Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: fictional characters; quantum computing; human affective behavior
Online: 7 December 2022 (03:01:34 CET)
In this discussion paper, I give an account for non-experts of, arguably, quantum dynamics in the brain, underlying the modeling of affective behavior of humanoid robots in the making. Outreach to the larger audience inevitably leads to abbreviations and simplifications; nonetheless, I try to offer the backgrounds of why it is important to study the virtual aspects of ‘people’ we meet online, what dimensions play a role in assessing such creatures, what humanities, psychology, communication, and computer science provide to help us understand how we become attached to non-existent others. As its capstone for the time being, an approach derived from physics is discussed for a robot to handle emotional ambiguity and vagueness of its user. Two computational models, Silicon and Quantum Coppélia, are discussed for their potential and limitations in explaining human affective behavior while dealing with mediated characters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0301.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Emotion prediction; music; music emotion dataset; affective computing
Online: 20 October 2022 (08:33:49 CEST)
Music is capable of conveying many emotions. The level and type of emotion of the music perceived by a listener, however, is highly subjective. In this study, we present the Music Emotion Recognition with Profile information dataset (MERP). This database was collected through Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) and features dynamical valence and arousal ratings of 54 selected full-length songs. The dataset contains music features, as well as user profile information of the annotators. The songs were selected from the Free Music Archive using an innovative method (a Triple Neural Network with the OpenSmile toolkit) to identify 50 songs with the most distinctive emotions. Specifically, the songs were chosen to fully cover the four quadrants of the valence arousal space. Four additional songs were selected from DEAM to act as a benchmark in this study and filter out low quality ratings. A total of 277 participants participated in annotating the dataset, and their demographic information, listening preferences, and musical background were recorded. We offer an extensive analysis of the resulting dataset, together with a baseline emotion prediction model based on a fully connected model and an LSTM model, for our newly proposed MERP dataset.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0144.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: sexual education; affective education; health education; school; qualitative research.
Online: 4 February 2021 (15:30:56 CET)
Sexual education is a part of the teaching-learning process that addresses cognitive, psychological, physical and social aspects of sexuality. The purpose of sexual education is to provide people with knowledge, abilities, attitudes and values that will help them to have good sexual health, well-being and dignity. The objective of this study was to explore the experiences and opinions of primary school teachers regarding Sexual Education in school. A descriptive qualitative study was designed based on content analysis. Twelve open-ended interviews with primary school teachers were carried out, followed by inductive data analysis using ATLAS.ti software. Two key themes emerged from the analysis: ‘In search of a comprehensive approach to Sexual Education’ and ‘Barriers to Sexual Education in schools: From the lack of training to fear of the families’. We conclude that despite the efforts to implement a comprehensive approach to Sexual Education that recognises sexuality as a right, primary school teachers face difficulties in delivering Sexual Education in schools due to a lack of training and the fear that parents will reject their children being spoken to about sexuality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0109.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: speech emotion recognition; affective computing; data augmentations; wav2vec 2.0; SVM
Online: 4 August 2022 (14:09:21 CEST)
Data augmentation techniques recently gained more adoption in speech processing, including speech emotion recognition. Although more data tends to be more effective, there may be a trade-off in which more data will not provide a better model. This paper reports experiments on investigating the effects of data augmentation in speech emotion recognition. The investigation aims at finding the most useful type of data augmentation and the number of data augmentations for speech emotion recognition. The experiments are conducted on the Japanese Twitter-based emotional speech corpus. The results show that for speaker-independent data, two data augmentations with glottal source extraction and silence removal exhibited the best performance among others, even with more data augmentation techniques. For the text-independent data (including speaker and text-independent), more data augmentations tend to improve speech emotion recognition performances. The results highlight the trade-off between the number of data augmentation and the performance of speech emotion recognition showing the necessity to choose a proper data augmentation technique for a specific application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0267.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: affective computing; empathy; facial mimicry; facial recognition technology; deep learning
Online: 20 June 2022 (10:08:13 CEST)
Facial expressions play a key role in interpersonal communication when it comes to negotiating our emotions and intentions, as well as interpreting those of others. Research has shown that we can connect to other people better when we exhibit signs of empathy and facial mimicry. However, the relationship between empathy and facial mimicry is still debated. Among the factors contributing to the difference in results across existing studies is the use of different instruments for measuring both empathy and facial mimicry, as well as often ignoring the differences across various demographic groups. This study first looks at the differences in empathetic abilities of people across different demographic groups based on gender, ethnicity and age. The empathetic ability is measured based on the Empathy Quotient capturing a balanced representation of both emotional and cognitive empathy. Using statistical and machine learning methods, the study then investigates the correlation between the empathetic ability and facial mimicry of subjects in response to images portraying different emotions displayed on a computer screen. Unlike the existing studies measuring facial mimicry using electromyography, this study employs a technology detecting facial expressions based on video capture and deep learning. This choice was made in the context of increased online communication during and post the COVID-19 pandemic. The results of this study confirm the previously reported difference in the empathetic ability between females and males. However, no significant difference in the empathetic ability was found across different age and ethnic groups. Furthermore, no strong correlation was found between empathy and facial reactions to faces portraying different emotions shown on a computer screen. Overall, the results of this study can be used to inform the design of online communication technologies and tools for training empathy team leaders, educators, social, and health care providers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0726.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Affective computing; Artificial intelligence; Quantum emotion; Emotion fusion; Social robots
Online: 29 December 2020 (09:59:28 CET)
This study presents a modest attempt to interpret, formulate, and manipulate emotion of robots within the precepts of quantum mechanics. Our proposed framework encodes the emotion information as a superposition state whilst unitary operators are used to manipulate the transition of the emotion states which are recovered via appropriate quantum measurement operations. The framework described provides essential steps towards exploiting the potency of quantum mechanics in a quantum affective computing paradigm. Further, the emotions of multi-robots in a specified communication scenario are fused using quantum entanglement thereby reducing the number of qubits required to capture the emotion states of all the robots in the environment, and fewer quantum gates are needed to transform the emotion of all or part of the robots from one state to another. In addition to the mathematical rigours expected of the proposed framework, we present a few simulation-based demonstrations to illustrate its feasibility and effectiveness. This exposition is an important step in the transition of formulations of emotional intelligence to the quantum era.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0092.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: staging, affective disorders, major depression, bipolar disorder, oxidative, neuro-immune
Online: 7 December 2018 (13:56:04 CET)
Although, staging models gained momentum to stage define affective disorders, no attempts were made to construct mathematical staging models using clinical and biomarker data in patients with major depression and bipolar disorder.The aims of this study were to use clinical and biomarker data to construct statistically-derived staging models, which are associated with early lifetime traumata (ELTs), affective phenomenology and biomarkers.In the current study, 172 subjects participated, 105 with affective disorders (both bipolar and unipolar) and 67 controls. Staging scores were computed by extracting latent vectors (LVs) from clinical data including ELTs, recurring flare ups and suicidal behaviors, outcome data such as disabilities and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL), and paraoxonase (PON)1 actvities and nitro-oxidative stress biomarkers.Recurrence of episodes and suicidal behaviors could reliably be combined into a LV with adequate composite reliability (the “recurrence LV”), which was associated with female sex, the combined effects of multiple ELTs, disabilities, HR-QoL and impairments in cognitive tests. All those factors could be combined into a reliable “ELT-staging LV” which was significantly associated with nitro-oxidative stress biomarkers. A reliable LV could be extracted from serum PON1 activities, recurrent flare ups, disabilities and HR-QoL.Our ELT-staging index scores the severity of a relevant affective dimension, shared by both major depression and bipolar disorder, namely the trajectory from ELTs, a relapsing course and suicidal behaviors to progressive disabilities. Patients were classified into three stages, namely an early stage; a relapse-regression stage; and a suicidal-regression stage. Lowered lipid-associated antioxidant defenses may be a drug target to prevent the transition from the early to the later regression stages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0455.v1
Subject: Keywords: inflammation; neuro-immune; cytokines; major depression; chronic fatigue syndrome; affective disorders
Online: 27 September 2021 (16:30:00 CEST)
Background. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disorder which affects the joints in the wrists, fingers, and knees. RA is often associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms as well as chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)-like symptoms.Aim. To examine the association between depressive symptoms (measured with the Beck Depression Inventory, BDI), anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, HAMA), and CFS-like (Fibro-fatigue Scale) symptoms and immune-inflammatory, autoimmune, and endogenous opioid system (EOS) markers, and lactosylceramide in RA. Methods. The serum biomarkers were assayed in fifty-nine RA and fifty-nine patients without increased psychopathology (PP) and fifty healthy controls.Results. There were highly significant correlations between the BDI, FF, and HAMA scores and severity of RA, as assessed with the DAS28-4, clinical and disease activity indices, the number of tenders and swollen joints, and patient and evaluator global assessment scores. A common latent vector (reflective model) could be extracted from the PP and RA-severity scales, which showed excellent psychometric properties. Partial least squares analysis showed that 69.7% of the variance in this common core underpinning PP and RA symptoms could be explained by the regression on immune-inflammatory pathways, rheumatoid factor, anti-citrullinated protein antibodies, CD17, and mu-opioid receptor levels. Conclusions. Depression, anxiety, and CFS-like symptoms due to RA are reflective manifestations of the phenome of RA and are mediated via the effects of the same immune-inflammatory, autoimmune, and EOS pathways and lactosylceramide that underpin the pathophysiology of RA. These PP symptoms are clinical manifestations of the pathophysiology of RA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0039.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Affective Computing; Physiological sensors; Non-intrusive; Learner Modelling; User-centred systems
Online: 4 January 2021 (12:52:44 CET)
Emotion recognition is becoming very relevant in educational scenarios, since previous research has proven the strong influence of emotions on the student's engagement and motivation. There is no standard method for stating student's affect, but physiological signals have been widely used in educational contexts. Physiological signals have been proved to offer high accuracy in detecting emotions because they reflect spontaneous affect-related information, and which is fresh and do not require an additional control or interpretation. However, most proposed works use measuring equipment that limit its applicability in real-world scenarios because of their high cost and their intrusiveness. Expensive material means an economic challenge for schools and reduce the scalability of the experiments. Intrusive equipment can be uncomfortable for the students which can lead to errors in the collected data. In this work, we analyse the feasibility of developing a low-cost non-intrusive device that integrates easy-to-capture signals that guarantee high detection accuracy. The advantage of the approach also lies in using user’s centred information sources (intra-subject) in real-world situations, which provide better detection accuracy, by offering models adapted to each subject. To this end, we present an experimental study that aims to explore the potential application of Hidden Markov Models (HMM) to predict the concentration state from 4 commonly used physiological signals, namely heart rate, breath rate, skin conductance and skin temperature. We study the multi-fusion of every possible combination of these four signals and analyse their potential use in an educational context in terms of intrusiveness, cost and accuracy. Results show that a high accuracy can be achieved with three of the signals when using HMM-based intra-subject models. However, inter-subject models, which are meant to obtain subject-independent approaches for affect detection, fail at the same task. This work concludes that the implementation of a low-cost wrist-worn device for recognising relevant emotions from each student is possible and open the way to a wide range of practical applications in the context of adaptive learning systems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0074.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: animal emotions; animal welfare; sensors; animal-based measures; affective states; emotion modelling
Online: 4 February 2022 (12:20:22 CET)
Emotions or affective states recognition in farm animals is an underexplored research domain. Despite significant advances in the animal welfare research, the animal affective computing through the development and application of devices and platforms that can not only recognize but interpret and process the emotions, are in nascent stage. By capitalizing on the immense potential of biometric sensors, the artificial intelligence enabled big data methods substantially offers advancement of animal welfare standards and meet the urgent need of caretakers to respond effectively to maintain the wellbeing of their animals. Farm animals, numbering over 70 billion worldwide, are increasingly managed in large-scale, intensive farms. With both public awareness and scientific evidence growing that farm animals experience suffering, as well as affective states such as fear, frustration and distress, there is an urgent need to develop efficient and accurate methods for monitoring their welfare. At present, there are no scientifically validated ‘benchmarks’ for quantifying transient emotional (affective) states in farm animals, and no established measures of good welfare, only indicators of poor welfare, such as injury, pain and fear. Conventional approaches to monitoring livestock welfare are time consuming, interrupt farming processes and involve subjective judgments. Biometric sensors data enabled by Artificial Intelligence are an emerging smart solution to unobtrusively monitoring livestock, but their potential for quantifying affective states and groundbreaking solutions in their application are yet to be realized. This review provides innovative methods for collecting big data on farm animal emotions, which can be used to train artificial intelligence models to classify, quantify and predict affective states in individual pigs and cows. Extending this to the group level, social network analysis can be applied to model emotional dynamics and contagion among animals. Finally, ‘digital twins’ of animals capable of simulating and predicting their affective states and be-havior in real time are a near-term possibility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0308.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Relational benefits; calculative and affective commitment; long-term orientation; multi-channel agency
Online: 13 July 2021 (12:21:34 CEST)
Our study provides guidelines on how to build long-term customer relationship in the non-contract mechanism context. More specifically, the findings show that special, social, and core benefits influence calculative commitment, and operational and special benefits influence affective commitment. This study also supports that calculative and affective commitment play a crucial role in understanding multi-channel agencies’ loyalty. In sum, this study revealed that calculative and affective commitment can be considered as partial or full mediators in the relationship between RBs (relational benefits) and loyalty. This study not only contributed to the existing SET (social exchange theory) and RBs paradigm but also provided practical implications for food distribution management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0724.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: clozapine; schizophrenia; early-onset; pregnancy; bipolar affective disorder; agranulocytosis; COVID-19; pharmacogenetic
Online: 9 November 2020 (11:48:29 CET)
Background: Clozapine (CLZ) use is precarious due to its neurological, cardiovascular, and hematological side effects; however, it is the gold standard in therapy-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) in adults and is underused. Objective: to examine the most recent CLZ data on (a) side effects concerning (b) recent pharmacological mechanisms, (c) therapy benefits, and (d) the particularities of the COVID-19 pandemic. Data sources: a search was performed in two databases (PubMed and Web of Science) using the specific keywords "clozapine" and "schizophrenia," "side effects," "agranulocytosis," "TRS," or "bipolar affective disorder (BAF)" for the last ten years. Study eligibility criteria: clinical trials on adults with acute symptoms of schizophrenia or related disorders. Results: We selected 37 studies, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and clinical case series (CCS), centered on six main topics in the search area: (a) CLZ in schizophrenia, (b) CLZ in bipolar disorder, (c) side effects during the clozapine therapy, (d) CLZ in pregnancy, (e) CLZ in early-onset schizophrenia, and (f) CLZ therapy and COVID-19 infection. Limitations: We considered RCTs and CCS from two databases, limited to the search topics. Conclusions and implications of key findings: (a) Clozapine doses should be personalized for each patient based on pharmacogenetics testing when available; the genetic vulnerability postulates predictors of adverse reactions' severity; patients with a lower genetic risk could have less frequent hematological monitoring; (b) CLZ-associated risk of pulmonary embolism imposes prophylactic measures for venous thromboembolism; (c) convulsive episodes are not an indication for stopping treatment; the plasma concentration of clozapine is a better side effect predictor than the dosage; (d) COVID-19 infection may enhance clozapine toxicity, generating an increased risk of pneumonia. Therapy must be continued with proper monitoring of the white blood count, and the clozapine dose decreased by half until three days after the fever breaks; psychiatrists and healthcare providers must act together. Background: Clozapine (CLZ) use is precarious due to its neurological, cardiovascular, and hematological side effects; however, it is the gold standard in therapy-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) in adults and is underused. Objective: to examine the most recent CLZ data on (a) side effects concerning (b) recent pharmacological mechanisms, (c) therapy benefits, and (d) the particularities of the COVID-19 pandemic. Data sources: a search was performed in two databases (PubMed and Web of Science) using the specific keywords "clozapine" and "schizophrenia," "side effects," "agranulocytosis," "TRS," or "bipolar affective disorder (BAF)" for the last ten years. Study eligibility criteria: clinical trials on adults with acute symptoms of schizophrenia or related disorders. Results: We selected 37 studies, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and clinical case series (CCS), centered on six main topics in the search area: (a) CLZ in schizophrenia, (b) CLZ in bipolar disorder, (c) side effects during the clozapine therapy, (d) CLZ in pregnancy, (e) CLZ in early-onset schizophrenia, and (f) CLZ therapy and COVID-19 infection. Limitations: We considered RCTs and CCS from two databases, limited to the search topics. Conclusions and implications of key findings: (a) Clozapine doses should be personalized for each patient based on pharmacogenetics testing when available; the genetic vulnerability postulates predictors of adverse reactions' severity; patients with a lower genetic risk could have less frequent hematological monitoring; (b) CLZ-associated risk of pulmonary embolism imposes prophylactic measures for venous thromboembolism; (c) convulsive episodes are not an indication for stopping treatment; the plasma concentration of clozapine is a better side effect predictor than the dosage; (d) COVID-19 infection may enhance clozapine toxicity, generating an increased risk of pneumonia. Therapy must be continued with proper monitoring of the white blood count, and the clozapine dose decreased by half until three days after the fever breaks; psychiatrists and healthcare providers must act together.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0214.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Career choice predictors, Affective and Cognitive Domains, Science teacher training, International teaching.
Online: 21 June 2019 (11:28:25 CEST)
Attitudes and behaviours towards the natural environment have been extensively studied in certain cultural settings during the last 40 years. In education, the teacher's ability to grasp the fundamentals of an academic subject may define his or her own attitudes towards that discipline; certainly the reverse is also valid. The correlations between affective and cognitive domains appear to play a significant role in teaching-learning dynamics. In this study we seek to assess whether the affective posture towards school sciences of a cohort of teachers in rural communities shows an association with their cognitive competence in the disciplines. The results of this study provide evidence that there is a statistically significant correlation between the cognitive and affective domains for in-service teachers. The affective domain, therefore, could serve as a predictor for cognitive competency and self-efficacy expectancies with respect to both content and career fulfilment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0397.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Familial hypercholesterolemia; Neuropsychological outcomes; Cognition; Health literacy; Quality of Life; Affective ranges; HADS; WHO-QOL BREF; Oman; Famiilial hypercholesterolemia; Neuropsychological outcomes; Cognition; Health Literacy; Affective ranges; HADS; Oman
Online: 26 July 2022 (08:16:04 CEST)
BACKGROUND: Over the past few years, there has been an increasing interest to view the diagnosis of Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) through the lens of the biopsychosocial model. However, other than a few epidemiological surveys, there is a dearth of studies from emerging economies that have examined FH using the biological, psychological and socio-environmental facets of the aforementioned model. AIM. The three aims of the current study were as follows: (i) to examine the psychosocial status among patients with genetically confirmed FH, (ii) to compare the intellectual capacity and cognitive outcomes with a reference group, and (iii) to examine the relationship between health literacy and cognitive functioning. METHOD: Consecutive FH patients referred to the lipid clinic at a tertiary care center for an expert opinion were recruited into this study, conducted from September 2019 to March 2020. Information regarding psychosocial functioning, health literacy, quality of life, and affective ranges were surveyed. Indices of current reasoning ability (attention and concentration, memory, and executive functioning) were compared with an age-matched reference group. The current hypothesis also explored the impact of FH on health literacy and cognition. RESULT: A total of 70 participants out of 106 (response rate: 66.0%) initially agreed to participate. However, 18 out of 70 dropped out of the study, yielding a final total of 52 FH patients. With 27 (51.9%) males and 25 (48.1%) females, the mean participant age stood at 37.2 years (SD=9.2), ranging from 21 to 52 years of age. In the psychosocial data, thirty-two percent (n=17) of them had anxiety (HADS≥ 8), and twenty-five percent (n=13) had depressive symptoms (HADS≥ 8). The performance of the FH patients was significantly impaired compared to the control group on the indices of current reasoning ability and all domains of cognitive functioning. In univariate analysis conducted to compare cognitive functioning with health literacy status, only indices of attention and concentration emerged as being significant. CONCLUSION: To date, there are only a few studies employing the biopsychosocial paradigm to investigate the FH population. The current study indicates that the FH population is marked by an impediment in almost all of the core features that are characteristically assessed by the biopsychosocial approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0134.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Human Robot Interaction (HRI); social robot; Speech Emotion Recognition (SER); Gender Recognition, affective states
Online: 8 December 2021 (14:31:07 CET)
The real challenge in Human Robot Interaction (HRI) is to build machines capable of perceiving human emotions so that robots can interact with humans in a proper manner. It is well known from the literature that emotion varies accordingly to many factors. Among these, gender represents one of the most influencing one, and so an appropriate gender-dependent emotion recognition system is recommended. In this paper, a two-level hierarchical Speech Emotion Recognition (SER) system is proposed: the first level is represented by the Gender Recognition (GR) module for the speaker’s gender identification; the second is a gender-specific SER block. Specifically for this work, the attention was focused on the optimisation of the first level of the proposed architecture. The system was designed to be installed on social robots for hospitalised and living at home elderly patients monitoring. Hence, the importance of reducing the software computational effort of the architecture also minimizing the hardware bulkiness, in order for the system to be suitable for social robots. The algorithm was executed on the Raspberry Pi hardware. For the training, the Italian emotional database EMOVO was used. Results show a GR accuracy value of 97.8%, comparable with the ones found in literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0481.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: academia; affective dimension; doctoral education; mock defense; qualitative analysis; quantitative analysis; viva; viva voce
Online: 29 September 2021 (09:10:34 CEST)
The doctoral defense is an important step towards obtaining the doctoral degree. As such, preparing for the event is necessary. Anecdotal evidence highlights that there is a wide variety of ways in which doctoral candidates prepare for the defense. In this work, I want to explore if there is a relation between the way in which a doctoral candidate prepares for the defense and two important aspects of the defense: the outcome of the defense, and the student perception during and after the defense. For this purpose, I first reviewed the literature on the topic of the preparation for the doctoral defense. Then, I carried out an international survey on the doctoral defense and analyzed the data of the 204 completed surveys with respect to the preparation for the defense using quantitative and qualitative methods. The methods I used included the statistical tests of the correlation between on one hand the preparation and on the other hand the defense outcome and student perception. I used inductive thematic analysis of the open-ended survey questions to gain deeper insight in the way candidates prepared for their defense. I found that candidates most often prepare by making their presentation, reading their thesis, and practicing. The most effective measure is the mock defense, followed by a preparatory course. Reading blogs, books, and chapters is a less effective preparation measure. The conclusion of this work is that doctoral candidates need to understand the format of their defense in order to be able to prepare properly, and that universities should explore either individual pathways to the defense or pilots using a mock defense and/or preparatory course to give their doctoral candidates the necessary tools to prepare for their doctoral defense.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0029.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: academic staffs’; gender; level of education; affective commitment; continuance commitment; normative commitment; overall commitment
Online: 3 April 2019 (10:21:19 CEST)
Employees’ organizational commitment is considered to be a critical issue in higher educational setting for the success of its visions and goals, as well as to keep its employees motivation granted for achieving better work performance. This subject has therefore, been studied so as to draw attention to enhance effectiveness of higher educational institution in Ethiopia, particularly in reference to Haramaya University. The major objective of study was to find out the level of academic staffs’ commitment. The study assessed whether significant difference exist in academic staffs’ commitment level in terms of their gender and level of education. Researchers used cross-sectional research design and both primary and secondary data sources were used for the study; 242 participants were selected using stratified sampling technique. Questionnaire, focus group discussion and document review were used to collect data. The quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics; and the qualitative data were also analyzed using narration methods of analysis. Study result showed there was moderate level of in overall commitment and in specific commitment dimensions among academic staffs. The study further indicated that there is no significance difference in commitment of academic staffs with reference to gender; however, a significant difference in commitment was existed in reference to level of education.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0419.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Alcohol; Dynorphin; Kappa Opioid Receptor; DYN/KOR; Anxiety; Depression; Negative Affective States; Withdrawal; Microdialysis; Dynorphin-immunoreactivity
Online: 24 August 2022 (10:52:52 CEST)
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) represents major public and socioeconomic issues. Alcohol exerts its phar-macological effects by altering different neurotransmitter systems, such as g-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate, opioids, etc. Recent evidence suggests that the dynorphin (DYN)/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system mediates the negative affective states associated with alcohol withdrawal. This system is also in-volved in stress-mediated alcohol intake in alcohol-dependent subjects. The DYN/KOR system probably exerts its action in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) to mediate the negative affective states as-sociated with alcohol withdrawal. This article aims to review the current literature regarding the role of the DYN/KOR system in the actions of alcohol. We first review the literature regarding the effect of alcohol on the level of the peptide and its receptor, and the role of the endogenous DYN/KOR system in alcohol reward and negative affective states associated with alcohol withdrawal is then discussed. We also review the literature regarding the effects of KOR ligands on these processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0489.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: academia; affective dimension; defense formats; ethnicity; field of study; gender; socio-demographic dimensions; viva; viva voce
Online: 21 July 2021 (11:26:00 CEST)
The doctoral defense, which is an essential requirement for the doctoral degree, is considered to have three dimensions: the scholarly dimension, the emotional (affective) dimension, and the cultural dimension. In this work, I explore the link between sociodemographic factors and students’ perception of the doctoral defense. In particular, I focus on gender, ethnicity, and age at time of defense, as well as current position, and field of study. To address the influence of these aspects on the affective dimension of the doctoral defense, I first reviewed the literature on these socio-demographic aspects as well as the affective dimension of the defense. I then carried out an international survey on doctoral defenses, defense formats, and students’ perceptions and analyzed the 204 completed surveys for this study using quantitative and qualitative methods. The analysis included cross-correlations between students’ perceptions and the studied sociodemographic aspects. The main results of these analyses are that gender affects various aspects of the students’ perception of the doctoral defense and long-term perception, and that female candidates experience more issues with their committee. Ethnicity is important as well, although the participations of non-white respondents in this survey was limited. The influence of age at the defense is limited, and only for the youngest and oldest age groups I observe some differences in perception. There is no relation between current position and perception of the candidates during the defense. Finally, field of study is correlated for various aspects of student perception, committee issues, and long-term perception. The conclusion of this work is that socio-demographic aspects, and in particular gender, ethnicity, and field of study, influence how doctoral candidates experience their defense.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0037.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: affective events; work engagement; sensitization-satiation effects; job demands-resources model; experience sampling; growth curve modeling
Online: 3 October 2019 (04:37:58 CEST)
Although work events can be regarded as pivotal elements of organizational life, only a few studies have examined how positive and negative events relate to and combine to affect work engagement over time. Theory suggests that to better understand how current events affect work engagement (WE), we have to account for recent events that have preceded these current events. We present competing theoretical views on how recent and current work events may affect employees (e.g., getting used to a high frequency of negative events or becoming more sensitive to negative events). Although the occurrence of events implies discrete changes in the experience of work, prior research has not considered whether work events actually accumulate to sustained mid-term changes in WE. To address these gaps in the literature, we conducted a week-level longitudinal study across a period of 15 consecutive weeks among 135 employees, which yielded 849 weekly observations. While positive events were associated with higher levels of WE within the same week, negative events were not. Our results support neither satiation nor sensitization processes. However, high frequencies of negative events in the preceding week amplified the beneficial effects of positive events on WE in the current week. Growth curve analyses show that the benefits of positive events accumulate to sustain high levels of WE. WE dissipates in the absence of continuous experience of positive events. Our study adds a temporal component and informs research that has taken a feature-oriented perspective on the dynamic interplay of job demands and resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0061.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Working memory performance; workload stress; affective states; functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS); haemodynamic activity; prefrontal cortex (PFC)
Online: 5 May 2021 (13:18:34 CEST)
The effect of stress on task performance is complex, too much or too little negatively affects performance; and there exists an optimal level of stress to drive optimal performance. Task difficulty and external affective factors are distinct stressors that impact cognitive performance. Neuroimaging studies showed that mood affects working memory performance and the correlates are changes in haemodynamic activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). We investigate the interactive effects of affective states and working memory load (WML) on working memory task performance and haemodynamic activity using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) neuroimaging on the PFC of healthy participants. We seek to understand if haemodynamic responses could tell apart workload related stress from situational stress arising from external affective distraction. We found that the haemodynamic changes towards affective stressor and workload related stress were more dominant in the medial and lateral PFC respectively. Our study reveals distinct affective state-dependent modulations of haemodynamic activity with increasing WML in n-back tasks, which correlate with decreasing performance. The influence of negative affect on performance is greater at higher WML, and haemodynamic activity showed evident changes in temporal, and both spatial and strength of activation differently with WML.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0003.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: human activity analysis; human intention understanding; affective computing; data visualisation; depth data; head pose estimation; emotion recognition
Online: 10 July 2017 (08:26:31 CEST)
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0019.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: affective disorders; alzheimer’s disease; l-Deprenyl (Selegiline); donepezil; galantamine; value; inhibitor constant; mechanism-based inhibition; multitarget-directed ligand (MTDL); rasagiline; rivastigmine
Online: 11 July 2017 (05:58:53 CEST)
The actions of many drugs involve enzyme inhibition. This is exemplified by the inhibitors of monoamine oxidases (MAO) and the cholinsterases (ChE) that have been used for several pharmacological purposes. This review describes key principles and approaches for the reliable determination of enzyme activities and inhibition as well as some of the methods that are in current use for such studies with these two enzymes. Their applicability and potential pitfalls arising from their inappropriate use are discussed. Since inhibitor potency is frequently assessed in terms of the quantity necessary to give 50% inhibition (the IC50 value), the relationships between this and the mode of inhibition is also considered, in terms of the misleading information that it may provide. Incorporation of more than one functionality into the same molecule to give a multi-target-directed ligands (MTDLs) requires careful assessment to ensure that the specific target effects are not significantly altered and that the kinetic behaviour remains as favourable with the MTDL as it does with the individual components. Such factors will be considered in terms of recently developed MTDLs that combine MAO and ChE inhibitory functions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0120.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: work-related rumination; overcommitment; psychological detachment; burnout; irritation; problem-solving pondering; positive work reflection; negative work reflection; affective rumination; satisfaction with life
Online: 6 January 2023 (09:36:21 CET)
Work-related thoughts in off-job time have been studied extensively in occupational health psychology and related fields. We provide a focused review of research on overcommitment – a component within the effort-reward imbalance model – and aim to connect this line of research to the most commonly studied aspects of work-related rumination. Drawing on this integrative review, we analyze survey data on ten facets of work-related rumination, namely (1) overcommitment, (2) psychological detachment, (3) affective rumination, (4) problem-solving pondering, (5) positive work reflection, (6) negative work reflection, (7) distraction, (8) cognitive irritation, (9) emotional irritation, and (10) inability to recover. First, we leverage exploratory factor analysis to self-report survey data from 357 employees to calibrate overcommitment items and to position overcommitment within the nomological net of work-related rumination constructs. Second, we leverage confirmatory factor analysis to self-report survey data from 388 employees to provide a more specific test of uniqueness vs. overlap among these constructs. Third, we apply relative weight analysis to quantify the unique criterion-related validity of each work-related rumination facet regarding (1) physical fatigue, (2) cognitive fatigue, (3) emotional fatigue, (4) burnout, (5) psychosomatic complaints, and (6) satisfaction with life. Our results suggest that several measures of work-related rumination (e.g., overcommitment and cognitive irritation) can be used interchangeably. Emotional irritation and affective rumination emerge as the strongest unique predictors of fatigue, burnout, psychosomatic complaints, and satisfaction with life. Our study assists researchers in making informed decisions on selecting scales for their research and paves the way for integrating research on effort-reward imbalance and work-related rumination.