Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Non-Synaptic Transmission and the Foundations of Affect

Version 1 : Received: 22 January 2019 / Approved: 24 January 2019 / Online: 24 January 2019 (10:09:50 CET)

How to cite: Carvalho, G.; Damasio, A.. Non-Synaptic Transmission and the Foundations of Affect. Preprints 2019, 2019010252 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201901.0252.v1). Carvalho, G.; Damasio, A.. Non-Synaptic Transmission and the Foundations of Affect. Preprints 2019, 2019010252 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201901.0252.v1).

Abstract

Neuroscience has overwhelmingly and understandably focused on the synaptic modality of signal transmission. There is evidence, however, that from an evolutionary perspective, non-synaptic transmission (NST) preceded synaptic signaling. Moreover, in modern nervous systems, NST coexists and extensively interacts with synaptic transmission modifying neuronal dynamics. In fact, NST remains widespread in complex animals, especially within the interoceptive system where the dearth of insulating barriers such as myelin sheaths and the blood-brain barrier enhances the communication between neural and non-neural tissues mediated by NST. We suggest that this physiological arrangement makes a fundamental contribution to interoception¾the process of sensing visceral states¾which is an essential underpinning of the capacity to feel and the foundation of affective processing.

Subject Areas

Non-synaptic transmission, synapse, neurotransmitters, interoceptive nervous system, volume transmission, paracrine, myelin, blood-brain barrier, interoception, affect

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