Literature and Literary Theory
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ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0536.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Literature And Literary Theory Keywords: Tales Through Cultural Lens; Global Significance of Cinderella; Cinderella; Sleeping Beauty; Snow White
Online: 8 May 2023 (11:59:12 CEST)
This article explores the cross-cultural significance of three iconic fairy tales: Cinderella, Snow White, and Sleeping Beauty. Using a comparative analysis approach, the study investigates recurring themes, motifs, and symbolism found in these tales across different cultures and time periods. The research draws on primary and secondary sources such as literary works and scholarly articles to uncover the underlying messages that resonate with audiences worldwide. The historical and cultural contexts of the tales are also examined to provide a deeper understanding of their significance in shaping cultural identity and values. The findings of the research demonstrate the enduring legacy of these tales and their continued relevance in contemporary society. The study highlights how the tales have evolved and adapted over time to reflect changing cultural values and beliefs. The interpretation of the findings offers insights into the role of storytelling in shaping cultural identity and values, and the ways in which these stories continue to inspire and captivate audiences worldwide. Overall, this research provides a comprehensive and nuanced understanding of the significance of these three fairy tales across cultures and time. By illuminating the similarities and differences in these tales, the study offers a fresh perspective on the power of storytelling and its ability to transcend cultural boundaries. The research contributes to the fields of folklore, cultural studies, and cross-cultural communication, inspiring further exploration into the captivating world of fairy tales.
Mon, 20 March 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0355.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Literature And Literary Theory Keywords: glioblastoma; biomarker selection; metabolomics; pathway analysis; personalized therapy; network analysis; inflammationomics
Online: 20 March 2023 (09:09:49 CET)
The most aggressive primary malignant brain tumor in adults is glioblastoma (GBM), which has poor overall survival (OS). There is a high relapse rate among patients with GBM despite maxi-mally safe surgery, radiation therapy, temozolomide (TMZ), and aggressive treatment. Hence, there is an urgent and unmet clinical need for new approaches to managing GBM. The current study identified modules (MYC, EGFR, PIK3CA, SUZ12, and SPRK2) involved in GBM disease through the NeDRex plugin. Furthermore, hub genes were identified in a comprehensive interaction network containing 7,560 proteins related to GBM disease and 3,860 proteins associated with signaling pathways involved in GBM. By integrating the results of the aforementioned analyses and performing centrality analysis again, eleven key genes involved in GBM disease were identi-fied. ProteomicsDB or Gliovis databases were used for determining the gene expression in normal or tumor brain tissue. The NetworkAnalyst and the mGWAS-Explorer tools identified miRNAs, SNPs, and metabolites associated with these 11 genes. Moreover, a literature review of recent studies revealed other lists of metabolites related to GBM disease. The enrichment analysis of iden-tified genes, miRNAs, and metabolites associated with GBM disease was done using ExpressAna-lyst, miEAA, and MetaboAnalyst tools. Further investigation of metabolite roles in GBM was done through the pathway, joint pathway, and network analyses. The results of this study identified 11 genes (UBC, HDAC1, CTNNB1, TRIM28, CSNK2A1, RBBP4, TP53, APP, DAB1, PINK1, and RELN), five miRNAs (hsa-mir-221-3p, hsa-mir-30a-5p, hsa-mir-15a-5p, hsa-mir-130a-3p, hsa-let-7b-5p), six metabolites (HDL, N6-acetyl-L-lysine, cholesterol, formate, N, N-dimethylglycine/xylose and X2. piperidinone) and 15 distinct signaling pathways that play an indispensable role in the GBM disease development. To establish early diagnostic methods and plan personalized GBM treatment strategies, the identified top genes-miRNAs and metabolite signatures can be targeted.
Mon, 6 March 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0083.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Literature And Literary Theory Keywords: urbanism; surrealism; literary devices; maps and plans; violence; harassment; cities; gender; painting; architecture
Online: 6 March 2023 (02:39:27 CET)
The purpose of this study is to analyse the ways of visualization of hidden violence through a map of the city of violence called La Manada City, in its transformation from defensive to artistic strategies. For this analysis, firstly we propose the contextualization of the artwork and its authorship, and later, the research about the artistic and visual resources of the 257 items that make up the map and its guide street, in a sort of rustic hypertext of the emotions linked to the violence in the territory. The main findings of this study demonstrate the strength of the strategy used as a survival method in cases of bullying. As a conclusion, in spite of the therapeutic effects, this work cannot be understood as Art Therapy, but as combat art: it provides an understanding of the emotional city, of the disadvantaged groups that inhabit it, from the most local (as a transcript of the city of Seville) to global and universal effects on community life.
Fri, 26 November 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0493.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Literature And Literary Theory Keywords: "The Brothers Karamazov"; psychology; psychiatry; Fyodor Dostoyevsky; interdisciplinary studies
Online: 26 November 2021 (08:51:30 CET)
In this article, by focusing on the two main protagonists, Mitya Karamazov and Pavel Smerdyakov, we would like to analyze the murder of Fyodor Karamazov, which is the crucial event in the novel The Brothers Karamazov. We have conducted analysis of these two characters from the perspective of literature studies, psychology and psychiatry. Although we agree with Freud’s opinion (1) that it is not important who killed the father, but who wanted to kill him, we hope that our findings will allow us to formulate conclusions that will be helpful in new interpretations of this masterpiece.
Fri, 19 November 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0371.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Literature And Literary Theory Keywords: bisexuality; Woolf; modernism; sexology; TikTok
Online: 19 November 2021 (17:33:57 CET)
Whereas bisexuality, as it existed in modernity, has been described as a ‘floating signifier', one that was problematically conflated with gender and intersex bodies, the articulation of bisexuality is now experiencing a discursive resurgence in spaces and platforms online. Through a deliberately disparate comparison between Virginia Woolf’s modernist writing and the discussions of bisexuality on the video-sharing social networking service TikTok, this essay presents a reflective reassessment of how far bisexual representation in the popular imagination has progressed and by extension, evaluate extant limitations. To realize these ambitions, I compare the reception of sexology (the new science of sexuality) in ‘high’ modernist literature with a post-modern demographic whose bisexuality is articulated in the 2020s online via TikTok’s towards what I would demarcate as a post-queer theory user base. This essay is not intended as an overview of the advancements made in psychoanalytic institutions about bisexuality nor does it set out to comment on the refinement of bisexuality’s aestheticization through time. Instead, it uses these two temporally specific moments in the cultural zeitgeist to compare and contrast how differently two different demographics articulate bisexuality, both as a written mode in modernism and as a visual apparatus online. This is less a critique of bi-erasure, but an interrogation of why and how bisexual representation, as an aestheticized subjectivity that compromises romantic, spiritual, and erotic desires for bodies of all genders, continues to be problematically restrictive.
Thu, 15 July 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0349.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Literature And Literary Theory Keywords: garden of Eden; attempts at location; history of biblical exegesis; narrative strategies.
Online: 15 July 2021 (09:50:18 CEST)
A close analysis of the text of Gen. 2:8-15, pertaining to the garden of Eden, shows the structural differences between said text and others from ancient mythologies that mention or describe a paradise. Likewise, that analysis suggests that the data provided by the Bible to locate paradise is merely a narrative device meant to dissipate all doubts as to the existence of the garden where God put human beings. Similarly to other spaces that appear in the Bible, the garden of Eden is but an impossible place. Throughout the centuries, however, recurring proposals have been made that aim to find paradise. As time went by, those proposals were progressively modified by the intellectual ideas dominant at any given era, thus leading the representations of the location of Paradise further and further away from the information provided by the biblical text.
Tue, 26 May 2020
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Literature And Literary Theory Keywords: cultivate; juvenile; poetry; rehabilitation; social character
Online: 26 May 2020 (06:31:18 CEST)
Social character is the key for someone to interact with the surrounding community. Interaction and socialization need to be introduced early by parents. If the results turned in reverse, then there must be other ways to be learned and practiced in family life. This study aims to cultivate social characters to children in the Juvenile Rehabilitation Institution through poetry learning. Changes continue to occur in handling and coaching juvenile delinquency in Indonesia. Regulations for the management of coaching continue to be carried out from Law No. 3 of 1997 concerning the Law on Juvenile Justice, then it was changed to Act No. 11 of 2012 concerning the System of Juvenile Criminal Justice. Characteristics of this relatively new law contain the main mechanisms of protecting children, who have problems with the law and following the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Education in the Juvenile Rehabilitation Institution has been carried out with all the limitations and can bring changes in the correctional behavior of children to be better that makes education restore the child's identity. Education held at this institution is expected to be able to achieve the ideals of children to be more beneficial after completing a kind of inclusive education. By applying a pragmatic approach, the study expects that there will be a change in children since they can learn the contents of poems, and at the same time, they are able to express their feeling by writing poems as well. From the process of learning, social characters in children such as honesty, openness, tolerance, cooperation, will be growing step by step.
Sun, 24 May 2020
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Literature And Literary Theory Keywords: revenge; Nazi; fashion magazine
Online: 24 May 2020 (19:50:52 CEST)
The research was about Hélène Junot, the major character in the SINS. Hélène had a very dreadful life when she had to witness Maman, who was expecting a baby, tortured by the Nazis. Her older sister, Catharine was raped and her baby sister, Marie was burnt on her belly. The feminist psychological approach was applied in the research to find about Hélène's background for searching the two Nazis who had tortured Maman, Catharine, and Marie. The result of the research showed that after Hélène met with Schmidt, she became helpless since Schmidt was no longer a whole man. His two legs and genitals were gone after he stepped on a mine in Russia. She made a deal with Karl von Eiderfeld, the albino, by making him one of her stockholders in Hélène Junot International Inc., unless von Eiderfeld preferred to have his document as a war criminal handed to the Israelis authorities. Hélène had a natural talent for fashion and dreamed that one day she would be a fashion magazine publisher. She became Madame Dupré's assistant. It was Madame Dupré who had encouraged her to go to Paris to start her carrier. During an art exhibition, she met Odile Joly, a prominent designer who was attracted to her beauty and manners. When working as Madame Dupré's seamstress, Hélène met Hubert de Legér who had fallen in love with her at first sight and became obsessed by her beauty. Later, Hélène became Comte de Legér’s mistress (Hubert’s father) and was saving money by selling all the jewelry that the Comte had given her to start looking for the two Nazis and fulfilling her childhood dream. Hélène was later married to Stanislaw Kowalsky, a distinguished concert pianist, but the marriage only lasts a few months. Hubert de Legér had murdered Stanislaw out of jealousy and hatred. From the money she got from Comte de Legér and Stanislaw, Hélène was able to trace the two Nazis and established Hélène Junot International Inc. She then married Siegfred Bavier, but again it did not last long. Siegfried died in his office. Despite her success in finding the two Nazis, Hélène was not content. Her life became complete and whole after she met Nigel Somerset, who later married her.
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Literature And Literary Theory Keywords: patriarchy concept; persistent female figure; female sexuality
Online: 24 May 2020 (11:35:07 CEST)
The research is seeking for the elements of the Authentic Realism approach in five Australian short stories by Julie Keyes, Judith Ebun, Jess Roberts, Airdre Grant, and Margot Titcher, to which an authentic realist reader would respond. The content analysis method is used in searching for the depth and significance of the texts. Several aspects such as a depiction of the characters, strong female characters, the form and language of the text, the relation of the text to the author and experience are taken to obtain the reader's response by way of an Authentic Realism approach. The findings show that the short stories: My Mother’s New Boyfriend, Souvenir, Heartbreak Hotel, Lovers Knot and Someone Else are proof that women have their own perspectives and reactions. The female characters make their own choice themselves devoid of men’s influence. Despite Jim’s idleness, unwaged condition and dependency Mother remains his girlfriend. Mother’s previous boyfriends are mostly similar to Jim’s characteristics. Lynne told Mark that she has a lump in one of her breast and will soon have a mastectomy. Being disappointed and scared to picture Lynne with one breast, and lopsided, Mark decides to leave her. The female character in Lovers Knot enjoys having an unusual sex life with Gary. Her meeting with Jeff is only a break from her routine. In Heartbreak Hotel, Mum seems to be a typical ordinary wife with a moody husband. But it turns out that she is extraordinary for she handles all the problems single-handed including her sex life. Deirdre decides to take her new post in Perth after Paul snubs her. The decisions are theirs. The choice may not be perfect, but the choice is made. The writing style of the texts shows that the authors are experienced and know very well how to use the form and language to communicate with their (women) readers. Since the theme of the texts is mostly about daily life experience, (women) readers will find no difficulty in reading them; they can even share their feelings and experience with the characters in the texts. Moreover, by using authentic realist approach students of the English Department learn more about women's writings.
Mon, 24 February 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0339.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Literature And Literary Theory Keywords: citizen; modern government; monument; phenomenon; representation; statistics
Online: 24 February 2020 (02:26:06 CET)
This study aims to identify modern bureaucratic government phenomenon expressed in W.H. Auden’s poem “The Unknown Citizen” (UC). This phenomenon will be revealed through the use of figures of speech, symbols and imagery in the poem. This poem is chosen as the object of the study since phenomenon happened in the poem represents people’s life and government practice in the modern era. Government, in the poem, seems to be very dominant. Its bureaucratic apparatus is powerful. Through its sophisticated technology, the bureau of statistics is able to detect the citizen’s identity. But, ironically, it could have not identified UC’s name as he lived in the world. He, then, was honored by the state by being erected the marble monument. The poem is analyzed by applying phenomenological criticism. The analysis finds that the representation of modern government is expressed through symbols emphasized by dramatic irony and supported by the use of internal sensation imagery. UC is the allegory of the average person with his bravery he sacrifices for the country. The state ought to give him an honor. In this poem Auden, actually, wants to write a parody for establishing monuments in some countries to honor the struggles of their soldiers who died in the World War I. Those monuments are really tombs since the function of a monument is a state’s thanksgiving for their sacrifice.
Mon, 21 January 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0197.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Literature And Literary Theory Keywords: post-2003 Iraq; fiction; Iraqi diaspora; sectarianism; secularism; Shīʿism; ethno-religious identity; alterity
Online: 21 January 2019 (08:00:48 CET)
The prerogative to narrate the experience of marginal identities, particularly ethno-religious ones, appeared only in the post-occupation era in Iraqi fiction. Traditionally, secular Iraqi discourse struggled to openly address “sectarianism” due to the prevalent notion that sectarian identities are mutually exclusive and oppositional to national identity. It is distinctly in post-2003 Iraq—more precisely, since the sectarian violence of 2006–2007 began to cut across class, civil society, and urban identities—that works which consciously refuse to depict normative Iraqi identities with their mainstream formulations become noticeable. We witness this development first in the Western diaspora, where Iraqi novels exhibit a fascination with the ethno-religious culture of the Iraqi margins or subalterns and impart a message of pluralistic secularism. This paper investigates the origins of the taboo that proscribed articulations of ethno-religious subjectivities in 20th-century Iraqi fiction, and then culls examples of recent diasporic Iraqi novels in which these subjectivities are encoded and amplified in distinct ways. In the diasporic novel, I argue, modern Iraqi intellectuals attain the conceptual and political distance necessary for contending retrospectively with their formative socialization experiences in Iraq. Through a new medium of marginalization—the diasporic experience of the authors themselves—they are equipped with a newfound desire to unmask subcultures in Iraq and to write more effectively about marginal aspects of Iraqi identity inside and outside the country. These new diasporic writings showcase processes of ethnic and religious socialization in the Iraqi public sphere. The result is deconstruction of mainstream Iraqi identity narratives and instrumentalization of marginal identities in a nonviolent struggle against sectarian violence.
Wed, 26 September 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0506.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Literature And Literary Theory Keywords: Afro-Asian interactions, Asian Latin American literature and characters, Sanfancón, china mulata, “magical negro,” chinos mambises, Brazil, Cuba, transculturation, discourse of mestizaje
Online: 26 September 2018 (10:38:04 CEST)
This essay studies Afro-Asian sociocultural interactions in cultural production by or about Asian Latin Americans, with an emphasis on Cuba and Brazil. Among the recurrent characters are the black slave, the china mulata, or the black ally who expresses sympathy or even marries the Asian character. This reflects a common history of bondage shared by black slaves, Chinese coolies, and Japanese indentured workers, as well as a common history of marronage. These conflicts and alliances between Asians and blacks contest the official discourse of mestizaje (Spanish-indigenous dichotomies in Mexico and Andean countries, for example, or black and white binaries in Brazil and the Caribbean), which, under the guise of incorporating the Other, favored whiteness, all the while attempting to silence, ignore, or ultimately erase their worldviews and cultures.
Mon, 16 July 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0257.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Literature And Literary Theory Keywords: ideology; structure; possibility; at once; catachresis; thread; unravelling
Online: 16 July 2018 (05:10:43 CEST)
This article studies examines the relationship of literature, ideology, and reading through a study of language, or la langue, as explored by De Man, Derrida, and Lacan. It attempts to show that structure, assumed to be the given of language, even within deconstruction, is, as structure, that which undoes structure. Literature explores this possibility of language, which is that it be and not be at the same time. The article finishes by studying the connection between this idea of literature as the possibility of language and the possibility of man, an important theme of the above three thinkers.
Tue, 3 July 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0035.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Literature And Literary Theory Keywords: choice poetics; poetics; narrative games; choices; player goals; roleplay; complicity
Online: 3 July 2018 (10:41:24 CEST)
Choice poetics is a formalist framework that seeks to capture the impacts choices have on player experiences within narrative games. Developed in part to support algorithmic generation of narrative choices, the theory includes a detailed analytical framework for understanding the impressions choice structures make by analyzing the relationships between options, outcomes, and player goals. The theory also emphasizes the need to account for players’ various modes of engagement, which vary both during play and between players. In this work, we illustrate the non-computational application of choice poetics to the analysis of three different choices, in order to further develop the theory and make it more accessible to others. We focus first on analyzing so-called false choices in the game “Mass Effect”, and show how they actually provide meaningfully different outcomes for players who are utilizing certain modes of engagement. Second, we use choice poetics to examine the central repeated choice in “Undertale”, and show how it can be used to contrast two different player types that will approach a choice differently. Finally, we give an example of fine-grained analysis using a choice from the game “Papers Please”, which breaks down options and their outcomes to illustrate how the choice pushes players towards complicity via the introduction of uncertainty. Through all of these examples, we hope to show the usefulness of choice poetics as a framework for understanding narrative choices, and to demonstrate concretely how one could productively apply it to choices ‘in the wild’.
Mon, 11 July 2016
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Literature And Literary Theory Keywords: posthuman; deterriteriolization; diaspora; home; Arab women; Arab Anglophone
Online: 11 July 2016 (10:41:37 CEST)
The present paper offers a reading of three selected novels by two Anglophone Arab writers Diana Abujaber and Fadia Faqir. Our reading is fundamentally based on a philosophical post-humanist perception of other ethnic minorities as being inferior and un-human. In interpreting the three novels, Arabian Jazz (2003), My Name is Salma (2007) and Willow Trees Don’t Weep (2014), a main concern is to bring to light how Arabs –and Muslims –have been zombified and de-humanized in Western mainstream media and culture based on a biased stigmatization and stereotyping of a large heterogeneous ethnic group wherein religions, traditions, languages and cultures are diverse. Also, a pivotal preoccupation is going to be the exiling journey of the protagonists from their homelands to Western countries, and how these journeys contribute to the post-humanization of the self, the identity and the culture of Arab displaced immigrants.