ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0262.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: energy consumption; optimization; expert system; irrigation system
Online: 19 October 2021 (08:34:22 CEST)
Innovative practices in irrigation systems can bring improvements in terms of economic efficiency and in the same time can reduce environmental impact. Investment in high tech technologies frequently involves additional costs, but an efficient water management can increase the lifetime of the equipment. The main objective of this article is to reduce the energy consumption by one thousand cubic meters pumped and automatically to increase the economic efficiency of the pumping groups. This paper develops a new operating algorithm that ensures the operation of the pumping group at safe operating intervals and in the same time identifies the equivalent pump operating points for the entire flow range and pumping height of the pumping group. This methodology is based on the principles of an Expert System to perform the optimization process of the energy consumption in pumping groups. The resulting methodology avoids the combinatorial explosion of the solutions to be analyzed and determines the point of maximum efficiency without violation of any of the system constraints under any operating condition. The proposed methodology is tested on an irrigation system that includes a pumping group with 5 pumps, showing its effectiveness in obtaining the optimal solution with a relatively low computational burden.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0031.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: electricity price forecasting; ensemble model; expert selection
Online: 8 September 2016 (11:52:52 CEST)
Day-ahead forecasting of electricity prices is important in deregulated electricity markets for all the stakeholders: energy wholesalers, traders, retailers, and consumers. Electricity price forecasting is an inherently difficult problem due to its special characteristic of dynamicity and non-stationarity. In this paper, we present a robust price forecasting mechanism that shows resilience towards aggregate demand response effect and provides highly accurate forecasted electricity prices to the stakeholders in a dynamic environment. We employ an ensemble prediction model in which a group of different algorithms participate in predicting the price for each hour of a day. We propose two different strategies, namely, Fixed Weight Method (FWM) and Varying Weight Method (VWM), for selecting each hour's expert algorithm from the set of participating algorithms. In addition, we utilize a carefully engineered set of features selected from a pool of features derived from information such as past electricity price data, weather data, and calendar data. The proposed ensemble model offers better results than both the Pattern Sequence-based Forecasting (PSF) method and our own previous work using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) alone do on the datasets for New York, Australian, and Spanish electricity markets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0126.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: electron molecular scattering; R-matrix; expert system; Molpro
Online: 9 July 2019 (04:04:15 CEST)
Collisions of low energy electrons with molecules are important for understanding many aspects of the environment and technologies. Understanding the processes that occur in these types of collisions can give insights into plasma etching processes, edge effects in fusion plasmas, radiation damage to biological tissues and more. A radical update of the previous expert system for computing observables relevant to these processes, Quantemol-N, is presented. The new Quantemol Electron Collision (QEC) expert system simplifyies the user experience, improving reliability and implements new features. The QEC GUI interfaces the Molpro quantum chemistry package for molecular target setups and to the sophisticated UKRmol+ codes to generate accurate and reliable cross-sections. These include elastic cross-sections, super elastic cross-sections between excited states, electron impact dissociation, scattering reaction rates, dissociative electron attachment, differential cross-sections, momentum transfer cross-sections, ionization cross sections and high energy electron scattering cross-sections. With this new interface we will be implementing dissociative recombination estimations, vibrational excitations for neutrals and ions, and effective core potentials in the near future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0030.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: Bayesian updating; expert opinion; spatial classification; transition probability
Online: 14 July 2016 (11:54:21 CEST)
Categorical variables are common in spatial data analysis. Traditional analytical methods for deriving probabilities of class occurrence, such as kriging-family algorithms, have been hindered by the discrete characteristics of categorical fields. This study introduces the theoretical backgrounds of linear Bayesian updating (LBU) approach for spatial classification through expert system. Transition probabilities are interpreted as expert opinions for updating the prior marginal probabilities of categorical response variables. The main objective of this paper is to present the solid theoretical foundations of LBU and provide a categorical random field prediction method which yields relatively higher classification accuracy compared with conventional Markov chain random field (MCRF) approach. A real-world case study has also been carried out to demonstrate the superiority of our method. Since the LBU idea is originated from aggregating expert opinions and not restricted to conditional independent assumption (CIA), it may prove to be reasonably adequate for analyzing complex geospatial data sets, like remote sensing images or area-class maps.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0263.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: antiquities trafficking; archaeometry; archaeological looting; expert evidence; judicial proceedings
Online: 20 April 2018 (11:17:32 CEST)
For most of its history, archaeology has taken an indulgent attitude toward looting and antiquities trafficking. The primary response to these dangers has been to publish the main findings made outside of academia. As a result of this approach and the prominent role played by police techniques in investigating such crimes, investigations are primarily based on documentary research. This approach makes it harder to determine such essential factors in this field as an object’s collecting history or discovery date. This paper offers an overview of the state of the research on the fight against antiquities trafficking. It then proposes new ways of studying collecting history, drawing on research projects on the use of archaeometry to shed light on cases of looting or trafficking involving police, court, or government intervention; hence, its qualification as “forensic.” Although the current state of knowledge does not enable the presentation of novel research, we believe that researchers and interested institutions should be made aware of the advisability of using archaeometry more directly in the fight against these scourges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0336.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: image processing; image classification; computer vision; expert systems; amber gemstones
Online: 15 August 2020 (04:39:11 CEST)
The article describes a classification solution for amber stones. The problem of classifying amber is known for a long time among jewelers and artisans of amber art. Existing solutions can classify amber pieces according to color, but a need to classify by shape and texture is not satisfied up to now. The proposed solution is capable of classifying the gemstones according to a shape. Amber can be considered as a specific object since the form is difficult to define unambiguously. Data for amber experiments was gathered from amber art craftsmen. In the proposed solution amber form can be classified into 10 different classes (7 classes chosen during the experiment).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0449.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: behavioral economics; wearables; consumer sleep technology; Internet of Things; economical survey; expert elicitation
Online: 28 December 2021 (13:58:14 CET)
Global demand for sleep-tracking wearables, or consumer sleep technologies (CSTs), is steadily increasing. CST marketing campaigns often feature a scientific component, but the scientific relevancy and monetary value of CST features within the sleep research community remains unquantified. Sleep medicine experts were recruited through social media and nonprobability sampling techniques to complete a survey identifying sleep metrics and device features that are most desirable to the scientific community. A hypothetical purchase task (HPT) estimated economic valuation for devices with different features by price. Forty-six (N=46) respondents with an average of 10±6 years’ experience conducting research in real-world settings completed the online survey. Total sleep time was ranked as the most important measure of sleep followed by objective sleep quality while sleep architecture/depth and diagnostic information were ranked as least important. Experts preferred wrist-worn devices that could reliably determine sleep episodes as short as 20 minutes. Economic value was greater for hypothetical devices with longer battery life. These data set a precedent to determine how scientific relevance of a product impacts the potential market value of a CST device. This is the first known attempt to establish consensus opinion or economic valuation for scientifically-desirable CST features and metrics using expert elicitation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0394.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: geoportal; location intelligence; geospatial data; emergency response; health expert system; decision support system
Online: 19 July 2021 (08:42:06 CEST)
The outbreak of COVID-19 is a public health emergency that caused disastrous results in many countries. The global aim is to stop transmission and prevent the spread of the disease. To achieve it, every country needs to scale up emergency response mechanisms, educate and actively communicate with the public, intensify infected case finding, contact tracing, monitoring, quarantine of contacts, and isolation of cases. Responding to an emergency requires efficient collaboration and a multi-skilled approach (medical, information, statistical, political, social, and other expertise), which makes it hard to define one interface for all. As actors from different perspectives and domain backgrounds need to address diverse functions, the possibility to exchange available information quickly would be desirable. Geoportal provides an entry point to access a variety of data (geospatial data, epidemiological data) and could be used for data discovery, view, download, and transformation. It helps to deal with challenges like data analysis, confirmed cases geocoding, recognition of disease dynamics, vulnerable groups identification, and capacity mapping. Predicting and modeling the spread of infection, along with application support for communication and collaboration, are the biggest challenges. In response to all these challenges, we have established the Epidemic Location Intelligence System (ELIS) using open-source software components in the cloud, as a working platform with all the required functionalities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0138.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Traffic Light Recognition (TLR); machine learning; Expert Instruction (EI); frequency maps; computer vision
Online: 6 August 2020 (07:56:57 CEST)
Research on Traffic Light Recognition (TLR) has grown in recent years, primarily driven by the growing interest in autonomous vehicles development. Machine Learning algorithms have been widely used to that purpose. Mainstream approaches, however, require large amount of data to properly work, and as a consequence, a lot of computational resources. In this paper we propose the use of Expert Instruction (IE) as a mechanism to reduce the amount of data required to provide accurate ML models for TLR. Given an image of the exterior scene taken from the inside of the vehicle, we stand the hypothesis that the picture of a traffic light is more likely to appear in the central and upper regions of the image. Frequency Maps of traffic light location were thus constructed to confirm this hypothesis. The frequency maps are the result of a manual effort of human experts in annotating each image with the coordinates of the region where the traffic light appears. Results show that EI increased the accuracy obtained by the classification algorithm in two different image datasets by at least 15%. Evaluation rates achieved by the inclusion of EI were also higher in further experiments, including traffic light detection followed by classification by the trained algorithm. The inclusion of EI in the PCANet achieved a precision of 83% and recall of 73% against 75.3% and 51.1%, respectively, of its counterpart. We finally presents a prototype of a TLR Device with that expert model embedded to assist drivers. The TLR uses a smartphone as a camera and processing unit. To show the feasibility of the apparatus, a dataset was obtained in real time usage and tested in an Adaptive Background Suppression Filter (AdaBSF) and Support Vector Machines (SVMs) algorithm to detect and recognize traffic lights. Results show precision of 100% and recall of 65%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0225.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: GeneXpert; TB Expert Panel; Smear Negatives; Clinically Diagnosed TB; TB DOTS; Chest X-ray
Online: 17 May 2019 (11:18:34 CEST)
Setting A high proportion of notified tuberculosis cases in the Philippines are clinically diagnosed (63%) as opposed to bacteriologically confirmed. Better understanding of this phenomenon is required to improve tuberculosis control. Objectives To determine the percentage of Smear Negative Presumptive Tuberculosis patients that would be diagnosed by GeneXpert; compare clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed as tuberculosis cases; and review the impact that the current single government physician and a reconstituted Tuberculosis Diagnostic committee (Expert Panel) may have on tuberculosis over-diagnosis. Design This is a cross-sectional study of 152 patients 15-85 years old with two negative Direct Sputum Smear Microscopy results, with abnormal chest X-ray who underwent GeneXpert testing and review by an Expert Panel. Results 31% (48/152) of the sample were Xpert positive. 93% (97/104) of GeneXpert negatives were clinically diagnosed by a Single Physician. Typical symptoms and X-ray findings were higher in bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis. When compared to GeneXpert results, the Expert panel’s sensitivity for active tuberculosis was high (97.5%, 39/40) but specificity was low (40.2%, 35/87). Conclusion Using the GeneXpert would increase the level of bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis substantially among presumptive Tuberculosis. An Expert panel will greatly reduce over-diagnosis usually seen when a decision is made by a Single Physician.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0420.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: transportation infrastructure; bridge management system; concrete bridges; bridge condition index; analytical hierarchy process; expert system
Online: 29 March 2020 (04:55:22 CEST)
This paper proposes a method for determining the bridge condition index (BCI) in concrete bridges, which is based on the views of bridge experts. First, eight indices were defined for a concrete bridge including structure, hydrology, safety, load impact, geotechnical and seismicity, strategic importance, facilities, and finally traffic and pavement. Each index consists of several sub-indices. Next, a series of questionnaires about the relative importance of indices and their sub-indices were prepared and distributed among bridge experts. Experts’ views were analyzed by Expert Choice software and the relative importance (weight) of each index and each sub-index was determined using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP). Then, based on experts’ views, an average score was assigned to each sub-index for any condition. Now the bridge inspectors can examine the bridge and determine the scores of sub-indices. Each index’s score is the sum of the weighted score assigned to its’ sub-indices and BCI is the sum of weighted scores assigned to indices. Higher values of BCI indicate a better condition. Therefore, bridges with lower BCI take priority in maintenance activities. To apply the proposed method, five bridges were selected in Semnan province, Iran, and BCI calculation of these bridges were conducted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0092.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: TV channel rating; expert recommendation systems; fuzzy resources control; fuzzy classification knowledge bases; solving fuzzy relational equations
Online: 5 November 2018 (09:16:56 CET)
The purpose of the study is to control the ratio of programs of different genres when forming the broadcast grid in order to increase and maintain the rating of the channel. In the multichannel environment, television rating control consists of selecting such content, ratings of which are completely restored after advertising. A hybrid approach combining the benefits of semantic training and fuzzy relational equations in simplification of the expert recommendation systems construction is proposed. The problem of retaining the television rating can be attributed to the problems of fuzzy resources control. The increase or decrease trends of the demand and supply are described by primary fuzzy relations. The rule-based solutions of fuzzy relational equations connect significance measures of the primary fuzzy terms. Rules refinement by solving fuzzy relational equations allows avoiding labor-intensive procedures for the generation and selection of expert rules. The solution set generation corresponds to the granulation of the television time, where each solution represents the time slot and the granulated rating of the content. In automated media planning, generation of the weekly TV program in the form of the granular solutions provides the decrease of the time needed for the programming of the channel broadcast grid.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0172.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: spatial data infrastructure; sensor web; geographical information system; smart cities; knowledge based system; expert system; spatial technologies
Online: 27 November 2017 (07:49:48 CET)
Spatio-temporal aspects of data lead to critical information. Sensors capture data at all scales continually so it is imperative that useful information be extracted ubiquitously and regularly. Location plays a vital part by helping understand relations between datasets. It is crucial to link developmental works with spatial attributes and current challenge is to create an open platform that manages real-time sensor data and provides critical spatial analytics atop expert domain knowledge provided in the system. That is a two-faced problem where the solution tackles not only data from multiple sources but also runs data management platform, a spatial data infrastructure(SDI) as backbone framework able to harness sensor web(SW). The paper proposes development of such a globally shared open spatial expert system(ES), SmaCiSENS, a first of a kind geo-enabled knowledge based(KB) ES for multiple fields, smarter cities to climate modeling. SmaCiSENS is integration of SW and SDI with domain KB on data and problems, ready to infer solutions. The paper describes an architecture for semantic enablement for SW, SDI; connect interfaces, functions of SDI and SW, and sensor data application program interfaces (APIs) to better manage climate modeling, geohazard, global changes, and other vital areas of attention and action.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0261.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: transnational oil investment, risk assessment, Fuzzy-Grey comprehensive evaluation, Delphi expert scoring system, risk factors, evaluation indicators system
Online: 20 April 2018 (09:11:15 CEST)
Oil has become the object of global exploits and fierce competition among the major world powers as it is a key strategic non-renewable resource. Transnational petroleum investment is therefore an important mechanism available to countries and international corporations to control oil resources even though there are numerous inherent uncertainties and risks. A new risk assessment index system is proposed in this paper based on use of the Delphi expert scoring system and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation that aims to minimize the potential risks inherent to multinational petroleum investment. This approach encapsulates political, legal, socioeconomic, and infrastructural factors to develop a technical method that can be used for transnational petroleum investment risk assessment. An evaluation of oil investment risk within a case study area is also presented; results provide reference data that can be applied by national and international oil companies to mitigate risks of transnational oil investment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0217.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Site-specific K management, Soil K supply, Maize yield response to K, Maize Crop Manager, Nutrient Expert for Maize.
Online: 13 June 2018 (16:05:00 CEST)
Increased nutrient withdrawal by rapidly expanding intensive cropping systems, in combination with imbalanced fertilization, is leading to potassium (K) depletion from agricultural soils in Asia. There is an urgent need to better understand the soil K-supplying capacity and K-use efficiency of crops to address this issue. Maize is increasingly being grown in rice-based systems in South Asia, particularly in Bangladesh and North East India. The high nutrient extraction, especially K, however, causes concerns for the sustainability of maize production systems in the region. The present study was designed to estimate, through a plant-based method, the magnitude, and variation in K-supplying capacity of a range of soils from the maize-growing areas and the K-use efficiency of maize in Bangladesh. Eighteen diverse soils were collected from several upazillas (or sub-districts) under 11 agro-ecological zones to examine their K-supplying capacity from the soil reserves and from K fertilization (@ 100 mg K kg-1 soil) for successive seven maize crops grown up to V10-V12 in pots inside a net house. A validation field experiment was conducted with five levels of K (0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg ha-1) and two fertilizer recommendations based on “Nutrient Expert for Maize-NEM” and “Maize Crop Manager-MCM” decision support tools (DSSs) in 12 farmers’ fields in Rangpur, Rajshahi and Comilla districts in Bangladesh. Grain yield and yield attributes of maize responded significantly (P < 0.001) to K fertilizer, with grain yield increase from 18 to 79% over control in all locations. Total K uptake by plants not receiving K fertilizer, considered as potential K-supplying capacity of the soil in the pot experiment, followed the order: Modhukhali >Mithapukur >Rangpur Sadar >Dinajpur Sadar >Jhinaidah Sadar >Gangachara >Binerpota >Tarash >Gopalpur >Daudkandi >Paba >Modhupur >Nawabganj Sadar >Shibganj >Birganj >Godagari >Barura >Durgapur. Likewise in the validation field experiment, the K-supplying capacity of soils was 83.5, 60.5 and 57.2 kg ha-1 in Rangpur, Rajshahi, and Comilla, respectively. Further, the order of K-supplying capacity for three sites was similar to the results from pot study confirming the applicability of results to other soils and maize-growing areas in Bangladesh and similar soils and areas across South Asia. Based on the results from pot and field experiments, we conclude that the site-specific K management using the fertilizer DSSs can be the better and more efficient K management strategy for maize.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0027.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: chatbot technology; ontology-based systems; expert systems; diagnosis; conversational agents; robotics; human-robot interaction; physician-patient relationship; intelligent agents
Online: 6 December 2016 (04:46:32 CET)
Access to medical care is a global issue. Technology-aided approaches have been applied in addressing this. Interventions have however not focused on medical diagnosis as a fully automated procedure and available applications employ mainly text-based inputs rather than conversation in natural language. We explored the utility of ontology-based chatbot technology for the design of intelligent agents for medical diagnosis through a systematic review of the most recent related literature. English articles published in 2011-2016 returned 233 hits which yielded 11 relevant articles after a 3-stage screening. Findings showed that the creation of expert systems had been the focus of many the studies which utilize the physician-system-patient framework with system training based mostly on expert knowledge for designing web- or mobile phone-based applications that serve assistive purposes. Findings further indicated gaps in the design and evaluation of more effective systems deployable as standalone applications, for example, on an embodied robotic system. The need for technology supporting the physical examination part of diagnosis, connection to data sources on patients’ vitals and medical history are also indicated in addition to the need for more qualitative work on natural language-based interaction. The system should be one that is continuously learning. Future works should also be directed towards the building of more robust knowledge base as well as evaluation of theory-based diagnostic methodological options
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Mobile data science; artificial intelligence; machine learning; natural language processing; expert system; data-driven decision making; context-awareness; intelligent mobile apps
Online: 14 September 2020 (00:01:39 CEST)
Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques have grown rapidly in recent years in the context of computing with smart mobile phones that typically allows the devices to function in an intelligent manner. Popular AI techniques include machine learning and deep learning methods, natural language processing, as well as knowledge representation and expert systems, can be used to make the target mobile applications intelligent and more effective. In this paper, we present a comprehensive view on mobile data science and intelligent apps in terms of concepts and AI-based modeling that can be used to design and develop intelligent mobile applications for the betterment of human life in their diverse day-to-day situation. This study also includes the concepts and insights of various AI-powered intelligent apps in several application domains, ranging from personalized recommendation to healthcare services, including COVID-19 pandemic management in recent days. Finally, we highlight several research issues and future directions relevant to our analysis in the area of mobile data science and intelligent apps. Overall, this paper aims to serve as a reference point and guidelines for the mobile application developers as well as the researchers in this domain, particularly from the technical point of view.