ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1641.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: dietary habits; meal timing; meal frequency; late night dinner; skipping meals; Kuwait
Online: 26 September 2023 (03:23:15 CEST)
Dietary habits, including meal frequency, meal timing, and skipping meals, have been extensively studied due to their association with the development of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This study describes dietary habits, meal timing, meal frequency, skipping meals, and late-night eating in Kuwaiti adults. The Kuwait National Nutrition Surveillance System data was utilized to reach the objectives of this study. The findings reveal that approximately 50% of the adults in Kuwait eat after 10 p.m., 29% skip breakfast, and 9.8% skip dinner. Furthermore, adults in Kuwait consume 4.4 meals per day on average. Women skip breakfast more often and have extended night fasting than men (p<0.001). Married adults skip breakfast and dinner less than unmarried adults (p<0.001). In conclusion, this descriptive study provides valuable insights into the dietary habits of Kuwaiti adults, emphasizing the importance of further investigating the association between meal timing, meal frequency, and the prevalence of NCDs in Kuwait.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1258.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: Schizophrenia; Nutritional deficiencies; Women; Antipsychotics; Poverty
Online: 19 September 2023 (08:27:10 CEST)
Severe mental illness such as schizophrenia is associated with factors such as unemployment, meagre per capita income, and residence in disadvantaged, poorly resourced neighbourhoods. This means difficult access to healthy food and is particularly problematic for pregnant women and mothers with children to feed. Eating problems are also linked to the necessity of taking antipsychotic drugs that often lead to serious cognitive, psychological, and behavioural sequelae. Psychosis makes it extremely difficult to maintain a healthy diet; nutritional deficiencies result, as do medical complications. The results of present literature review confirm the gravity of the problem and suggest a number of potentially useful interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0367.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: Coping; Stress; Hemodialysis; Emotional Preoccupation; Coping with Health Injuries and problems (CHIP); Chronic Kidney Disease Stress Inventory (CKDSI)
Online: 6 September 2023 (09:42:15 CEST)
Hemodialysis (HD) patients experience significant psychological stress related HD. Coping strategies are utilized to help these patients cope with this stress. Prevalence of different types of coping strategies in relation with differential levels of HD-related stress scores and by demographics were assessed. HD patients aged 18 years and above who were seeking regular treatment in a specific HD-unit of a hospital in the upper Midwest, were surveyed between March 2020 and July 2020. Descriptive statistics, correlational analyses, and regression analyses were performed. Females could be expected to have emotional coping scores 8 units greater than males, as B = 8.017 for sex in the model, p =.000. Females could be expected to have coping scores 6.4 points higher than males when adjusted for stress levels, as: B = 6.351, p =.001 for sex in the model. For each 1point increase in Stress Score, the Coping Score could be expected to: increase 6.8 points when adjusted for Sex, where B = 6.751 and p =.000. Increased prevalence of emotional pre-occupation was only observed among female patients which increased with the increase in stress. Psychological interventions in female HD patients should be strongly considered in addressing emotional pre-occupation coping.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2075.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: Megaptera novaeangliae; Land-based observations; Anthropogenic interactions; Migration; Feeding; Southeast Pacific
Online: 31 July 2023 (08:00:03 CEST)
The notion that ‘Stock-G’ humpback whales off western South America are primarily deep oceanic migrators is poorly supported. We documented 66 land-based sightings from Pucusana, Lima Sur: 18 incidental (2002–2023) and 48 dedicated sightings during the northbound winter migration (June-July 2023), covering respectively 38 and 105 individual whales, despite a mean daily observer effort of only 58.7 min. Estimated distances from shore ranged 20–7,000 m (mean= 2,729 m) at depths 25–99 m, while 50% migrated at < 2,500 m (median) from shore. Several groups skirted the coastline from headland to headland. Of five southbound migrating groups, four included an adult with neonate; no northbound groups enclosed a neonate. Two cases of single juvenile/subadult whales moving multidirectionally and closely associated with large seabird feeding frenzies, were considered foraging also. In 2023, 94% of all northbound nearshore sightings occurred from 14 June-11 July, signalling the maximum threat period for interactions with coastal fisheries off metropolitan Lima. If migration is temporally and spatially predictable, effective mitigating measures should be feasible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1660.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: reading; recognition; multi-stable perception; higher-order processing
Online: 28 July 2023 (11:39:07 CEST)
Reading is a complex cognitive task involving processes from different systems. The present work aims to identify some points of divergence reported in the reading literature and discuss them in a new experimental paradigm framework. Inspired by the paradigms of perceptual identification and rapid parallel presentation (RPVP), we emphasize that the originality of our experimental paradigm lies in the recruitment of multi-stable Arabic percepts within the region where low-level processing occurs (i.e., the visual span area). With good flexibility, the current paradigm has reached higher-order processing levels. In agreement with previous works highlighting the parafoveal-on-foveal effect, results suggest parallel word processing. Furthermore, they suggest a rapid extraction of syntactic and semantic information from words in sentences while attributing an advantage to semantic processing in the emergence of the sentence superiority effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1749.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: Visual span; visual attention; Crowding; Reading speed
Online: 26 July 2023 (10:14:39 CEST)
The visual span refers to the number of letters readers can identify in a single fixation without using linguistic skills. Proponents of the visual span hypothesis postulate an influence of early visual processing on reading speed. Given the slowness of reading Arabic texts, the present work aims to study the development of the visual span and its effects on reading speed in the Arabic-speaking context. Thirty-four subjects participated in the study. The trigram task and the rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm were used to estimate visual span size and reading speed. In line with our initial assumptions, the results showed a significant effect of grade level on reading speed (F(2,31) = 30.93, p<0.001), visual span size (F(2,31) = 20.57, p<0.001). In good alignment with previous work, our results show that visual span size could explain around 40% of the reading speed variability. Interestingly, our analyses revealed a narrowing of visual span size in our Arabic sample. The results of study 2, suggest that the poor performance in the trigram task is due to poor visual attention capacities in our Arabic readers
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0494.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: eating disorders; weight loss; diet; mother; father; adolescence
Online: 7 July 2023 (11:51:18 CEST)
Adolescents’ eating disorders and disordered eating behaviours appear to be a growing public health concern. The aetiology of these conditions is complex, as many different factors interact for their development. Among them, family factors such as parenting styles and comments regarding weight from family members are considered critical and are extensively researched. However, the impact of parental dieting has received less attention. A literature review was conducted in order to examine the relationship between parental engagement in weight-reduction dieting and their adolescent offspring’s disordered eating behaviours. The review was conducted in three databases (PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar). A number of studies indicated that adolescents whose parents were engaged in dieting in order to lose weight are more likely to showcase disordered eating behaviours. However, research about this relationship is very scarce. More studies on the link between parental eating and dieting habits and the risk of disordered eating in adolescents are needed. Moreover, parents should be informed regarding the possible risks when they choose to follow weight-loss diets and the importance of adopting healthy eating and weight-control habits for the whole family.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0224.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: handicraft; craft; Serrano cheese; Colonial cheese; focus group; perception.
Online: 4 July 2023 (12:06:43 CEST)
The concept of artisanal products has been largely discussed mainly due to concerns about the inappropriate use of the term that may cause confusion for the consumers. Cheeses are important food models to evaluate consumers’ and producers’ perception about artisanal foods worldwide. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the perception of consumers and cheesemakers towards artisan foods, focusing on artisanal cheeses. For this purpose, two focus group were performed either with cheese producers and with consumers to discuss the topic. Colonial and Serrano cheeses, traditional and cultural dairy products in Brazil, were used as food model for the discussion. Producers and consumers related artisan foods to small scale of production, handicraft and freshness. Affective memories were also an important issue related to artisanal cheeses. For cheesemakers, artisan cheeses must be produced with unpasteurized milk, which was not cited by consumers. Consumers disclosed the intention of pay a premium price for food products that present artisan seals on front-package-label, mainly due to the guarantee of acquiring a quality product. The confusion about artisanal and traditional food concepts were observed, which is a subject to be deeply evaluated further. The findings provide useful implications to policy makers and institutions that can influence citizens’ attitudes and consumption patterns of artisanal products.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0092.v5
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: Cognitive psychology; determinism; materialism; new physics; theoretical hypothesis; thought ex-periment; ultraquantum particles
Online: 3 July 2023 (09:44:52 CEST)
To date, no scientific study has found evidence of an afterlife, and the mechanism of consciousness is two of the most challenging questions. Here, I show a hypothesis for consciousness and the probability of an afterlife through three simple thought experiments and theoretical evidence. More studies are needed to understand the mechanism precisely. I found that consciousness can be discussed based on a new theory. Here, I hypothesize that when a person or animal dies, the selection of a new nervous system's characteristic of a new life might depend on the characteristics of the final evolved yet unknown particle. Here, I suggest that the positive or adverse evolution of the said particle depends on the natural evolution of the materialistic brain's cognition, including intelligence. The fittest intellectuals, those who have a higher potential scan mind virus, may survive happier and help more for others to improve psychological well-being. Here, I suggest that when a brain dies, the two microparticles might emit at infinite speed from the dead brain and simultaneously bond with a naturally select suitable zygote or early nervous system somewhere in the universe/s, forming a new life with the impact of new nurture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0532.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: Attention; phonological processing; space
Online: 7 June 2023 (10:04:25 CEST)
Spatial attentional biases can be observed during the processing of linguistic material. For example, we previously reported that healthy subjects overestimate the semantic distance between word stimuli in the right vs left space. Here we explored whether attentional biases are also observed in tasks requiring evaluation of phonological distance between words in the right and left hemispace. Forty-one healthy subjects were presented with triplets of words arranged in space and were asked to indicate the side of space in which the phonological distance between the middle word and an outer word was smaller. In Experiment 1 real words and pseudowords were used, while in Experiment 2 only pseudowords and consonant strings were used. Subjects overestimated the phonological distance between the middle and outer words in the right space. These findings were specific to word stimuli. These results are consistent with the idea that semantic and phonological information may be internally mapped onto spatial representations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0026.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: Fibromyalgia (FM); miRNA; pleiotropy; gene regulation; epigenetics
Online: 1 June 2023 (04:50:50 CEST)
MicroRNAs are tissue-specifically expressed short RNAs that serve post-transcriptional gene reg-ulation. A specific microRNA can bind to mRNAs of different genes and thereby suppress their protein production. In the context of the complex phenotype of fibromyalgia, we used the Axiom miRNA Target Site Genotyping Array to search genome-wide for DNA variations in microRNA genes, their regulatory regions and in the 3'UTR of protein-coding genes. To identify dis-ease-relevant DNA polymorphisms, a cohort of 176 female fibromyalgia patients was studied in comparison to a cohort of 162 healthy women. The association between 48.329 markers and fibromyalgia was investigated using logistic regression adjusted for population stratification. 29 markers had p-values < 1 × 10-3 and the strongest asso-ciation was observed for rs758459 (p-value of 0.0001), located in the Neurogenin 1 gene, targeted by hsa-miR-130a-3p. Furthermore, we identified a gene locus (rs2295963) predicted to disrupt binding of hsa-miR-1-3p. Both microRNAs were previously reported to be differentially expressed in fi-bromyalgia patients. Despite its limited statistical power, this study reports two microRNA-related polymorphisms which may play a functional role in the pathogenesis of fibromyalgia. For a better understanding of the disease pattern, further functional analyses on the biological significance of microRNAs and microRNA-related polymorphisms are required.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2241.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: avian olfaction; Sexual selection; Social selection; chemical cues; Partner quality
Online: 31 May 2023 (11:54:29 CEST)
The role of chemical communication in social relationships of birds is receiving growing attention but our knowledge is still scarce compared to other taxa. Previous evidence suggests that chemical cues emitted by birds may carry information about their characteristics that may be useful in a sexual selection context. However, experimental studies are needed to investigate the role of bird chemical cues in signalling quality of potential partners. We performed an experimental study aimed to disentangle whether female zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata, use chemical cues to assess the body condition and body size of potential partners. We offered focal females the scent of two males differing in body condition and body size. Our results show that females can assess the body condition of potential partners using olfaction. However, contrary to expected in a mate choice context, our results show that females avoided the scent of the male with greater body condition and body size. Our results therefore suggest that, despite performing the study during breeding period, social interactions may be mediating the avoidance of the scent of the conspecific of the opposite sex with better body condition and body size in this gregarious species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1326.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: image e-book guidance; text guidance; self-efficacy
Online: 18 May 2023 (10:23:37 CEST)
This research used an experimental study design in which 60 subjects were randomly assigned to either an experimental (image e-book guidance) group or a control (text guidance) group after meeting the admission conditions and agreeing to participate in the study. It was proven that providing image e-book guidance before surgery significantly changed the behavior of patients and promoted relief of urinary catheter discomfort through self-efficacy to reduce urinary catheter pain after surgery. It was found that providing image e-book guidance can shorten the time for health education and provide patients with repeated medical education and familiarity with health guidance, which can help to address the important clinical service demand issue and the shortage of nursing staff.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0758.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: Honeybee bred lines; Apis mellifera L.; Controlled breeding; Defensive behavior; Chemical pheromone
Online: 10 May 2023 (14:03:49 CEST)
Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) express complex behavioral patterns (aggressiveness) to exhibit defensive mechanisms for their survival. Their phenotypic expression of aggressive behavior is influenced by internal and external stimuli. Knowledge of this behavior is recently important though beekeepers are still faced with the challenges of selecting aggressive and less-aggressive bred lines. Field evaluation of aggressiveness among bred lines of honey bees is required to overcome the challenges. Chemical cues (alarm pheromone and isopentyl acetate mixed with paraffin oil), physical and visual stimuli (dark leather suede, colony marbling and suede jiggling) were used to evaluate aggressiveness and orientation among five bred lines of honeybee colonies. Our results showed that both chemical assays recruited bees but the time of recruitment was significantly lower for alarm pheromone. Honeybees’ response to both assays culminated to stings which differed among bred lines for alarm pheromone and paraffin when colonies were marbled. Honeybee aggression varied among bred lines and was higher in more aggressive bred lines compared to less-aggressive bred lines. Our findings suggest that it is crucial to repeatedly evaluate orientation aggressiveness at the colony level and among bred lines when selecting breeding colonies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0331.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: anxiety; circadian system; heart rate variability; melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells; stress
Online: 14 April 2023 (02:40:18 CEST)
The circadian and stress-realizing systems are interconnected, and the balance of their interaction determines the state of human health. The objective of this study was to investigate the modulating effect of activating the circadian system on heart rate variability in female medical students with high anxiety while performing a cognitive task. After 20 minutes of adequate stimulation of circadian photoreceptors with a monochromatic blue light, the cognitive task performance resulted in a decrease in sympathetic impact. During the session of using Blue Sky Pro glasses, a trend of increasing heart rate variability was observed in a state of relative rest (especially in the first 5 minutes). A comparative analysis of the parameters of the letter cancellation test before and after light exposure revealed a statistically significant increase in the indexes reflecting mental productivity, work accuracy, and concentration of attention. The results suggest an essential physiological role of the human circadian system in modulating the autonomic and psycho-emotional conditions, as well as cognitive functions of individuals with high anxiety. Our findings indicate the possibility of quickly correcting the balance in human systemic regulatory mechanisms using the activation of retinal circadian photoreceptors by blue light.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0517.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: Autism spectrum disorder; Auditory stream segregation; Hearing assistive technology; Speech-in-noise perception; Tonal language speakers
Online: 30 March 2023 (02:52:15 CEST)
Purpose: Hearing assistive technology (HAT) has been shown to be a viable solution to the speech-in-noise perception (SPIN) issue in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, little is known about its efficacy in tonal language speakers. This study compared sentence-level SPIN performance between Chinese children with ASD and neurotypical (NT) children and evaluated HAT use in improving SPIN performance and easing SPIN difficulty. Methods: Children with ASD (n=26) and NT children (n=19) aged 6-12 performed two adaptive tests in steady-state noise and three fixed-level tests in quiet and steady-state noise with and without using HAT. Speech recognition thresholds (SRT) and accuracy rates were assessed using adaptive and fixed-level tests, respectively. Parents or teachers of the ASD group completed a questionnaire regarding children’s listening difficulty under six circumstances before and after a ten-day trial period of HAT use. Results: Although the two groups of children had comparable SRTs, the ASD group showed a significantly lower SPIN accuracy rate than the NT group. Also, a significant impact of noise was found in the ASD group’s accuracy rate, but not in the NT group’s. There was a general improvement in the ASD group’s SPIN performance with HAT and a decrease in their listening difficulty ratings across all conditions after the device trial. Conclusion: The findings indicated inadequate SPIN in the ASD group using a relatively sensitive measure to gauge SPIN performance among children. The markedly increased accuracy rate in noise during HAT-on sessions for the ASD group confirmed the feasibility of HAT for improving SPIN performance in controlled laboratory settings, and the reduced post-use ratings of listening difficulty further confirmed the benefits of HAT use in daily scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0140.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: quality of life; physical activity; physical function; food and nutrition; older Japanese adults
Online: 9 January 2023 (06:32:36 CET)
Japan is experiencing a super-aging society faster than is anywhere else worldwide. Consequently, extending healthy life expectancy is an urgent social issue. To understand diet that supports the extension of healthy life expectancy, we studied the relationships among quality of life (QOL: SF-36 questionnaire), physical activity (number of steps and activity calculated using an accelerometer), physical function (muscle strength, movement function, agility, static balance, dynamic balance, and walking function) and dietary intake among 469 older adults living in the Tokyo metropolitan area (65–75 years old, men/women = 166/303) from February 23, 2017, to March 31, 2018. There was a significant positive association between physical QOL and steps, moderate-intensity activity, and high-intensity activity (p < 0.05), and a significant positive association (p < 0.05) between physical activity and movement, static balance, and walking functions, but no association with muscle strength. These three body functions were significantly positively correlated with intake of vegetables, seeds, fruits, and milk, and with magnesium, potassium, vitamin B6, and the dietary fibre/carbohydrate ratio and composition ratios (p < 0.05). Balancing food and nutrition may improve QOL in older adults through increased physical function and physical activity. Future verification of interventions is needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0163.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: food security; food waste; nutrition; overconsumption; sustainable and healthy food choices/systems
Online: 12 October 2022 (05:41:27 CEST)
Food security is a matter of global concern, as the supply of food is one of the basic needs, ensuring the survival of the species. The trend of globalization and development of the global economy has shifted the responsible, local consumption patterns towards an increased homogeneity of diets, with food products being disconnected from their source, leading to two major results: (1) increased global consumption, driven by the extensive availability of affordable seasonal foods throughout the year and (2) increased uncertainty in the supply chain – susceptible to disruptions, causing food insecurity. To determine what the nutritional model is in the case of the present study – Romania – we developed a questionnaire of 32 questions and distributed it to 1,053 respondents from Romania. The survey was conducted during 2021 and 2022, both in urban and rural areas with the aim of investigating the consumption pattern of the population. The analysis of the questionnaire data reveals overconsumption of animal products, starchy vegetables and bread and pastry products. This nutritional pattern with a high intake in animal protein, correlated with a lack of diversification, is extremely unsustainable, having a negative impact on human health and environmental health.behaviour towards a careful approach to food, environment and personal health, aims to identify consumption patterns that have the potential to increase the sustainability of the food system and a positive correlation with food security. Adopting sustainable dietary patters, based on short supply chains and mindful consumption, has great potential in restoring food security and resilience to adversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0007.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: dairy cow; somatic cell count; periparturient diseases
Online: 1 September 2022 (07:10:13 CEST)
Intramammary infections (mastitis) of dairy cows, along with other periparturient diseases, have become problematic within the dairy industry as they lead to loss of milk production. The main objective of this study was to determine whether elevated somatic cell counts (SCC) in cows prior to drying off are related to the incidence of other periparturient diseases. Additionally, we de-termined whether milk composition and milk yield are affected by a high SCC prior to drying off. Somatic cell counts of milk samples were determined prior to dry off (n = 140) and were used to classify cows in the study as high (>200,000 cells/mL) or low (<200,000 cells/mL) SCC. The com-position of milk was analyzed before drying off and at 1 and 2 weeks after calving. The results showed that an elevated SCC before drying off was related to the incidence of ketosis. Cows with a high SCC at drying off also showed an increased likelihood of retained placenta, metritis, and lameness postpartum; however, it was not statistically significant. Milk lactose was lower in cows with high SCC, while protein content was lower after parturition. Milk production was lower for cows with pre-drying elevated SCC, particularly for cows with retained placenta, keto-sis, and mastitis. In conclusion, cows with pre-drying elevated SCC were more likely to develop disease after parturition and produce less milk and with lower lactose and protein content.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0110.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: food security; food waste; nutrition; overconsumption; sustainable and healthy food choices/systems
Online: 8 June 2022 (03:35:57 CEST)
Food security is a matter of global interest, as the provision of food resources is the primary determinant of human existence. Food is one of the basic needs, ensuring the survival of the species. The trend of globalization and development of the global economy has shifted the responsible local consumption patterns to an increased homogeneity of diets, food products being disconnected from their source. This disconnection led to two major results: (1) increased global consumption, with seasonal foods now available throughout the year, and a decrease in food prices on the global market, and (2) increased uncertainty in the supply chain, susceptible to disruptions, as was the case during the Covid-19 pandemic. The present study, based on the research and analysis of third-party data on food security, sustainable diets, consumption patterns and recommended actions to change the current unsustainable consumer behaviour towards a careful approach to food, environment and personal health, aims to identify consumption patterns that have the potential to increase the sustainability of the food system and a positive correlation with food security. Adopting sustainable dietary patters, based on short supply chains and mindful consumption, has great potential in restoring food security and resilience to adversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0038.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: COVID-19; eating habits; physical activity; MEDAS-14; Emotional eating questionnaire (EEQ) and university population.
Online: 2 December 2021 (12:52:17 CET)
(1) Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic, eating and physical activity behaviours, in a University population. A healthy diet such as the Mediterranean Diet (MD) pattern, rich in fruit and vegetables can prevent degenerative diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, etc. (2) Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study, data were collected by an anonymous online questionnaire. Participants completed a survey consisting of 3 sections: sociodemographic data; dietary and physical activity behaviour; questionnaire of the Mediterranean Diet (MEDAS-14) and the emotional eater questionnaire Garaulet (EEQ). (3) Results: A total of 168 participants completed the questionnaire 66.7% women, from Spain 79.2%, 76.8% students, living in family home 76.2% and in normal weight 66.1% . Our population did the grocery 1 or less per week (76.8%); decreased or stay the same the consumption of fruits (57.1%), vegetables (58.9%), dairy products (74.4%), pulses (73.2%), fish/seafood (76.8%), white meat (83.3%), red and processed meat (91.1%), snacks (78.6%), rice/pasta/potatoes (78.6%), nuts (83.9%), low alcohol drinks (89.3%), spirits (98.8%) and sugary drinks (91.7%) . Increased cooking time (73.2%) and decreased or stay the same their physical activity (63.7%). University Employees increased more weight (1.01±0.02) than students (0.99±0.03) (p<0.05). 79.8% of the participant obtained a Medium/High Adherence to the MD. Emotional and very emotional eaters were higher in women group (p<0.01). (4) Conclusions: In the event of further confinement, strategies should be implemented to promote a balanced and healthy diet together with the practice of physical activity, taking special care of the group of women and University Employees.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0553.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: physical activity; Body Mass Index; COVID-19; pupils; health; lifestyle; sport; obesity
Online: 30 November 2021 (08:46:52 CET)
Regular physical activity is a very important factor in the healthy development of an individual and an essential part of a healthy lifestyle. However, today's population still suffers from insufficient amount of exercise caused mainly by technical progress and often inappropriate conditions for practicing sports. In relation to this, we are grappling with a steady increase in obesity. During the COVID-19 pandemic, conditions for regular physical activity became even more unfavourable, with the declaration of a state of emergency and anti-pandemic measures leading to the closure of sports grounds and sporting competitions. In our research survey, we attempted to determine whether there would be changes in physical activity and BMI before and after the situation caused by the COVID-19 disease in upper primary school pupils in the Czech Republic. Using a questionnaire survey of a sample of children (n =1456), we found that already before the pandemic, 69% of the observed sample had not met the recommended amount of physical activity and only 67% of the sample was of normal weight. After the end of the anti-pandemic measures, the observed values deteriorated even more. There was a significant decrease in children with normal weight (by 7.5%) and an increase in children with Class 1 obesity. At the same time, we saw a significant decrease in children doing sports.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0317.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: Dense urban area; Park green space; Perceived sensory dimension; Attention restoration; moderator
Online: 14 December 2020 (09:46:24 CET)
Research shows that stress, a common problem in dense cities, can be relieved in the natural environment. As great significance has been attached to the urban environment and public health in the society, this paper aims to study the relation and interaction between the perceived sensory dimension of urban park green space, attention restoration and state empathy. Therefore, we conducted an on-site questionnaire survey in four typical parks in Chengdu in terms of age, sex, daily stress, frequency of access in parks and other basic information of the respondents. The main part consists of perceived dimension, state empathy and attention restoration. The software SPSS24.0 is applied to the test of the validity and reliability of the PSD Scale, and then the important correlation between the perceived sensory dimensions in the parks and visitors' attention restoration is analyzed through multiple linear regression. Finally, the moderation effect of state empathy is tested by PROCESS. The findings show that (1) only seven dimensions in the PSD Scale are effective; (2) Serene and Refuge in the perceived sensory dimensions have significant effect on the restorative components of attention. (3) Except the dimensions of Rich in Species and Refuge, empathy enhanced the moderation effect in the interaction between the other five dimensions the Perceived Restorative Scale(PRS), especially in the interaction between the dimension Social and PRS. However, this study needs to be further explored to provide scientific basis and design strategy guidance for the research on the restoration potential of urban park green space in high-density urban areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0078.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: cigarette smoke; ACE2; HCoV-19; susceptibility
Online: 5 March 2020 (03:15:43 CET)
Background: Cigarette smoking (CS) is a global public health problem and a high-risk factor for various diseases. In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (HCoV-19) was identified in Wuhan, China. Because ACE2 has been identified as a receptor for HCoV-19, we hypothesize that CS affects the expression pattern of ACE2 in respiratory tract, causing differences in susceptibility to the virus. Methods: Three datasets (GSE994, GSE17913, and GSE18344), were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Correlation and enrichment analysis were used to evaluate the function of ACE2. Also, the different expression of ACE2 in different groups of three datasets were analyzed. Results: Genes associated with ACE2 were enriched in important biological processes such as viral processes and immune response. Elevated ACE2 were found in intrapulmonary airways (GSE994) and oral epithelial cells (GSE17913) of smokers but not those of non-smokers or former smokers. Significant dose- and time-dependent relationships between CS and ACE2 expression were observed in mouse lung tissues, and long periods without smoking were found to significantly reduce ACE2 expression. Conclusions: Both human and rat data confirmed that CS could induce increased ACE2 in the respiratory tract, indicating that smokers have a higher susceptibility to HCoV-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0083.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: Cardiorespiratory Fitness; Muscle Strength; Feeding Patterns; Life Style; Children
Online: 6 February 2020 (10:27:07 CET)
Background: The relationship between adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MD) and both physical fitness (PF) and physical activity (PA) level has been analysed in several studies. The aim of this research was to describe, compare and analyse the level of PF and PA in schoolchildren aged 6-13 in the Region of Murcia, according to adherence to the MD. Methods: A descriptive and cross-sectional study was performed. A total of 370 schoolchildren (44.9% girls) aged 6-13 (8.7±1.8) from six primary schools in the Region of Murcia (Spain). Results: Only 25.9% of the schoolchildren had optimal adherence to the MD. Regarding the scores of the different PF tests in MD groups, only statistically significant differences were found for CRF (p=0.048) in boys. PA level, showed statistically significant differences in both boys (p=0.040) and girls (p=0.016). A positive relationship was found between the KIDMED index and CRF (ρ=.127), standing broad jump (ρ=.133) and PA level (ρ=.235). A higher probability of having a greater CRF (OR=1.17; CI95%=1.02–1.34) and PA level (OR=7.84; CI95%=2.84–21.60) was found in High MD group. Conclusion: These results suggest that an optimal adherence to the MD is associated with higher CRF and PA level in the selected schoolchildren.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0060.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: alcohol consumption; Alzheimer's disease; light to moderate wine consumption; neurodegeneration
Online: 6 November 2019 (10:54:00 CET)
Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most threatening neurodegenerative diseases, is characterized by the loss of memory and language function, an unbalanced perception of space and other cognitive and physical manifestations. Pathology of the AD is characterized by neuronal loss, and the extensive distribution of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). The role of environment and the diet in the AD is being studied actively, and nutrition is certainly one of the main factors playing a prominent role in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. In this context, the relationship between dementia and wine use/abuse has received increased research interest in recent times, with varying and often conflicting results. Scope and approach: This review aims to critically summarize the most recent studies conducted to clarify the relationship between wine drinking and AD, as well as whether effects are influenced by quantity and/or frequency of drinking. Key findings and Conclusion: Overall, based on the interpretation of various studies, it can be concluded that there is no indication that light to moderate alcohol drinking is detrimental to cognition and dementia, and it is not possible to define whether alcohol could be used as a means to reduce risk of developing AD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0185.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: anxiety; cognition; colour of drink; dehydration; electrolytes; fluid intake; mood; placebo; rehydration
Online: 17 August 2019 (15:53:08 CEST)
Traditionally it has been thought necessary to lose 2% of body mass due to dehydration, before functioning is disrupted, although recently adverse effects have been reported with a loss of 0.5-0.7%. It is, however, unclear whether the response to small decreases in mass reflects dehydration, mechanisms that help to adapt to a loss of bodily fluid, or a placebo effect. Individuals were therefore subject to a temperature of 30°C for three hours, and mood and cognition monitored. To explore the possibility of a placebo response, the consumption of plain or coloured water was compared. To consider changes in hydration status, drinks known to differ in their ability to rehydrate were contrasted. Not drinking was disruptive, although a combination of plain water and electrolyte’s most effectively prevented a decline in functioning, indicating a role for rehydration after a loss of 0.52% body mass. There was, however, also evidence of a placebo response: a combination of plain water and electrolytes was better able to prevent a decline in functioning than coloured plain water and electrolytes. As increased anxiety was a robust response, it was discussed whether the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system might be part of the mechanism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0178.v4
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: nutrition; children; greenhouse gas emissions; school meals; sustainability; Agenda 2030
Online: 8 July 2019 (14:52:09 CEST)
There is great potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) from public sector meals. This paper aimed to develop a strategy for reducing GHGE in the Swedish school food supply without compromising nutritional adequacy, affordability, and cultural acceptability. Amounts, prices and GHGE-values for all foods and drinks supplied to three schools over one year were gathered. The amounts were optimized by linear programming. Four nutritionally adequate models were developed: Model 1 minimized GHGE while constraining relative deviation (RD) from observed food supply; Model 2 minimized total RD while imposing stepwise GHGE reductions; Model 3 additionally constrained RD for individual foods to an upper and lower limit; and Model 4 further controlled how ratios between food groups could deviate. Models 1 and 2 reduced GHGE by up to 95% but omitted entire food categories or increased the supply of some individual foods by more than 800% and were deemed unfeasible. Model 3 reduced GHGE by up to 60%, excluded no foods, avoided high RDs of individual foods, but resulted in large changes in food group ratios. Model 4 limited changes in food group ratios but resulted in a higher number of foods deviating from the observed supply and limited the potential of reducing GHGE. Cost was reduced in almost all solutions. An omnivorous, nutritionally adequate, and affordable school food supply, with considerably lower GHGE is achievable with moderate changes to the observed food supply. Trade-offs will always have to be made between achieving GHGE reductions and preserving similarity to the current supply.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: Elderly; epilepsy; stroke; Parkinson’s disease; fall
Online: 7 February 2019 (11:26:29 CET)
Introduction: Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases. Epilepsy poses a significant burden on the quality of life of affected individuals and their families. The aim of this study was to determine the psychiatric disorders in epileptic patients. Methods and Materials: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted in 2017 with a simple random sampling method on patients with epilepsy who admitted to the neurology department. Results: Among the 150 examined patients, 88 (58.7%) were female and 63(42%) had epilepsy more than 10 years. The most common psychiatric disorder among epileptic patients was depression (68 patients = 45.3%) and anxiety (65 patients = 43.3%) patients. Conclusion: Most of patients had more than 10 years history of epilepsy. Also, Anxiety and depression were the most common symptoms in epileptic patients. It need to more study to determine the psychiatric disorders in epileptic patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0252.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: Non-synaptic transmission, synapse, neurotransmitters, interoceptive nervous system, volume transmission, paracrine, myelin, blood-brain barrier, interoception, affect
Online: 24 January 2019 (10:09:50 CET)
Neuroscience has overwhelmingly and understandably focused on the synaptic modality of signal transmission. There is evidence, however, that from an evolutionary perspective, non-synaptic transmission (NST) preceded synaptic signaling. Moreover, in modern nervous systems, NST coexists and extensively interacts with synaptic transmission modifying neuronal dynamics. In fact, NST remains widespread in complex animals, especially within the interoceptive system where the dearth of insulating barriers such as myelin sheaths and the blood-brain barrier enhances the communication between neural and non-neural tissues mediated by NST. We suggest that this physiological arrangement makes a fundamental contribution to interoception¾the process of sensing visceral states¾which is an essential underpinning of the capacity to feel and the foundation of affective processing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0086.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: early adolescents; mobile food record; food waste; plate waste; eating behavior; portion size; dietary assessment; uncontrolled eating; cognitive restraint; emotional eating
Online: 4 August 2018 (11:37:39 CEST)
Understanding behavioral factors associated with obesity is of importance in addressing this issue. This study examined the association between cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, emotional eating and body mass index (BMI) and amount of food plated, consumed, leftovers, and leftover food thrown into the trash (food wasted) in early adolescent girls nine to 13 years in O’ahu, Hawai’i (n = 93). Food plated, consumed, leftovers, and food wasted were estimated using a three-day mobile food record (mFR). Weight and height were measured to compute BMI (kg/m2). The three-factor eating questionnaire provided a score from 0 to 100 for cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating. Higher scores are indicative of greater cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating. Pearson’s correlation and general linear models were computed to examine the relationship between three factor eating scores, BMI, and food plated, consumed, leftovers, and food wasted. There was no clinically significant association between cognitive restraint and amount of food wasted. Cognitive restraint was positively correlated with BMI (r=0.36, p<0.001) and with BMI z score (r=0.40, p<0.001). Uncontrolled eating and emotional eating were positively correlated with amount of leftover food at dinner (r=0.30, p=0.006; r=0.33, p=0.003, respectively). Emotional eating was positively associated with percentage of leftover food at dinner (r=0.24, p=0.30). Additional research should examine the specific roles of cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, emotional eating and food waste in the development of obesity in adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0036.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: parboiled rice; medium-grain white rice; medium-grain brown rice; sensory evaluation; consumer acceptability
Online: 6 November 2017 (07:07:41 CET)
Background: Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that storage of cooked rice at 4 °C for 24 h and reheating to 65 °C significantly reduced starch digestibility and postprandial glycaemic responses. Moreover, the effect was greater for parboiled rice compared to other rice varieties commonly consumed in New Zealand. This study aimed to evaluate consumer preferences of related sensory attributes and consumer acceptability of several rice varieties freshly cooked or reheated. Method: Sixty-four consumers volunteered and recorded on Visual Analoge Scales their preference and acceptability of freshly prepared or cold-stored and reheated medium grain white, medium grain brown and parboiled rice. Results: All six rice samples were accepted by participants (average 54%). Reheated parboiled rice and reheated medium grain brown rice were both accepted by participants as a preferred staple meal compared to other rice samples. Among all rice samples, the sweetness and the flavour of freshly cooked warm medium-grain white rice were less preferred (scored 42.1% and 45.0% respectively) compared with other samples (P = 0.05). Participants who prepared and consumed brown rice at home regularly (more than 10 times per month), preferred the reheated brown rice (73.8% (67.4, 80.2)) and reheated parboiled rice (74.3% (67.9, 80.7)) (P < 0.001). Conclusions: It is suggested that reheated parboiled rice, with the lowest starch digestibility and glycaemic impact (both in vitro glucose release and in vivo glucose response) could be accepted as a healthier alternative for the daily staple meal.