ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0244.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Chagas disease; cost of illness; mortality premature; efficiency; organizational; life expectancy
Online: 15 April 2020 (10:18:15 CEST)
Economic burden due to premature mortality has a negative impact not only in health system even though in the society. The aim of this study was to estimate the potential years of work tenure lost (PYWL) due to Chagas disease in Colombia from 2010-2017. National data on mortality by sex and ages between 15 and 62 dues to Chagas from 2010 to 2017. The PYWL methodology was applied to assess the impact of Chagas disease in workers who suffer from them. In total, 1,261 deaths were analyzed in the study, of which 60% corresponded to males. The loss of labor productivity caused by Chagas disease was estimated at $29 million. Overall, 48,621 PYWL were lost, and there was an average of 21 years for all subjects with Chagas. Throughout the analyzed period, PYWL increased substantially, and it is necessary to continue with early detection programs to avoid premature death in working age population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0433.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: primary health care; workforce crisis; general practitioner vacancy; aging of general practitioners; premature mortality
Online: 30 May 2018 (05:47:53 CEST)
The workforce crisis of primary care is reflected in the increasing number of general medical practices (GMP) with vacant general practitioner (GP) position, and the GPs’ ageing. Our study aimed to describe the association between this crisis and premature mortality. Age-sex-standardized mortality for 18-64 years old adults were calculated for all Hungarian GMPs annually in the period from 2006 to 2014. The relationship of premature mortality with GPs’ age and vacant GP position were evaluated by standardized linear regression controlled for list size, urbanization, geographical location, clients’ education, and type of the GMP. The clients’ education was the strongest protective factor (beta=-0175; p<0.001), followed by urban residence (beta=-0.149; p<0.001), and the bigger list size (beta1601-2000=-0.054; p<0.001; beta2001-X=-0.096; p<0.001). The geographical localization influenced significantly also the risk. Although, GMP with a GP aged older than 65 years (beta=0; p=0.995) did not affected the risk, GP vacancy was associated with higher risk (beta=0.010; p=0.033), but the corresponding number of attributable cases was 23.54 for 9 years. The vacant GP position is associated with significant but hardly detectable increased risk of premature mortality without considerable public health importance. Nevertheless, employment of GPs aged more than 65 does not impose premature mortality risk elevation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0749.v2
Online: 15 April 2021 (10:29:08 CEST)
Abstract Background: Premature babies have a greater risk for having health issues after being discharged from the hospital whilst the mother ability to provide premature baby care still has many issues as well. Interventions are needed to be given to mothers at home to improve the ability of mothers to care their premature babies. Methods: Search for articles used the bolean operator of “or” and “and” with the keywords used were “preterm or premature”, “intervention or program”, and “mother and home”. Data based used were Sciencedirect, Ebscohost, PubMed, SAGE, Proquest and Scopus with inclusion criteria using full text in English from 2018 to 2021. There were 428 articles obtained, the articles were then screened by reading the main focus of articles with paying attention to the topic and the suitability of article content and we obtained 13 suitable articles. Results: The interventions at home carried out for mothers and premature babies were divided into two namely the follow-up interventions from the hospital and the interventions carried out at the patient's home. Seven articles about research of interventions that were as a combination from hospital intervention with follow-up hospital intervention plus five full interventions at the patient's home. Interventions were provided through home visits (12 articles) and by telephone (1 article). The results of the article analysis resulted in 4 main themes of intervention for mothers and premature babies, they were health education, counceling, support, and care for premature babies. Conclusion: Quality care is essential for the best health, growth and development of premature babies. Interventions need to be carried out by health workers to ensure the readiness and ability of mothers to care for their babies. Maternal readiness and abilities can be improved by providing health education, counseling, support and care for premature babies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0407.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: Parenteral fluids in premature infants; late premature infants; infections associated with the use of lines; early oral feeds
Online: 5 September 2022 (13:05:52 CEST)
Introduction: Some of the practices in medicine are carried out of habit without proven benefits. This is the case of premature babies from 30 to 34 weeks of gestation who are always given parenteral fluids, even though this practice has been associated with an increase incidence of infection. At the end of 2017, we started a protocol of rationalization in the use of parenteral fluid. To administer nutrition/fluids, we used oral fluids by suction if this was possible or otherwise by oral/nasogastric tube at volumes of 70-80 mL/Kg/day divided every 3 hours, with 5 mL increments every 12-24 hours until 200 mL/K/day was achieved, always using breast milk when possible. Material and methods: The present study sought to compare results before and after this new policy. For this work, we review all premature babies between 30-34 weeks of gestation in two time periods, the first from 01/01/2010 to 12/31/2017 and the second from 01/01/2018 to 08/15/2022. The number of cases with and without parenteral fluids (PF), the incidence of infection, the weight at admission and discharge, and the change in the weight Z score between birth and discharge were compared. Both the anthropometric and outcome variables were compared using the different statistical methods according to each variable. Results: were found 920 cases with the described characteristics. The groups before and after the intervention did not show significant differences in their general demographic characteristics. We observed a decrease use of PF in the second period, from 425 cases (82.0%) before to 297 (26.2%) after implementation, p <0.0001 and fewer days of use (4.1 days/average before vs 1.3 after, p <0.0001) of PF. The weight at discharge and the change in weight Z-score were the same in both groups. Infections went from nine cases before to two cases after but it was not statistically significant. There were no complications due to less use of PF. Discussion: This study showed that the use of PF is not associated with significant changes in outcomes of interest, which reinforces that its use does not generate any benefit for the patient. Larger number of cases is required to detect differences in low incidence events such as infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0080.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Factor Analysis, Statistical; Premature birth; Psychometrics; Scale development
Online: 4 January 2023 (11:41:59 CET)
AbstractPurpose: This study aimed to perform a psychometric evaluation of the preliminary preterm birth risk assessment scale (PBRAS-K) of 32-item. Method(s): There were 299 subjects, 167 in the exploratory factor analysis (EFA) group and 132 in the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) group, who delivered before 37+0 weeks after having preterm symptoms and were admitted to high-risk pregnancy maternal-fetal intensive care units (MFICU). After an item reduction process in EFA, the psychometric property scales were assessed using SPSS 26, and CFA was accomplished using AMOS 27. Results: The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure (KMO) and Bartlett’s χ2 test of sphericity confirmed the adequacy of the sample for factor analysis (KMO = .81 (> .80), χ2 = 1841.38, p < .001). The final version of the PBRAS-K was comprised of 23 items within seven dimensions. Factor analysis identified items explaining 65.9% of the total variance. The PBRAS-K had a mean score of 35.58 (±10.35) and showed a high internal consistency and satisfactory reliability with a Cronbach’s alpha of .85. The PBRAS-K had a low correlation with risk scoring of preterm delivery (RPD) for discriminant validity (r = .45, p < .001), a positive, high correlation with the Somatic Awareness Scale with Spontaneous Preterm Labor (SPL-SAS) for criterion validity (r = .65, p < .001), and with pregnant stress for convergent validity (r = .57, p < .001). RPD and SPL-SAS were moderately correlated (r = .53, p < .001). Conclusion(s): The PBRAS-23-K is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing pregnant women’s risk of preterm birth. Clinical nurses are encouraged to apply and obtain information for effective interventions in MFICU. This scale has meaningful results and reflects the voices of women who had a preterm birth. The scale should be evaluated for standardization and cut-off scores using larger subject sizes in the future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0241.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: educational method; parent; developmental care and premature infant
Online: 23 April 2021 (09:49:08 CEST)
Babies born prematurely are at risk of experiencing visual disturbances, hearing loss, disabilities, the risk of infection and even death. Care for premature babies requires serious attention for both health workers and parents. The role of parents is very important both during hospitalization and at home. Therefore, in order to improve the abilities of parents, it is necessary to make educational efforts with the right method.ObjectivesThis literature review aims to provide an overview of educational methods that nurses can use to improve the ability of parents to care for or care for the development of premature babies. The method used is to search for literature that fits the established theme using 5 data based, namely Scopus, ProQuest, Science Direct, Elsevier Clinicaly for Nursing and Web of Science. The strategy used in finding literature that fits the theme and is used in this literature review uses the PICOS framework. Then conducted a review with the PRISMA method. The literature selection results obtained 572 publications, after going through the selection obtained 11 literatures that match the theme, with 11 educational methods. These methods can be grouped into ideas, namely increasing parental involvement during treatment, using technology, stress management and continuous monitoring. The ability of parents to care for premature babies is needed in order to minimize complications in infants, reduce morbidity, avoid disabilities, increase growth and development of premature babies optimally and reduce parental stress levels, increase parental confidence and good parents' self-efficacy. Choosing the right educational method can improve the ability of parents to properly care for and provide developmental care for premature babies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0215.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Maternal nutrition; Breast milk; Premature delivery; Milk composition
Online: 22 January 2019 (11:27:30 CET)
(1) Background: Premature infants require mothers’ milk fortification to meet nutrition needs, but breast milk composition may be variable leading to a risk of inadequate nutrition. We aimed at determining factors influencing mothers’ milk macronutrients. (2) Methods: Milk samples were analyzed for the first 5 weeks after premature delivery, by infrared spectroscopy. Mothers’ nutritional intake data were obtained during standardized interviews with dieticians then analyzed with reference software. (3) Results: Composition of 367 milk samples from 81 mothers was (Median [range]g/100mL): Carbohydrates 6.8[4.4-7.3], lipids 3.4[1.3-6.4], proteins 1.3[0.1-3.1]. There was a relationship of milk composition with mothers’ carbohydrates intake only (r=0.164; p<.01). Postnatal age was correlated with milk proteins (r=-0.505 p<.001) & carbohydrates (r=+0.202, p<.001). Multiple linear regression analyses showed (coefficient) a relationship between milk proteins r=0.547 and postnatal age (-0.028), carbohydrates intake (+0.449) and the absence of maturation (-0.066); and between milk lipids r=0.295 and carbohydrates intake (+1.279) and smoking (-0.557). Finally, between milk carbohydrates concentration r=0.266 and postnatal age (+0.012) and smoking (-0.167). (4) Conclusions: Variability of mothers’ milk composition is differentially associated for each macronutrient with maternal carbohydrates intake, antenatal steroids, smoking, and postnatal age. Improvement in milk composition could be achieved by modification of these related factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0099.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: premature ovarian failure (POF); PBMC, chemotherapy; cancer; ovary
Online: 6 August 2018 (07:56:50 CEST)
Cancer treatment with specific chemotherapeutic agents has been well documented to have an adverse impact on female fertility leading to premature ovarian failure (POF). The objective of this study was to investigate if chemotherapeutic induced POF can be reversed with an infusion of autologous nucleated peripheral blood cells (PBMC). To reach our goal, mice were treated with a single intraperitoneal injections of busulfan and cyclophosphamide to induce POF. This was followed by transfusion of PBMC. The ovarian morphology and functional parameters were monitored by radioimmunoassay, real-time PCR, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry analysis. Our study showed that chemotherapy (CTX) protracted estrous cycle period and repressed E2 production. CTX decreased the expressions of steroidogenesis markers- CYP-17 synthesis, StAR and Connexin-43 protein expression from the ovarian follicles. We also observed reduced numbers and sizes of the primordial and primary follicles in CTX-treated mice compared to untreated controls (P < 0.05). When both CTX and untreated –control groups were stimulated with gonadotrophin, the control group produced ten times more ova than the CTX group. Finally, the treatment of premature ovarian failure induced by CTX with autologous PBMC transfusion resulted in over-expression and a statistically significant increase in several stem cell markers and restoration of fertility. Infusion with PBMC in CTX further decreased the estrous cycle length by 2.5 times (P < 0.01). We found that transfusion of autologous PBMC to mice with chemotherapy induced POF was very effective at restoring fertility. These results are similar to other studies using bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0436.v1
Online: 24 September 2021 (13:00:37 CEST)
Cesarean Section (CS) is one of the most frequently executed surgical procedures in gynecology and obstetrics. After a cesarean section, surgical site infection (SSI) increases hospital stay, lengthens maternal morbidity, and upsurges treatment costs. The current study determines the prevalence and risk factors for surgical site infection following cesarean section in China. A retrospective study was conducted on 23 cases of pregnant women who underwent cesarean section and incision severe infection and detection from March 2017 to January 2020 at Wuhan Maternal and Child Healthcare Hospital in China as the study group, and 20 cases of uninfected cesarean section during the same period were selected as the control group. Data were compared with the controls based on study variables and the presence of SSI. The mean age was 31±2.6. High fever and blood loss were observed in serous SSI-infected patients. The incidence rate of severe surgical site infection was 0.15 %. SSI was observed to be expected in pregnant women who had premature rupture of membrane before surgery (p < 0.001), who underwent postoperative antibiotic therapy (p < 0.001), and the patients who had gestational diabetes mellitus (p <0.001) and hematoma (p < 0.001) during surgery. Hence, following a cesarean section, surgical site infection is common. This research discovered several modifiable risk factors. SSI is associated with multifactorial rather than a single one. The development and strict implementation of a procedure by all health care practitioners can successfully reduce and prevent infection rates following cesarean section.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0402.v1
Online: 18 May 2021 (09:50:29 CEST)
Introduction: In general, everyone believe they should grow as “in utero” for the smallest premature babies but many thinks that it is not possible with today's nutrition “guidelines”. There is resistance to give enough nutrition for fear of "toxicity". We use volumes that some would consider high, although there are more and more groups that accept it. We chose the difference in Z-score between birth and a corrected discharge gestational age to assess postnatal growth in our unit.Material and methods: Between January 2018 and December 2020, we review all cases ≤ 29 weeks of GA at birth that survived to 36 weeks corrected gestational age, or that were discharged home if this occurred before. We had a protocol with extremely aggressive nutrition including parenteral as well as oral nutrition. We then separated the patients who had lost more than 1 Z-score point to see the weight trajectory plotted on the Fenton 2013 growth curve and to review the clinical characteristics of those patients. We also graphed the patients who had had a smaller Z-score difference to also see their trajectory in the Fenton curves. We calculate the number of cases, medians, and interquartile ranges for all groups.Results: We fount 32 cases. The median ± IQR (interquartile range) of change in Z-score between birth and discharge of the whole group was -0.52 ± 0.53; 6/32 (19%) had more than 1 point drop; all had severe diseases listed in Figure 1 with plotting all cases. The median decline in Z score ± IQR of this group with poor growth was 1.24 ± 0.22. The group of cases with a fall of <1 point of Z score were 26 (81%), the median ± IQR of fall of Z score was 0.39 ± 0.55 (see figure 2). All cases had the initial fall in weight the first 1-2 weeks. No important complications secondary to the ingested volumes or parenteral nutrition were reported. Conclusion: The group of cases with a fall of > 1 point of Z score had severe pathologies. The other cases had an adequate growth parallel to normal growth charts in some cases with some catch up.Discussion: With this work we try to show that in many premature babies it is possible to grow like in utero if they are given enough nutrition. Randomized studies are necessary to confirm our findings.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0379.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: newborn infant; sepsis; premature infant; oxygen therapy; oxidative stress; ventilation support
Online: 22 August 2022 (08:11:06 CEST)
Background. It is well established that human milk feeding contributes in limiting lung disease among vulnerable neonates. The primary aim of this research was to compare the need for mechanical ventilation of human milk-fed sick neonates with that of formula-fed sick neonates. Methods. All late preterm and full term infants from a single center with findings of sepsis, from 2002 to 2017, were identified. Data regarding infant feeding during hospital admission were recorded. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the impact of the type of milk on ventilation support and main neonatal morbidities. Results. The total number of participants was 322 (human milk group = 260, exclusive formula group = 62). On bivariate analysis, 72% of human milk-fed neonates did not need oxygen therapy nor respiratory support versus 55% of their formula-fed counterparts (P<0.0001). Accordingly, invasive mechanical ventilation was required by 9.2% of human milk-fed infants versus 32% of their formula-fed counterparts (P=0.0085). These results hold true in multivariate analysis, indeed human milk-fed neonates were more likely to require less respiratory support (OR=0.44; 95% CI: 0.22, 0.89) when compared to those who were exclusively formula-fed. Conclusion. Human milk feeding might minimize exposure to mechanical ventilation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0054.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: electrocardiogram; K-means clustering algorithm; premature ventricular contraction; rule-based decision algorithm
Online: 3 March 2022 (07:22:36 CET)
Premature ventricular contraction (PVC) is one of the common ventricular arrhythmias, which may cause stroke or sudden cardiac death. Automatic long-term electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis algorithms could provide diagnosis suggestion even early warning for physicians, however, they are mutually-exclusive in terms of robustness, generalization and low complexity. In this study, a novel PVC recognition algorithm that combines deep learning-based heartbeat template clusterer and expert system-based heartbeat classifier is proposed. Long short-term memory-based auto-encoder (LSTM-AE) network was used to extract features from ECG heartbeats for K-means clustering. Thus, the templates were constructed and determined based on clustering results. Finally, the PVC heartbeats were recognized based on a combination of multiple rules, including template matching and rhythm characteristics. Three quantitative parameters, sensitivity (Se), positive predictive value (P+) and accuracy (ACC), were used to evaluate the performances of the proposed method on the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database and the St. Petersburg Institute of Cardiological Technics database. Se on the two test databases was 87.51% and 87.92%, respectively; P+ was 92.47% and 93.18%, respectively; and ACC was 98.63% and 97.89%, respectively. The PVC scores on the 3rd China Physiological Signal Challenge 2020 training set and hidden test set were 36,256 and 46,706, respectively, which could rank first in the open-source codes. The results showed that the combination strategy of expert system and deep learning can provide new insights for robust and generalized PVC identification from long-term single-lead ECG recordings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0020.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: Adiposity rebound; Infant; Premature; Pediatric Obesity; Complementary Feeding; Weaning; Body Mass Index
Online: 4 June 2020 (03:24:10 CEST)
Background: Adiposity rebound (AR) refers to the second rise of the BMI curve that usually occurs physiologically between 5 and 7 years of age. AR timing has a great impact on children´s health, being the early adiposity rebound (EAR) associated with the development of metabolic disease later in life. Aim: We aimed to investigate the prevalence of EAR in a cohort of preterm newborns. Secondary outcomes evaluated if some determinants such as (1) gender (male/female), (2) type of delivery (caesarean/vaginal), (3) birth weight (SGA/NGA/LGA), (4) type of feeding (5) duration of breastfeeding, (6) timing of introduction of solid food, (7) parental education and (8) parental pre-pregnancy BMI can influence EAR in this cohort. Tertiary aim was to evaluate the prevalence of obesity or overweight at 7 years of age in children according to early versus timely AR. Methods: This is a perspective, population-based longitudinal study, where infants born preterm were evaluated at birth and at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24 months and 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 years of gestational-corrected age. Weight and height data were analyzed, and BMI was calculated. AR was assessed in the growth trajectory in a body mass index (BMI) plot. Results: Of the 250 preterm newborns included, 100 completed the 7 years follow-up and entered in the final analysis. The prevalence of EAR in our cohort of preterm newborns was 54%. EAR was associated with being LGA at birth. No other factors were associated to EAR. Early adiposity rebounders have a significant higher BMI at 7 years compared to children with timely AR (17.2 ±2.7 vs 15.6 ± 2.05, p=0.021). No significant differences were found in the prevalence of obesity or overweight at 7 years of age in children with early or timely AR (29% vs 14% p=0.202). Conclusions: Clinical management of preterm infants should focus on reducing excess weight gain to prevent long-term metabolic risk. Others neonatal factors are not associated to an higher risk of EAR.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0058.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: infant; premature; pain; acupuncture; skin to skin contact; sucrose; massage; musical therapy; breastfeeding
Online: 3 August 2018 (04:09:31 CEST)
Pain is a major problem in sick newborn infants, especially for those needing intensive care. Pharmacological pain relief is the most commonly used but may be ineffective, have side effects, including long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae. The effectiveness and safety of alternative analgesic methods are ambiguous. The objective is to review the effectiveness and safety of non-pharmacological methods of pain relief in newborn infants and to identify those that are the most effective. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched using the terms: ‘infant’, ‘premature’, ‘pain’, ‘acupuncture’, ‘skin to skin contact’, ‘sucrose’ ‘massage’, ‘musical therapy’ and ‘breastfeeding’. We included 24 studies assessing different methods of non-pharmacological analgesic techniques. Most resulted in some degree of analgesia but many were ineffective and some were even detrimental. Sucrose, for example, was often ineffective but more effective than music therapy, massage, breast milk (for extremely premature infants) or non-invasive electrical stimulation acupuncture. There were also conflicting results for acupuncture, skin to skin care and musical therapy. Most non-pharmacological methods of analgesia provide some modicum of relief for preterm infants but none are completely effective and there is no clearly superior method. Study is also required to assess potential long-term consequences of any of these methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0751.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: cysteine-glutathione disulfide; glutathione; glutathione supplementation; GSSG supplementation; oxidative stress; parenteral nutrition; premature newborns; pro-cysteine.
Online: 30 March 2021 (15:55:53 CEST)
Most very premature newborns (< 32 weeks of gestation) receive parenteral nutrition (PN) that is inherently contaminated with peroxides. Oxidative stress induced by PN is associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, a main pathological complication in these babies who have weak antioxidant capacity to detoxify peroxides because of their glutathione deficiency. In animals, glutathione supplementation of PN prevented oxidative stress and alveolar loss (the main characteristic of bronchopulmonary dysplasia). Of its two forms - disulfide (GSSG) and free thiol (GSH) - GSSG was used because of its better stability in PN. However, a 30% loss of GSSG in PN is observed. The potentially high therapeutic benefits of GSSG supplementation on the health of very premature babies makes the study of its stability highly important. Thus, GSSG was incubated in combination with the following components of PN: dextrose, multivitamins, Primene, Travasol, as well as with cysteine, cystine and peroxides for 24h. Total glutathione in these solutions was measured 0-24h after the addition of GSSG. The combination of cysteine and multivitamins caused the maximum loss of glutathione. Removing the cysteine prevented the degradation of glutathione. GSSG reacts with cysteine to form cysteine-glutathione disulfide, another suitable glutathione substrate for preterm neonates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0207.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: SSP (Shared Socio-economic Pathway) scenarios; air quality; WRF-CAMx; numerical modelling; urban areas; health impact assessment; premature deaths
Online: 14 September 2022 (11:57:03 CEST)
The World Health Organization estimates that every year air pollution kills seven million people worldwide. As it is expected that climate change will affect future air quality patterns, the full understanding of the links between air pollution and climate change, and how they affect human health, are challenges of future research. In this scope, a methodology to assess the air quality impacts on health was developed. The WRF-CAMx modelling framework was applied for the medium-term future climate (considering the SSP24.5 scenario) and for the recent past (considered as baseline). Following the WHO recommendations, mortality health indicators were used to estimate health impacts of long-term exposures. For that, the Aveiro Region, in Portugal, was considered as a case study. Future climate results indicate the occurrence of higher temperatures, and lower total precipitation. Despite that, improvements in the main pollutants’ concentrations, and consequently in the reduction of the related premature deaths are foreseen, mainly due to the reduction of pollutants emissions imposed by the European legislation for the upcoming years. The applied approach constitutes an added value in this research field, being crucial to anticipate the effects of climate change on air quality and evaluate their impacts on human health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0217.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: Premature ovarian insufficiency, POI; Gene therapy; Menopause; SAL-like 4 genes, SALL4; Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH); Basonuclin-1; Replication-incompetent adenoviral vector, Ad; Stem cells, SC.
Online: 12 September 2018 (11:06:42 CEST)
Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a highly prevalent disorder, characterized by the development of menopause before age of 40. Most cases are idiopathic; however, in some women the cause of this condition (e.g. anticancer treatment, genetic disorders, and enzymatic defects) may be identified. Although hormone replacement therapy, the principal therapeutic approach for POI, helps to alleviate the related symptoms, this does not effectively solve the issue of fertility. Assisted reproductive techniques also lack efficacy in these women. Thus, the effective approach to manage the patients with POI is highly warranted. Several mechanisms, associated with POI, have been identified, including lack of FSH receptor functioning, alterations in the apoptosis control, mutations in Sal-like 4 genes, thymulin or basonuclin-1 deficiency etc. The above-mentioned may be good targets for gene therapy in order to correct defects, leading to POI. The goal of this review is to summarize the current experience on the POI studies, that employed gene therapy, and to discuss the possible future directions in this field.