behavior in adolescence is influenced by a diversity of individual, family and social variables. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between family functioning, emotional intelligence and values for development of different types of aggression, as well as to establish profiles according to the predictor variables of aggression. To do this, a sample of 317 high school students aged 13 to 18 were administered the Peer Conflict Scale, the Family Functionality Scale, the Brief Emotional Intelligence Inventory for Senior Citizens and the Values for Adolescent Development Scales. The study showed that stress management, positive adolescent development and family functioning predominated in nonaggressive subjects with higher scores than aggressors. There was also a negative relationship between the different types of aggression and emotional intelligence, positive values and family functioning. In addition, two different profiles were found. The first had low scores on all the variables, while the second profile had higher scores on all the variables except family functioning which was higher.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0365.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library & Information Science Keywords: Traditional; Communication; Media; Rural; Information Service Delivery; Adolescent
Online: 19 July 2018 (15:25:56 CEST)
This research work examined the various communication media used in the rural areas for the purpose of conveying messages to Adolescents in the selected communities in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria - Woji, Rumuigbo, Rumuola, Rumuokwuta and Elelenwo communities. The Taro Yammane Statistical formula for determination of sample size was used in drawing a sample of 363 respondents from a population of 3,630 Adolescents. The simple random sampling method was used in the distribution of the questionnaire to target respondents in the selected communities. Two hundred and eighty two (282) copies of the questionnaire were returned valid, and data from them was analysed and interpreted with the use of frequency tables and percentages. The result shows that traditional communication media is still relevant in the dissemination of information to rural dwellers in general and to Adolescents in particular. The agencies that make use of these media are; village authority, age groups, etc. The research work recommend among others that the government and rural dwellers should hold our traditional and cultural values in high esteem through the use of these media, harmonizing the use of traditional communication media and modern media for effective rural information service delivery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0131.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: adolescent; young adults; gender; smoking; drinking; Asian city
Online: 16 January 2018 (04:49:45 CET)
The study aims to explore gender differences in smoking and drinking in three Asian cities—Hanoi, Shanghai and Taipei, and assesses the magnitude of these gender differences across cities. A total of 17,016 adolescents and young adults, aged 15 to 24 years, residing in both urban and rural area of Hanoi, Shanghai and Taipei were selected by multistage sampling methods and surveyed by face to face interview. The gender differences are significant for smoking-only, drinking-only, and both behaviors in each city. With respect to smoking-only, males are more than 30.66 times as likely to report it compared with females in Hanoi, followed by Shanghai and Taipei. The above trend holds true when further examining drinking-only and both smoking and drinking. The magnitude of gender differences in smoking-only, drinking-only, and both behaviors widely vary across the three cities. Future research is needed to further examine the mechanisms behind these gender differences and how these differences may be utilized to prevent and reduce smoking and drinking in the adolescent and young adult population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0074.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: electronic cigarette; e-cigarette; smoking; adolescent; frequency; tobacco
Online: 14 March 2017 (07:56:50 CET)
Introduction The prevalence of adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has increased in most countries. This study determines the relation between the frequency of e-cigarette use and the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking. Furthermore, it evaluates the association between the reasons for e-cigarette use and the frequency of its use. Materials and Methods Participants were 68,043 middle and high school students aged 13–18 years from the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey. Of the 68,043 participants, we analyzed 6,655 adolescents with an experience of e-cigarette use. Results The prevalence of ever using and current (past 30 days) use of e-cigarettes was 10.1% and 3.9%, respectively. Of the ever e-cigarette users, approximately 40% used e-cigarettes for ≥1/month and 8.1% used e-cigarettes daily. Daily e-cigarettes users were 10 times greater among daily cigarette smokers than among cigarette users for <1/month (18.1% vs. 1.8%) and 16 times more prevalent among those smoking ≥20 cigarettes/day than among those smoking <1 cigarette/month (38.9% vs. 2.4%). The most common reason for e-cigarette use was curiosity (22.9%), followed by less harmful than conventional cigarettes (18.9%), smoking cessation (13.1%), and indoor use (10.7%). Curiosity was the most common reason among less frequent e-cigarette users; however, smoking cessation and indoor use were the most common reasons among more frequent users. Conclusions Results showed a positive relation between frequency or intensity of conventional cigarette smoking and frequency of e-cigarette use among Korean adolescents, and frequency of e-cigarette use differed according to the reason for the use of e-cigarettes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0011.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: tanning bed; sunbed; legislation; ban; adolescent; minors; ultraviolet radiation
Online: 4 May 2022 (13:19:10 CEST)
Tanning beds have been classified as carcinogenic to humans. As a result, many countries have enacted laws regulating the use of commercial tanning beds, including bans for minors. However, there is no international overview of the current legal status of access restrictions for minors that provides details on their specific design regarding age limits and possible exceptions to the statutory regulation. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive web search of current tanning bed legislation for minors on the three continents North America, Australia, and Europe. Our findings regarding existence and concrete design of access restrictions are presented graphically using maps. We found a wide variety of different legislations. In Australia, a total ban on tanning beds exists, while in New Zealand tanning bed use is banned for minors. In Europe about half of the countries have implemented a strict ban for minors. In North America we found differences in the age limit for access restrictions between the states, provinces and territories for those regions that implemented a ban for minors. In the United States, some states have rather ‘soft bans’ that allow use by minors with different types of parental consent. The patchwork in legislation calls for harmonization. Therefore, our comparison is an important starting point for institutions such as the World Health Organization or the European Commission to advance their goals towards a harmonization of tanning bed legislation in general and for minors in particular.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0318.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Treatment adherence; child; adolescent; trend; outpatient clinic; new patient
Online: 14 May 2021 (08:48:07 CEST)
This study analysed trends of first-time patients visiting the paediatric psychiatry clinic in a university hospital. The medical records from 2009 to 2016 of first-time patients visiting the Kyung Hee university hospital were reviewed, focusing on children in grades 1–12. We analysed the prevalence rate of psychiatric disorders per 100,000 general populations by gender and grade, and the characteristics of patients who sought outpatient care more than three times. The study included 1,467 participants, of which 931 were males (63.5%). The number of male patients per 100,000 populations significantly decreased from 4.14 in 2009 to 2.03 in 2016. While hyperkinetic disorders had the highest prevalence in males, neurotic disorders were most frequent in females. Prevalence of disruptive behaviour disorders in males and mental retardations in females decreased significantly during the study period. The factors affecting continuity were being female, studying in grades 7–12, and diagnosis of depressive, hyperkinetic, and tic disorders. Physicians should consider the new paediatric patients’ gender, grade, and expected diagnosis from their first visit to improve treatment compliance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0274.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; bone turnover markers; leptin; body composition
Online: 21 June 2020 (14:33:41 CEST)
The link between scoliotic deformity and bone metabolism in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) has not been well researched. Moreover, the data concerning the cross-talk between fat tissue content/hormonal activity and bone markers in this group of patients are lacking. The objective of this study was to correlate the extent of scoliotic-curve severity with the bone turnover vs. leptin level and nutritional status in girls with AIS. The study encompassed 77 AIS girls, aged 14.7 ± 2.17 years. Scoliotic curve severity assessed by Cobb’s angle was categorized as mild (10-19o) moderate (20-39º) or severe (≥40º). Corrected height, weight, waist and hip circumferences were measured and body mass index (BMI), corrected height Z-score, BMI Z-score and waist/height ratio (WHtR) were calculated for the entire group. Body composition parameters: fat mass (FAT), fat-free mass (FFM) and predicted muscle mass (PMM) were determined using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. Bone turnover markers (osteocalcin (OC) and amino terminal of collagen cross-links NTx) and leptin levels were assessed in serum. Multiple regression analysis showed that, OC, NTx (negatively with p<0.05) and leptin (positively with p<0.01) were significantly associated with curve severity in AIS girls. Moreover, Cobb’s angle was positively correlated with W/HtR (p<0.01)and FAT (p<0.05). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences in leptin (p<0.05 vs. mild only), OC (p<0.05 vs. mild and moderate)) and W/HtR (p<0.01 and p<0.05 vs. mild and moderate respectively) between the three AIS severity subgroups. OC was significantly lower in the severe AIS subgroup, while leptin and W/HtR were significantly higher. Significant correlations between leptin and anthropometrical parameters as BMI z-score and W/HtR were shown. Leptin level correlated also significantly with BMI z score (p<0.001), W/HtR (p<0.0001) and body composition parameters (p<0.000001). Moreover, there was a significant negative correlation between NTx and leptin level (p<0.05). Bone metabolism in AIS girls seems to be altered and significantly related to the scoliotic curve severity. Leptin may be a crucial link in the cross-talk between bone turnover and body composition in this group of patients. Further studies concerning this topic are needed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0100.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: burnout phenomenon; child and adolescent athletes; psychological intervention; online intervention
Online: 4 August 2022 (04:36:42 CEST)
(1) Background: The subject of athlete burnout is often discussed among sports psychologists. Interventions to reduce this phenomenon are still under investigation with follow-up. Thus, the purpose of the current meta-analysis was to examine psychological interventions that have already been carried out to decrease or eliminate burnout syndrome in young athletes. (2) Methods: Scientific electronic databases were searched and five published studies published between January 2002 and June 2022, which met the criteria, were selected. This systematic review and meta-analyses followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing the risk of bias was used to assess the studies' quality. The metafor a package of the R statistical program was used to perform the analysis. (3) Results: Cognitive-behavioral therapy as well as mindfulness-based interventions effectively reduced most dimensions of burnout. Moreover, online interventions were significantly more beneficial in this reduction (4) Conclusions: There should be more high-quality studies on the effectiveness of psychological interventions in reducing burnout. Mainly because it leads to tremendous physical and psychological problems for athletes and their coaches and therefore requires particular interventions and prevention strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0304.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: physical suicide attempt; self-harm; health condition; bullying; violence; adolescent
Online: 1 December 2020 (09:49:11 CET)
Background and objectives: Suicide is a topical issue in Lithuania and all around the world. It is the second most common cause of death among young people. There is a lack of research studies on the psychosocial aspects of adolescent suicide in Lithuania. This study aimed to evaluate demographics, life circumstances, and health conditions as factors related to suicide attempt in adolescents. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was performed at the Children’s Hospital (Vilnius University Santara Clinics). Medical documentation of adolescents treated in this hospital after suicide attempts from January 2011 to April 2018 were analyzed. Results: There were 117 cases of hospitalization due to suicide attempts during this period, and 102 cases were included in the study. There were 83.8% female and 16.2% male patients with an average age of 15.02 ± 1.9 years (p = 0.405); 40.6% of patients lived in divorced families, 17.7% lived in orphanages, 4.2% lived in foster care, 36.4% suffered from parental alcoholism, and 17.2% experienced suicide in their close surroundings. They had comorbidities (girls 72.5%, boys 68.8%), mostly depression (31.3%), were suffering from bullying (54.1%) or violence (26.0%), and 85.4% showed signs of other types of self-harm (girls more often (p < 0.001)). Most of them chose to cut for suicide attempts (86.0% girls, 56.2% boys). In 52.8% of cases, the attempt was spontaneous and 34% relapsed. Thirty-four events occurred in March (18.9%) (p = 0.688). Conclusions: Our study revealed the possible circumstances related to adolescent suicide attempt. Female gender was more common overall and males were more likely to carry out more potentially lethal methods. Other common associated factors were a lack of prosperity in family life, experience of bullying, violence, comorbidities, and the early spring period. Signs of any self-harm could be an indicator of later suicide attempt.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0262.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: adolescent; grit; non-cognitive skills; parent–child relationship; self-control
Online: 19 December 2019 (13:21:42 CET)
Background and Objectives: Non-cognitive skills (NCS) are vital components of a socially and financially successful life. They are developed through childhood education, family and school environments, and social settings. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between NCS and the parent–child relationship, mental health, and lifestyle at school and at home for adolescents. Materials and Methods: An internet-based survey was conducted with 1,566 mothers and their children (aged 14) in Japan. Survey items for the children included background (i.e., sociodemographic items, school achievements, and lifestyle), NCS (i.e., grit and self-control scales), and mental health, while their mothers provided social, financial, and educational information, and information on parent–child relationships, including descriptions of the fathers and the father–child relationship. Results: Parent–child relationships were mostly good (i.e., 90.9% for mothers and 75.6% for fathers), with bad relationships being less common (1.6% for mothers and 6.7% for fathers). Adolescent lifestyle parameters and mental health were significantly associated with grit and self-control. Adolescents with good parent–child relationships had significantly higher NCS scores regardless of the gender of the parent. Higher NCS scores were significantly associated with better parent–child relationships, more favorable lifestyles, and better mental health among adolescents. Conclusions: These findings imply that good parent–child relationships may aid in the development of adolescents’ NCS, thereby facilitating positive lifestyles at school and home.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0061.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: combined elevation test; musculoskeletal screening test; normative data; swimming; adolescent
Online: 3 May 2018 (09:05:21 CEST)
The Combined Elevation Test (CET) is a musculoskeletal screening technique (MST) replicates the streamline position in swimming and is commonly used in various sports. Although the CET is widely used, no normative data exist within an adolescent population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a normative data set for the CET within an adolescent population and to evaluate the influence various demographic and anthropometric variables. Data was collected for 416 participants aged between 8 and 18 years old. Age and arm span showed a significant correlation with CET scores (arm span rs (105) = .478, p = .000, age rs (416) = .238 p = .000). Regression analysis further quantified the influence of arm span and age on CET scores accounting for 23.1% and 5.3% of variability respectively. These results can be used as a reference point for clinicians and coaches who are using the CET within their assessment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0012.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Adolescent girls; Immigrant; Sexuality; Girls Voices; Well-being; Psychological Health; Pakistani
Online: 4 April 2022 (10:30:02 CEST)
The sexual health needs of female immigrant adolescents in Canada have been largely unmet and have increased in magnitude over the last few years. Evidence suggests that immigrant adolescents lack sexual and reproductive health knowledge and use fewer sexual health-related services and sex education resources than do non-immigrant youth. In Pakistani immigrant adolescents, this difference appears to be associated with socio-cultural and religious practices. This paper aims to describe how first-or-second generation Pakistani-descent female adolescents, living in Canada, describe their perspectives on developing sexuality and well-being. In addition, this paper explicates female adolescents’ perceptions of their needs to support their sexuality while going through the adolescence stage. Using a qualitative interpretive descriptive design, individual interviews were conducted in combination with drawing timelines. A purposive sample of 21 female adolescents who were first- or second-generation Pakistani-descent was obtained. A thematic analysis approach was used for data analysis. Findings suggest that immigrant female adolescents encounter mental health concerns as a result of confusing messages they received from their parents related to sexuality. Also, discrimination, exclusion from sex education classes, and lack of knowledge on sexual health can result in social exclusion, avoidance of health care, and poor mental health outcomes such as depression and anxiety. These participants related experiences are potentially contributed by the lack of communication with parents about sexuality and lack of health care providers who can understand and speak to their needs and realities as immigrant individuals. Female adolescents expressed their need to break the silence around the topic of sexuality, to have a non-judgemental and blame-free attitude from adults, and for open, honest, and stigma-free conversations. This study provides preliminary qualitative evidence of the interplay between experiences of developing sexuality and overall well-being, particularly psychological wellbeing in female adolescent immigrants. It is crucial to involve, listen to, and incorporate adolescent girls’ voices when planning and implementing interventions to support healthy sexuality among immigrant adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0142.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: CIDER; post-traumatic stress disorder; trauma; adolescent; trauma-focused group psychotherapy
Online: 15 February 2019 (15:04:13 CET)
We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of trauma-focused group psychotherapy in adolescents who experienced traumatic events in Korea. Participants were assigned and recruited from two sites in Korea. Children in Disaster: Evaluation and Recovery (CIDER) V1.0 is a trauma-focused group psychotherapy approach consisting of psychoeducation, normalization, stabilization, and techniques of managing the traumatic memory. The CIDER intervention consists of eight 50-minute-long sessions. The effectiveness of the intervention was evaluated using the Korean version of the Children’s Response to Traumatic Events Scale-Revised (K-CRTES-R), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the State Anxiety Inventory for Children (SAIC), and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedQL). Data were analyzed by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. We recruited 22 traumatized adolescents (mean age 16 years; SD 1.43; range 13–18 years old; 71.4% boys) in this pilot study. The K-CRTES-R scores were significantly improved (Z = −2.85, p < 0.01). The BDI demonstrated the effectiveness of the therapy (Z = −2.35, p < 0.05). The assessment of the PedQL supported the effect of CIDER (Z = −3.08, p < 0.01). However, there was no statistically significant differences in the SAIC scores (Z = −1.90, p > 0.05). The results show that there is preliminary evidence that CIDER intervention reduces post-traumatic stress and depressive symptoms and improves quality of life. Our findings indicate that CIDER is feasible for treating adolescents exposed to traumatic events. Larger controlled trials are needed to establish the efficacy of this trauma-focused group psychotherapy and examine its impact on post-traumatic stress disorder.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0194.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: hikikomori; hidden youth; social withdrawal; health; hypertension; obesity; adolescent; physical health
Online: 28 December 2017 (07:53:05 CET)
To understand the health impacts of “hikikomori” lifestyle and to establish its first comprehensive health profile, a cross-sectional study was designed to measure how well the cases of hikikomori youths of Hong Kong were living, in terms of social, mental and physical aspects. This study involved 104 eligible participants at age 19.02 year-old who had completed the set of questionnaires and a series of anthropometric and physical health measurements. Despite SF36 score of 84.0 indicated good physical functioning in general, participants were lived sedentarily with high incidence of hypertension at 15.4% and prehypertension at 31.7%. Occurrence of hypertension in cases living as hikikomori >6 months was 3-times higher than those newly onset cases. The blood pressure levels were correlated with age and all obesity index parameters measured including waist circumference and body mass index. Half of the hypertensive cases involved the elevation of systolic blood pressure, which suggested higher odds of cardiovascular complications. Participants were mentally stable living with moderate levels of perceived stress and state anxiety, but borderline clinical depression. In conclusion, the hikikomori lifestyle could be a risk behavior that may harm the younger generation physically by promoting obesity and hypertension and probably other chronic illnesses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0127.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: Attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity; child; adolescent; mental health; chronic disease; register; clinical protocol
Online: 4 June 2021 (09:04:18 CEST)
Background: The purpose of this article is to update the diagnostic assessment, therapeutic approach, and 12-18 month follow up of patients added in the Italian Lombardy ADHD Register. Methods: Data on patients evaluated by the 18 Regional ADHD Reference Centres in the ten year period from 2011 to April 2021 were analysed. Results: 4091 of 5934 added patients received a diagnosis of ADHD. In 20.3% of cases, there was a family history of ADHD. 2879 children (70.4%) had at least one comorbidity disorder, the most common of which was learning disorder (39%). Nearly all (95.9%) received at least one psychological prescription, 17.9% of them almost one pharmacological treatment, and 15.6% a combination of both. Values of ≥5 of the Clinical Global Impressions- Severity (CGI-S) are more commonly presented by patients with a pharmacological prescription than with a psychological treatment (p < .0001). A significant improvement was reported in half of the patients followed after 1 year, with Clinical Global Impressions- Improvement (CGI-I ≤ 3). In all, 233 of 4091 are 18 year old patients. Conclusion: A ten year systematic monitoring of models of care was a fruitful shared and collaborative initiative in order to promote significant improvement in clinical practice, providing effective and continuous quality of care. The unique experience here reported should spread.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0760.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Dizziness; Vertigo; Migraine Disorders; Interdisciplinary Communication; Headache; Medulloblastoma; Lyme Neuroborreliosis; Somatoform Disorders; Child; Adolescent
Online: 31 March 2021 (11:35:13 CEST)
Objective: The causes of vertigo and dizziness in children are diverse and require attention from various specialists. Numerous authors have reported that the commonest type of vertigo in children is migraine-associated vertigo (vestibular migraine and benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood - BPV). We aimed to check whether this could be applied to our group of patients. Materials and methods: A retrospective case series of 257 consecutive pediatric vertigo and diz-ziness patients referred to the tertiary pediatric ENT clinic from 2015 to 2020. Patients received a complete audiovestibular workup and were referred to pediatric neurologists and other special-ists depending on the signs and symptoms. Results: Of 257 children aged 1-17 years, almost one fifth of them, 49/257 (19.1 %) had a central type of vertigo, 20/257 of them (7.8%) had benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood and 4/257 (1.6%) had a migrainous type of vertigo. Most of the children, 112/257 (43.6%), remained unclas-sified, without a final diagnosis. Conclusion: Due to the numerous possible causes, a child presenting with dizziness and vertigo requires a multidisciplinary approach. In the majority of cases, vertigo spells are self-limiting. They stop spontaneously and sometimes remain clinically undiagnosed. The most prevalent reasons for pediatric vertigo may be temporary hemodynamic (vaso-vagal) and psychological imbalance.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: school health; child/adolescent health; health education; health promotion; school nutrition; school health; policy
Online: 22 April 2019 (11:57:43 CEST)
Supporting the implementation of school food and nutrition policies (SFNPs) is an international priority to encourage healthier eating among children and youth. Schools are an important intervention setting to promote childhood nutrition, and many jurisdictions have adopted policies, guidelines, and programs to modify the school nutrition environment and promote healthier eating. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between perceived adequacy and capacity for SFNP implementation on food availability and policy adherence in the province of Nova Scotia (NS), Canada, one of the first regions in Canada to launch a comprehensive SFNP. A cross sectional online survey was conducted in 2014-15 to provide a current-state of policy implementation and adherence. Adequacy and capacity for food policy implementation was used to assess policy adherence through the availability of prohibited ‘minimum’ nutrition foods. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted on a selected of available foods and ‘slow’ and ‘quick’ service food composition measures were dichotomized for food availability. Schools with above perceived average adequacy and capacity for policy implementation had more than three times (3.62) greater odds of adhering to a lunch policy, while schools that adhered to a snack and lunch policy had 52% and 82% lower odds of serving quick service foods, respectively. This study identified the need for appropriate adequacy and capacity for policy implementation to ensure policy adherence and improve the school food environment. These findings highlight the potential of SFNPs to have a positive impact on childhood nutrition, but adequately supporting their implementation is critical to ensure their impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0450.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; proximal junctional kyphosis; complication; risk factor; spinous process; sagittal alignment; rod contouring
Online: 26 August 2022 (05:10:17 CEST)
Proximal Junctional Kyphosis (PJK) as one of the most discussed problems after corrective surgery in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), is still not fully clarified and seems to be multifactorial. Biome-chanical and few clinical studies have shown the influence of destruction of posterior ligaments by re-section of spinous processes and some parameters concerning rod contouring as risk factors for PJK. To verify these results 192 patients with AIS and corrective surgery via posterior approach between 2009 and 2017 were included. Radiographic parameters were analyzed preoperatively (preOP), postoperatively (postOP), and with a mean follow up (FU) of 27 months. The participants were divided into two groups (PJK group and non-PJK group). The incidence of PJK was 15.6%. Contrary to the results of biomechanical studies, we could not find any significant influence of the spinous process resection. However, the PJK group had significantly larger preOP T4-T12 kyphosis (31.1°±13.93° vs. 23.3°±14.93°, p=.016). Furthermore, the PJK group showed a significantly larger rod contour angle (RCA) (8.0°±4.44° vs. 5.9°±3.28°, p=.003) and mismatch of postOP proximal junctional angle (PJA) and RCA (3.5°±5.72° vs. 0.9°±4.86°, p=.010) compared to the non-PJK group. An increase of the mismatch of postOP PJA and RCA (OR=1.14, p=.008) and a high RCA are risk factors for PJK and need to be focused on by surgeons.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Adolescent girls; Female genital mutilation/cutting; Global health; Sexual initiation; Sexual and reproductive health; Young women
Online: 30 August 2020 (17:28:36 CEST)
Despite several attempts by governments and non-governmental organizations to eliminate female genital mutilation or cutting, it is puzzling that this traditional procedure is widely practiced today in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Scholarly arguments on the influence of female genital mutilation on sexual behavior up until now remain inconclusive. The current study sought to examine the association between female genital mutilation and early sexual initiation among girls and young women (AGYW) in SSA. Data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of 12 SSA countries were combined. A total of 30,089 AGYW (15-24 years) who had ever had sex and had complete information on all the variables of interest were considered. The outcome variable for the study was early sexual initiation. The study employed multilevel logistic regression for the data analysis, with reported odds ratio and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The overall prevalence of female genital mutilation among AGYW was 49.9%, with the highest and lowest prevalence in Guinea (95.8%) and Togo (3.3%) respectively. The prevalence of early sexual initiation was 42.4%, with the highest and lowest prevalence in Niger (59.9%) and Burkina Faso (30.6%) respectively. AGYW who had not experienced female genital mutilation were less likely to have early sexual initiation [OR= 0.74, CI= 0.70-0.78], compared to those who had experienced female genital mutilation, after controlling for significant covariates. The likelihood of early sexual initiation was high among AGYW aged 15-19 [OR=2.38, CI=2.26-2.51] but low among AGYW with secondary education [AOR=0.58, CI=0.54-0.63], those who had never married [OR=0.68, CI=0.60-0.78], those in households with richest wealth quintile [OR=0.64, CI=0.57-0.72], those who were exposed to mass media [OR=0.88, CI=0.83-0.93], and those working [OR=0.91, CI=0.87-0.96]. Not undergoing female genital mutilation in the midst of socio-economic factors (e.g., education level, household wealth) could limit AGYW from early sexual debut. These findings underscore the need for effective campaign and programs (e.g., educational programs, entrepreneurial training, micro-finance schemes) against the practice of female genital mutilation. Policy interventions (e.g., “schooling for the girl-child” initiatives) that might delay early sexual initiation among adolescent girls and young women in the midst of identified socio-economic factors should be developed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0709.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: COVID-19; lockdown; psychological impacts; self-harm; suicide; COVID-19 suicide; teenage suicide; adolescent suicide; youth suicide; press reporting suicide
Online: 31 August 2020 (05:43:25 CEST)
Background: The incidences of COVID-19 related suicide among adolescents and youths have been reported across the world. There is no cumulative study focusing on nature, patterns, and causative factors that lead to the present investigation. Methods: A purposive sampling of google news between 15 February to 6 July was performed. After excluding duplicate reports, the final list comprised a total of 37-suicide cases across 11 countries. Results: More male suicides were reported (21-cases, i.e., 56.76%), and the mean age of the total victims was 16.6±2.7 years (out of a total of 29-cases). About two-thirds of the suicides were from three countries named India (11-cases), United Kingdom (8-cases), and the USA (6-cases). Out of 23-student victims, 14 were school-going students. Hanging was the most common suicide method accounting in 51.4% of cases. The most common suicide causalities were related to mental sufferings such as depression, loneliness, psychological distress, etc., whereas either online schooling or overwhelming academic distress was placed as the second most risk factors followed by TikTok addiction-related psychological distress, and tested with COVID-19. Conclusion: The finding of the temporal distribution of suicides concerning lockdowns may help in exploring and evolving public measures to prevent/decrease pandemic-related suicides in young people.