ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0354.v1
Online: 24 October 2022 (07:14:38 CEST)
Spider silk has excellent strength and elasticity in natural, researchers have been working for decades try to achieve natural spider silk outstanding mechanical properties using recombinant spider silk protein (spidroin) through artificial spinning. In this work, we chose wet spinning method to explore the relationship between concentration of coagulation bath and fiber performance. It was found that the concentration of methanol has important effect on fiber continuity, diameter and mechanical properties. Lower concentration favors spinning continuous thinner, fibers with high strain. Secondary stretching benefits spinning silk fibers with stable mechanical properties, and thermal stability. Through applying different methanol concentration and additional stretching, we obtained silk fibers with Young’s modulus of 3.052± 2.626 GPa, stress of 25.3944 ± 17.48 MPa, and strain of 140 ± 95.4%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0420.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids And Plasmas Physics Keywords: wet agglomeration; flocculation; hydrodynamics; turbulence
Online: 29 May 2018 (09:00:36 CEST)
In this study, an experimentally validated computational model was developed to investigate the hydrodynamics in a rotor-stator vortex RVR agglomeration reactor having a rotating disc at the centre with two shrouded outer plates. A numerical simulation was performed using a simplified form of the reactor geometry to compute the 3D flow field in batch mode operations. Thereafter, the model was validated using data from a 2D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) flow analysis performed during the design of the reactor. Using different operating speeds—70, 90, 110 and 130 rpm, the flow fields were computed numerically followed by a comprehensive data analysis. The simulation results showed separated boundary layers on the rotating disc and the stator. The flow field within the reactor is characterized by a rotational plane circular forced vortex flow in which the streamlines are concentric circles with a rotational vortex. Overall, the results of the numerical simulation demonstrate a fairly good agreement between the CFD model and the experimental data as well as the available theoretical predictions. The swirl ratio β was found to be approximately 0.4044, 0.4038, 0.4044 and 0.4043 for operating speeds of N=70, 90, 110 and 130 rpm respectively. In terms of the spatial distribution, the turbulence intensity and kinetic energy are concentrated on the outer region of the reactor while the axial velocity showed a decreasing intensity towards the shroud. However, a comparison of the CFD and experimental predictions of the tangential velocity and the vorticity amplitude profiles shows that these parameters were under-predicted by the experimental analysis which could be attributed to some of the experimental limitations rather than the robustness of the CFD model or numerical code.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0399.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: NIRS; wet chemistry; forage analysis; shrub legume
Online: 6 September 2023 (10:36:35 CEST)
Cratylia argentea is a leguminous shrub with a great potential for livestock feeding in tropical areas. However, time consuming and labor-intensive methods of chemical analysis limits the understanding of its nutritive value. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a low-cost technology that has been widely used in forage crops to fasten the assessment of its chemical composition. The objective of this study was to develop prediction models to assess crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and dry matter (DM) of Cratylia based on NIRS and partial least square analysis. A total of 155 samples were harvested at different maturity levels and used for model development, whereas 107 were used for calibration and 48 for external validation. The cross-validation presented Root Mean Square Error of Prediction of 0.77, 2.56, 3.43, and 0.42; a Ratio of Performance to Deviation of 4.8, 4.0, 3.8, and 3.4; an R2 of 0.92, 0.92, 0.87, and 0.84 for CP, NDF, ADF, and DM, respectively. Based on the obtained results, we conclude the ability to predict chemical parameters of Cratylia with the current model was accurate. This way, livestock producers and researchers may use it to fasten the assessment of Cratylia’s nutritive value.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0015.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: PFCs; Plasma-wet Scrubber; DRE; By-product
Online: 3 July 2023 (08:26:30 CEST)
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are used in the manufacturing process of the semiconductor and display industries, and the need for emission reduction is growing as a greenhouse gas with a very large global warming potential. The decomposition characteristics of etch type and water film (WF) type plasma-wet scrubbers were investigated. The PFCs used in the study were CF4, SF6, NF3, CHF3, C2F6, C3F8, and C4F8, and the destruction removal efficiency (DRE) and by-product gas generation rate according to the changes in the parameters (total flow rate and power) of the plasma-wet scrubber were confirmed. When the total flow rate was 100 L/min and the measured maximum power (11 kW), the reduction efficiency of CF4 in the etch type was 95.60 % and the DRE of other PFCs was 99.99 %. And, in the WF type, the DRE of CF4 was 90.06 %, that of SF6 was 96.44 %, and that of other PFCs was 99.99 %. When the total flow rate was 300 L/min and 11 kW, the DRE of SF6 in the etch type was 99 %, and the DRE of NF3, CHF3, C2F6, C3F8, and C4F8 were 99.80 %, 95.34 %, 85.38 %, 88.49 %, and 98.22 %, respectively. And, in the WF type, the DRE of SF6 was 94.39 %, and the DRE of NF3, CHF3, C2F6, C3F8, and C4F8 were 99.80 %, 95.34 %, 85.38 %, 88.49 %, and 98.22 %, respectively. The by-product gas generation rate was significantly lower in the WF type.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1039.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Circular economy; phosphorus; struvite; valorization; wet oxidation.
Online: 27 April 2023 (04:40:57 CEST)
Environmental legislation on waste management coupled with the potential for nutrients recovery are key factors encouraging the use of advanced treatment technologies to manage biosolids waste. In this context, phosphorus recovery from a sewage sludge treated by a wet oxidation process was carried out. High organic matter (up to 85% in COD) and Total Solids content (up to 75%) removal values were achieved at elevated temperature (up to 300 ºC) and pressure (up to 200 bar) conditions. The liquid and solid fractions found in oxidation process effluent contain amounts of phosphorus that can be recovered. This research aims to maximize its valorization in both liquid and solid fractions. In the liquid effluent, phosphorus was recovered (up to 90 mg P L-1) by chemical precipitation as struvite (MgNH4PO4∙6 H2O), a slow-release fertilizer. In this case, P recoveries greater than 95% were achieved. Also, the solid fraction, analyzed after filtration and drying (68 mg P gsolid-1), was treated by acid leaching, to achieve up to 60% phosphorus recovery. All phosphorus extracted was in orthophosphate form.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0450.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Wet spinning; Lanthanum oxide; Biochar; Chromate; Adsorption
Online: 22 February 2021 (08:51:53 CET)
Lanthanum chemical compound incorporates a sensible anionic complexing ability, however lacks stability at low pH scale. Biochar fibers will benefit of their massive space and plethoric useful teams on surface to support metal chemical compound. Herein, wet spinning technology was used to load La3+ onto sodium alginate fiber, and convert La3+ into La2O3 through carbonization. The La2O3 modified biochar (La-BC) fiber was characterized by SEM, XRD and XPS, etc. The adsorption experiment proved that La-BC showed excellent adsorption capacity for chromates, and its saturation adsorption capacity was about 104.93mg/g. The information suggested that the adsorption was in step with both Langmuir and Freundlich model, followed pseudo-second-order surface assimilation mechanics, which instructed that the Cr (VI) adsorption was characterized by single-phase and polyphase adsorption, mainly chemical adsorption. Thermodynamic parameter proved that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. The mechanistic investigation revealed that the mechanism of adsorption of Cr (VI) by La-BC may include electrostatic interaction, ligand exchange or complexation. Moreover, co-existing anions and regeneration experiments proved that La-BC was recyclable and had a good prospect in the field of chrome-containing wastewater removal.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1741.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: wet-AMD; cataract surgery; cataract extraction complications; retina
Online: 24 August 2023 (09:53:10 CEST)
Background: Cataract and Age-related Macular Degeneration are two characteristic diseases of the so-called elderly age (75-90 years and older). Both determine an important visual impairment, so it is often difficult to understand how much of the visual loss is given by the cataract opacities and how much by the degeneration of the macula and this assumes a relevant medico-legal query in clinical practice. Methods: From that pool we randomized in group 735 eyes with wAMD (males 328, females 407) Average age: 76.23±13.87 years, and in Group 819 eyes without clear signs of wAMD (males 361, females 451) Average age: was 75.88±18.21 years to randomize them we used the online randomization program (http://www.graphpad.com/quickcalcs/index.cfm) selecting random numbers and then randomly assign subjects to groups to undergo our observational study. All patients were examined with full ophtalmological visit including Best Corrected Visual Acuity (with Bailey-Lawson Chart), Anterior Segment examination, Fundus Examination, in all cases with wAMD was also performed OCT. ANOVA multifactorial statistical analysis was drawn. Results: number of patients with unsatisfactory surgery is significantly higher in the group of AMD patients, and this is easily understandable from what has been said above, but I would like to underline that in most patients there are very positive results, therefore cataract surgery is also indicated in AMD patients. Conclusions: Cataract surgery has a positive impact on the patient's life in most cases, you shouldn't be afraid to operate. However, it is necessary to find surgical measures capable of minimizing the consequences of the intervention on the retina.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0081.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: reference evapotranspiration; climatic change; drought/wet; Songnen Grassland
Online: 22 February 2017 (16:46:01 CET)
Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) plays an irreplaceable role in regional dry/wet conditions under the background of climate change. Based on the FAO Penman-Monteith method and daily climate variables, ET0 was calculated for 22 stations in and around Songnen Grassland, northeast China, during 1960-2014. The temporal and spatial variations of ET0 and precipitation (P) were comprehensively analyzed at different time scales by using the Mann-Kendall test, Sen’s slope estimator, and linear regression coupling with break trend analysis. Sensitivity analysis was used to detect the key climate parameter attributed to ET0 change. Then, the role of ET0 in regional dry/wet conditions was discussed by analyzing the relationship between ET0, P and aridity index (AI). Results shown a higher ET0 in the southwest and a lower in the northeast, but P was opposite to that of ET0. Evidently decreasing trend of ET0 at different time scales was detected in almost the entire region, and the significant trend mainly distributed in the eastern, northeastern and central. For the whole region, sensitivity analysis indicated decreasing trend of ET0 was primarily attributed to relative humidity and maximum air temperature. The positive contribution of increasing temperature rising to ET0 was offset by the effect of significantly decreasing relative humidity, wind speed and sunshine duration. In addition, the value of ET0 shown higher in drought years and lower in wet years.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0033.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: Total Height; wet weight; Pinnidae; Pinna nobilis; Maliakos; Greece
Online: 1 August 2023 (10:53:02 CEST)
A pilot study regarding the transplantation of 100 specimens of the critically endangered Pinna nobilis took place in summer of 2019 in Maliakos Gulf (Central Aegean, Greece). In this study we present the relationships between total height (HT, in cm), unburied length (UL, in cm), and shell width (SW, in cm) for P. nobilis and the relationship between HT and net weight (W, in g). Length-length relationships were all linear for all cases: r2 > 0.900), whereas the relationship between HT and W was exponential with the value of the exponent b being allometric. "Ecology, Conservation and Restoration of Threatened Animal"
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0857.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: wet granulation; acoustic classification; machine learning; convolutional neural networks
Online: 12 July 2023 (13:45:27 CEST)
Wet granulation is a frequent process in the pharmaceutical industry. As a starting point for numerous dosage forms, the quality of the granulation not only affects subsequent production steps but also impacts the quality of the final product. It is thus crucial and economical to monitor this operation thoroughly. Here, we report on identifying different phases of a granulation process using a machine learning approach. The phases reflect the water content which in turn influences the processability and quality of the granule mass. We used two kinds of microphones and an acceleration sensor to capture acoustic emissions and vibrations. We trained convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to classify the different phases using transformed sound recordings as the input. We achieved a classification accuracy of up to 90 % using vibrational data and an accuracy of up to 97 % using the audible microphone data. Our results indicate the suitability of using audible sound and machine learning to monitor pharmaceutical processes. Moreover, since recording acoustic emissions is contactless, it readily complies with legal regulations and present Good Manufacturing Practices.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Window Performance; Cold Air Film; U-Value; Wet hey
Online: 25 May 2021 (11:51:48 CEST)
The concept of this prototype is to create a cold air film layer, in indoor side of the window. The function of this extra cold air layer is to increase the amount of window resistance and decrease its U-Value. It provide air film layer by using the same concept of desert cooler or wind catcher. They both bring the hot air from outside then let it go throw straw miost with cold water. After hot air move through straw, it would become cold, thus increase the window resistance and decrease the haet gian, therefore, decrease the cooling load. So, this window model works by heating the air in air room by sun radiation, then after a while, air pressure will rise and its volume will increase then it will impulse to wet hay, and become cold. Then there is fins to guide air flow to its correct direction, thus inner side of window will become cold, not like other type of window which when temperature rise, the inner side of window become hot. So, this window prevents heat transition and creare regenereted trubouland air flim in the inner side of the window. Using calculation to find air film characteristics and WINDOW7.7 software to calculate heat gain through window, shows that it is expected from this prototype to reduce heat gain by 6.85 % for double glazed clear window.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0333.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Wet chemical deposition; crystalline thin films; vanadium dioxide; thermochromism
Online: 17 February 2021 (10:38:44 CET)
In this paper, a novel synthesis for a chemical precursor for nanocrystalline VO2 coatings is elaborated. The compatibility of the precursor towards the substrate is optimized for spin coating. This is done by subjecting multiple solvents to contact angle measurements. A suitable thermal treatment is developed to densify the coating and to induce crystallization. Afterwards the microstructure of the coating is investigated using X-Ray diffraction, electron microscopy and ellipsometry techniques. To assess the thermochromic properties of the fabricated device, optical transmission experiments were conducted both at room temperature and at elevated temperature. A correlation between these thermochromic properties and coating thickness was investigated in order to obtain an optimized thermochromic device, where both high visual transparency and prominent thermochromic switching abilities are aimed for. In this work, an optimal coating thickness is proposed for a thermochromic coating with high switching ability and solar modulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1925.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Heatwave; dry and wet spells; CORDEX; RCP4.5; RCP8.5; West Africa
Online: 28 July 2023 (13:06:46 CEST)
This study analyzes the potential response of the seasonal cycle of heatwave (HWDI), dry (CDD) and wet (CWD) spells indices over West Africa for the near (2031-2060) and the far (2071-2100) future periods, under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios using CORDEX simulations. Although some relative biases during the historical period (1976-2005), the CORDEX simulations and their ensemble mean outperform the seasonal variability of the above indices over three defined sub-regions of West Africa (i.e., Guinea gulf, west and east Sahel). They have shown significant correlation coefficients and less RMSE. They project an increase in heatwave days for both near and far future periods over whole west Africa region under both RCP scenarios. In addition, the Sahel regions will face to a decrease in wet spells days from March to November, whereas, the Gulf of Guinea will face to a decrease during all the year, except CCCLM simulation which indicates an increase during the retreat phase of the monsoon (October to December). The results also have shown an increase in dry spells over Sahel regions, more pronounced during March-November period, whereas, over Guinea gulf, the increase is observed over the entire year. On the other hand, the months of increasing dry spells and decreasing wet spells coincide, suggesting that countries in these regions could be exposed simultaneously to dry season associated with a high risk of drought and heatwave under future climate conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0075.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: wet-bulb depression; relative humidity; ANFIS; artificial neural network; LSSVM
Online: 2 November 2020 (09:44:25 CET)
The main parameters for calculation of relative humidity are the wet-bulb depression and dry bulb temperature. In this work, easy-to-used predictive tools based on statistical learning concepts, i.e., the Adaptive Network-Based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and Least Square Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) are developed for calculating relative humidity in terms of wet bulb depression and dry bulb temperature. To evaluate the aforementioned models, some statistical analyses have been done between the actual and estimated data points. Results obtained from the present models showed their capabilities to calculate relative humidity for divers values of dry bulb temperatures and also wet-bulb depression. The obtained values of MSE and MRE were 0.132 and 0.931, 0.193 and 1.291 for the LSSVM and ANFIS approaches respectively. These developed tools are user-friend and can be of massive value for scientists especially, those dealing with air conditioning and wet cooling towers systems to have a noble check of the relative humidity in terms of wet bulb depression and dry bulb temperatures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0383.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: bioretention; nitrogen removal; submerged zone; alternate wet and dry conditions
Online: 31 January 2020 (11:31:15 CET)
Adding a submerged zone (SZ) is deemed to promote denitrification during dry periods and thus improve NO3--N removal efficiency of a bioretention system. However, few studies had investigated the variation of nitrogen concentration in the SZ during dry periods and evaluated the effect of the variation on nitrogen removal of the bioretention system. Based on the experiment in a mesocosm bioretetion system with SZ, this study investigated the variation of nitrogen concentration of the system under 17 consecutive cycles of wet and dry alternation with varied rainfall amount, influent nitrogen concentration and antecedent dry periods (ADP). The results indicated that (1) during the dry periods, NH4+-N concentrations in SZ showed an exponential decline trend, decreasing by 50% in 12.9 ± 7.3 hours; while NO3--N concentrations showed an inverse S-shape decline trend, decreasing by 50% in 18.8 ± 6.4 hours; (2) during the wet periods, NO3--N concentration in the effluent showed an S-shape upward trend; and at the early stage of the wet periods, the concentration was relatively low and significantly correlated with ADP, while the corresponding volume of the effluent was significantly correlated with the SZ depth; (3) in the whole experiment, the contribution of nitrogen decrease in SZ during dry periods to NH4+-N and NO3--N removal accounted for 12% and 92%, respectively; and the decrease of NO3--N in SZ during the dry period was correlated with the influent concentration in the wet period and the length of the dry period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0128.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: ditches; grain yield; lodging resistance; root traits; wet-seeded rice
Online: 12 November 2019 (10:25:04 CET)
The mechanical hill wet-seeded rice machine is benefits to establish uniform seedling, and ditches were established by using this machine. However, little knowledge is known on the effect of the establishment of ditches on growth, lodging and yield, and their relationship with root traits. In this study, two field experiments were conducted during 2012 and 2013 with using two super rice varieties (i.e. hybrid rice ‘Peizataifeng’ and inbred rice ‘Yuxiangyouzhan’) grown under three ditches establishment treatments (i.e. T1: both water ditches and seed ditches were established by the machine, T2: seed ditches were established by the machine, T3: neither water nor seed ditches were established by the machine). The lodging index and lodging resistance traits, the grain yield and above-ground dry weight and the root traits were measured. The results showed that the lodging index was significantly affected by the treatments with ditches. The strongest lodging resistance was detected in mechanical hill wet-seeded rice with ditches treatment in both 2012 and 2013. The lodging resistance was strongly related to the breaking resistance, the root volume and root superficial area at the heading stage and maturity stage and the total root length at the heading stage. No significant difference was investigated in grain yield or dry weight of mechanical hill wet-seeded rice. Yuxiangyouzhan showed higher grain yield, dry weight and better lodging resistance but unfavorable root growth attributes than Peizataifeng. Therefore, the mechanical hill wet-seeded rice with ditches treatment increased rice lodging resistance is related to root traits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0014.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: rainwater; weather; windbreaker; cup anemometer; dry and wet bulb thermometers
Online: 4 January 2017 (07:27:41 CET)
Agro-meteorology is the relationship between agriculture and weather. All farm activities are affected by weather. Therefore it is always necessary to monitor the weather as a forecast. The aim of the research was to monitor the weather and rainwater samples obtained at Federal College of Agriculture, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. For the eight months periods, results were obtained. The mean results for the physicochemical parameters were: TDS (12.25 mg/L), temp (28.13 oC), pH (6.63), EC (24.25µS/cm), Free CO2 (24.38mg/L), nitrate (0.16mg/L), phosphate (0.17mg/L), sulphate (0.18mg/L). The rainwater was colorless and had no odor. The mean meteorological data: The prevailing wind directions were from SE, mostly in May, June, July and November and NE. The dry and wet temperatures were 22-29 oC and 20-26 oC respectively. The maximum value was observed in the month of July. The correlation matrix showed that there were many strong correlations in the physicochemical properties. The months of May, June and July had the highest wind speed. In these months there would be a need to use a windbreaker around the crops planted to avoid soil erosion and damaging of plants.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0759.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: Polyamideamine-epichlorydrin resin; chitosan; bio-based wet strength agents; paper packaging
Online: 10 May 2023 (14:21:26 CEST)
Polymeric wet-strength agents are important additives used in the paper industry to improve the mechanical properties of paper products, especially when they come in contact with water. These agents play a crucial role in enhancing the durability, strength, and dimensional stability of paper products. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the different types of wet-strength agents available and their mechanisms of action. We will also discuss the challenges associated with the use of wet-strength agents and the recent advances in the development of more sustainable and environmentally friendly agents. As the demand for more sustainable and durable paper products continues to grow, the use of wet strength agents is expected to increase in the coming years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1177.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: MWCNTs concrete; dry-wet cycle; sulfate attack; pore deterioration; X-CT scanning
Online: 28 April 2023 (11:12:21 CEST)
Sulfate attack is one of the main factors affecting the durability of concrete structures. In recent years, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have attracted the attention of scholars for their excellent mechanical properties and durability performance. In this paper, the influence of sulfate attack and dry-wet cycles on the performance of multi-walled carbon nanotube-lithium slag concrete (MWCNTs-LSC) with varied MWCNTs content (0wt%, 0.05wt%, 0.10wt% and 0.15wt%) and varied water-cement ratios (0.35, 0.40 and 0.45) were investigated. Besides, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray computed tomography (CT) tests were conducted to analyze the microstructure and pore structure of the concrete. The results show that concrete incorporated with MWCNTs could effectively mitigate sulfate attack The resistance to sulfate attack of concrete is negatively related to the water-cement ratio when the dry-wet cycle is fixed. The MWCNTs-LSC showed the best compressive strength at the water-cement ratio of 0.35 and 0.10 wt% MWCNTs. The SEM test results showed that the MWCNTs both filled the pores and cracks within the specimen and formed bridges between the cracks, enhancing the resistance to sulfate attack. The CT test results also showed that the addition of MWCNTs could reduce the porosity of concrete, refine the pore size and inhibit the generation and development of cracks, thus optimizing the internal structure of concrete and improving its resistance to sulfate attack.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0075.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Algae; wet anaerobic storage; dry matter loss; organic acid; lactic acid bacteria
Online: 4 March 2022 (08:45:40 CET)
Wet anaerobic storage of algal biomass is a promising preservation approach which can ensure continuous supply of these feedstocks to biorefineries year-round. An effective solution to preservation must ensure minimal dry matter loss and change in biochemical composition during storage. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the preservation of Nannochloropsis gaditana biomass through wet anaerobic storage and its impact on biomass quality. Prior to storage, algae sample was inoculated with two different strains of lactic acid bacteria and thereafter stored for 30 and 180 days. Each inoculant limited dry matter loss to <10% (dry basis) after the storage durations. Final pH values (4.3 - 4.8) indicate that the biomass samples were properly ensiled, achieving the acidic conditions necessary for preservation. Compositional analysis of the biomass after storage showed a reduction in carbohydrate content, a relative increase in lipid content, and no significant change to the protein fraction. Glucose and galactose were the prevalent sugar monomers. The low dry matter loss and minimal compositional change indicates that wet anaerobic storage is an effective means of preserving algal biomass, ensuring a constant supply of algal biomass feedstock to a biorefinery.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0134.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Methylcellulose; cellulose nanocrystal; hydrogel; birefringence; wet-spinning; optical fiber; thermoresponsive; LCST; nanocomposite
Online: 5 August 2021 (10:15:49 CEST)
Chemical modification of cellulose offers routes for structurally and functionally diverse biopolymer derivatives for numerous industrial applications. Among cellulose derivatives, cellulose ethers have found extensive use, such as emulsifiers, in food industries and biotechnology. Methylcellulose, one of the simplest cellulose derivatives, has been utilized for biomedical, construction materials and cell culture applications. Its improved water solubility, thermoresponsive gelation, and the ability to act as a matrix for various dopants also offer routes for cellulose-based functional materials. There has been a renewed interest in understanding the structural, mechanical, and optical properties of methylcellulose and its composites. This review focuses on the recent development in optically and mechanically tunable hydrogels derived from methylcellulose and methylcellulose-cellulose nanocrystal composites. We further discuss the application of the gels for preparing highly ductile and strong fibers. Finally, the emerging application of methylcellulose-based fibers as optical fibers and their application potentials are discussed.
Subject: Engineering, Mining And Mineral Processing Keywords: clay; mica; biotite; muscovite; origin of life; abiogenesis; mechanical energy; work; wet-dry
Online: 5 November 2020 (10:43:44 CET)
This paper presents a hypothesis about the origins of life in a clay mineral, starting with the earliest molecules, continuing through the increasing complexity of the development, in neighboring clay niches, of “Metabolism First,” “RNA World,” and other necessary components of life, to the encapsulation by membranes of the components in the niches, to the interaction and fusion of these membrane-bound protocells, resulting finally in a living cell, capable of reproduction and evolution. Biotite (black mica) in micaceous clay is the proposed site for this origin of life. Mechanical energy of moving biotite sheets provides one endless source of energy. Potassium ions between biotite sheets would be the source of the high intracellular potassium ion concentrations in all living cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0300.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: snow; synthetic aperture radar; Sentinel-1; spatial variability; spectral scaling; topography; wet snow
Online: 26 January 2020 (01:42:48 CET)
This study investigates the spatial signatures of seasonal snow in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) observations at different spatial scales and for different physiographic regions. Sentinel-1 C-band (SAR) backscattering coefficients (BSC) were analyzed in the Swiss Alps (SA), in high elevation forest and grasslands in Grand Mesa (GM), Colorado, and in North Dakota (ND) croplands. GM BSC exhibit 10dB sensitivity to wetness at small scales (~100 m) over homogeneous grassland. Sensitivity decreases to 5 dB in the presence of trees, and it is demonstrated that VH BSC sensitivity enables wet snow mapping below the tree-line. Area-variance scaling relationships show minima at ~100 m and 150-250 m respectively in barren and grasslands in SA and GM, increasing up to 1 km and longer in GM forests and ND agricultural fields. The spatial organization of BSC (as described by 1D-directional BSC wavelength spectra) exhibits multi-scaling behavior in the 100 -1,000 m range with a break at (180-360 m) that is also present in UAVSAR L-band measurements in GM. Spectral slopes in GM forested areas steepen during accumulation and flatten in the melting season with mirror behavior for grasslands reflecting changes in scattering mechanisms with snow depth and wetness, and vegetation mass and structure. Overall, this study reveals persistent patterns of SAR scattering variability spatially organized by land-cover, topography and regional winds with large inter-annual variability tied to precipitation. This dynamic scaling behavior emerges as an integral physical expression of snowpack variability that can be used to model sub-km scales and for downscaling applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0022.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: clay; mica; biotite; muscovite; origin of life; abiogenesis; mechanical energy; work; wet-dry cycles
Online: 4 January 2022 (20:36:31 CET)
Intracellular potassium concentrations, [K+], are high in all types of living cells, but the origins of this K+ are unknown. The simplest hypothesis is that life emerged in an environment that was high in K+. One such environment is the spaces between the sheets of the clay mineral, mica. The best mica for life’s origins is the black mica, biotite, because it has a high content of Mg++ and it has iron in various oxidation states. Life also has many of the characteristics of the environment between mica sheets, giving further support for the possibility that mica was the substrate on and within which life emerged.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0585.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Triamcinolone acetonide; Liposomes; Neovascular age related macular degeneration; Wet macular degeneration; Adjuvant therapy; Ranibizumab
Online: 23 June 2021 (12:56:55 CEST)
Novel strategies have been developed to reduce or to avoid the intravitreal injections (IVTs) of the antiangiogenic (ranibizumab; RBZ) and the anti-inflammatory (triamcinolone acetonide; TA) agents used to treat vitreoretinal diseases. One of the strategies include liposomes. In this study, it was evaluated the safety and efficacy of topical triamcinolone-loaded liposomes formulation (TALF) as an adjuvant to intravitreal RBZ therapy in treatment-naive patients with neovascular age related macular degeneration (nAMD). Subjects were randomly assigned to the RBZ-TALF or the RBZ-pro re nata (RBZ-PRN) group. Patients from the RBZ-TALF group were instructed to apply TALF for a 12-month period after a single dose of RBZ. Patients from the RBZ-PRN group received three monthly RBZ-IVTs. Retreatment with RBZ was considered in case of nAMD reactivation. Related to safety, non-ocular abnormalities were observed during TALF therapy. Owing to the efficacy, non-significant differences are identified in visual acuity or central foveal thickness when the RBZ-PRN and RBZ-TALF groups are compared. Importantly the average number of RBZ injections was significantly lower in the RBZ-TALF group (2.5 ± 1.4 vs 6.1 ± 1.3 IVTs; p=0004). Therefore, TALF used as an adjuvant to RBZ reduce the number of RBZ-IVTs retreatment with optimal visual and anatomic results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1691.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: bending load; sulfate erosion; dry and wet cycle; cement-based materials; ion concentration; numerical simulation
Online: 24 May 2023 (04:38:30 CEST)
The goal of this lab is to look at how the characteristics of cementitious materials are affected by bending loads combined with dry and wet cycles of sulfate. In this paper, three sets of specimens with different water–cement ratios were designed. This study applied 20% and 40% of the ultimate bending load as a continuous bending load to the cementitious material specimens for a sulfate erosion test. It was discovered that the specimens' porosity, flexural strength, and compressive strength all tended to improve initially before declining as the cementitious material was degraded in the sulfate solution aged. The flexural strength of the cementitious materials declined as the bending load increased, and their internal sulfate ion concentration rose. A transport model of sulfate ions in cementitious materials under the coupling effect of bending load and sulfate erosion was created by combining the improved version of Fick’s second law and chemical reaction kinetics. The simulation results show that the ion transport properties of sulfate ions in cementitious materials are in accordance with the experimental laws. These research results formed the basis of the unified standards for the coupling of load dry and wet cycle systems, as well as evaluating the durability of cementitious materials under corrosive environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0120.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: IMERG; Stage IV; Infrared; Passive microwave; Snow; Ice; Precipitation; GPM; Wet-bulb temperature; AMSR-2
Online: 3 June 2021 (14:59:21 CEST)
Various products of the Integrated Multisatellite Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) and passive mi-crowave (PMW) sensors are assessed with respect to near-surface wet-bulb temperature (Tw), precipitation intensity, and surface type (i.e., with and without snow and ice on the surface) over the CONUS and using Stage-IV product as reference precipitation. IMERG products include precipitation estimates from infrared (IR), combined PMW, and their combination. PMW products generally have higher skills than IR over snow- and ice-free surfaces. Over snow- and ice-covered surfaces (1) PMW products (except AMSR-2) show a higher correlation coefficient than IR, (2) IR and PMW precipitation products tend to overestimate precipitation, but at colder temperatures (e.g., Tw<-10oC) PMW products tend to underestimate and IR product continues to show large overestimations, and (3) PMW sensors show higher overall skill in detecting precipitation oc-currence, but not necessarily at very cold Tw. The results suggest that the current approach of IMERG (i.e., replacing PMW with IR precipitation estimates over snow- and ice-surfaces) may need to be revised.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0297.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: hyperbranched polyester; functional polymer; chemical evolution; wet-dry cycle; gelation prevention; condensation polymer; origin of life
Online: 26 April 2019 (10:46:40 CEST)
In extant biology, biopolymers perform multiple crucial functions. The biopolymers are synthesized by enzyme-controlled biosystems that would not have been available at the earliest stages of chemical evolution and consist of correctly sequenced and/or linked monomers. Some of the abiotic “messy” polymers approximate some functions of biopolymers. Condensation polymers are an attractive search target for abiotic functional polymers since principal polymers of life are produced by condensation and since condensation allows for the accurate construction of high polymers. Herein the formation of hyperbranched polyesters that have been previously used in the construction of enzyme-like catalytic complexes is explored. The experimental setup compares between the branched polyesters prepared under mild continuous heating and the wet-dry cycle conditions. The results reveal that period wetting during which partial hydrolysis of the polyester occurs, helps control the chain growth and retards the gel transition. It is significant to the origin of life studies that environmental, prebiotically plausible conditions could achieve such control without enzymes or a skilled chemist. As expected in marginally controlled systems, the identification of each component of the heterogeneous system has proved challenging, but it is not crucial for drawing the conclusions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1582.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Wet Snow; Sentinel-1; C-band; Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR); Mediterranean Mountains; Semi-Arid Regions; Streamflow Dynamics
Online: 25 September 2023 (04:55:58 CEST)
Monitoring snowmelt dynamics in mountains is crucial to understand water releases downstream. Sentinel-1 (S-1) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has become one of the most widely used techniques to achieve this aim due to its high frequency of acquisitions and all-weather capability. This work aims to understand the possibilities of S-1 SAR imagery to capture snowmelt dynamics and related changes in streamflow response in semiarid mountains. The results proved that S-1 SAR imagery was able not only to capture the final spring melting but also all melting cycles that commonly appear throughout the year in these types of environments. The general change detection approach to identify wet snow was adapted for these regions using as reference the average S-1 SAR image from the previous summer, and a threshold of -3.00 dB. In addition, four different type of melting runoff onsets depending on physical snow condition were identified. When translating that at the catchment scale, distributed melting runoff onset maps were defined to better understand the spatiotemporal evolution of melting dynamics. Finally, a linear connection between melting dynamics and streamflow was found for long-lasting melting cycles, with a determination coefficient (R2) ranging from 0.62 to 0.83 and an average delay between the melting onset and streamflow peak of about 21 days.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0057.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: porous fibers; activated carbon; ice-templating; ice segregation induced self-assembly; silk fibroin; wet spinning; solution blow spinning
Online: 5 February 2020 (10:38:29 CET)
Fabrics comprised of porous fibers could provide effective passive protection against chemical and biological (CB) threats whilst maintaining high air permeability (breathability). Here, we fabricate hierarchically porous fibers consisting of regenerated silk fibroin (RSF) and activated-carbon (AC) prepared through two fiber spinning techniques in combination with ice-templating – namely cryogenic solution blow spinning (Cryo-SBS) and cryogenic wet-spinning (Cryo-WS). The Cryo-WS RSF fibers had exceptionally small macropores (as low as 0.1 µm) and high specific surface areas (SSAs) of up to 79 m2 g-1. The incorporation of AC could further increase the SSA to 210 m2 g-1 (25 wt. % loading) whilst also increasing adsorption capacity for volatile organic compounds (VOCs).
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: origin of life; origins of life; mechanical energy; work; entropic forces; mica; biotite; Muscovite; wet/dry cycles; clay
Online: 29 April 2019 (07:51:38 CEST)
Forces and mechanical energy are prevalent in living cells. This may be because forces and mechanical energy preceded chemical energy at life’s origins. Mechanical energy is more readily available in non-living systems than the various other forms of energy used by living systems. Two possible prebiotic environments that might have provided mechanical energy are hot pools that experience wet/dry cycles and mica sheets as they move, open and shut, as heat pumps or in response to water movements.
ESSAY | doi:10.3390/sci2020019
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: origin of life; origins of life; mechanical energy; mechanochemistry; work; entropic forces; mica; biotite; Muscovite; wet/dry cycles; clay
Online: 25 March 2020 (00:00:00 CET)
Mechanical forces and mechanical energy are prevalent in living cells. This may be because mechanical forces and mechanical energy preceded chemical energy at life’s origins. Mechanical energy is more readily available in non-living systems than the various forms of chemical energy used by living systems. Two possible prebiotic environments that might have provided mechanical energy are hot pools that experience wet/dry cycles and mica sheets as they move, open and shut, as heat pumps or in response to water movements.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1028.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Obesity; Adiponectin (APN); Adiponectin receptors (AdipoRs); Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD); Dry AMD; Wet AMD; Choroidal neovascularization (CNV); Angiogenesis; Inflammation
Online: 15 September 2023 (13:36:29 CEST)
In recent years, the interaction between adiponectin (APN), a versatile fat-associated adipokines, and eye disorders has become a captivating focus of interest. Unveiling the intricate relationship between APN and its receptors (AdipoRs) with aging eye disorders has emerged as a fascinating frontier in medical research. This review article delves into this captivating connection, illuminating the hidden influence of adipocytokine, APN on retinal health. This comprehensive review critically examines the latest findings and breakthroughs that underscore the pivotal roles of APN/AdipoRs signaling in maintaining ocular homeostasis and protecting against eye ailments. Here, we meticulously explore the intriguing mechanisms by which APN protein influences retinal function, lens clarity, and overall visual acuity. Drawing from an extensive array of cutting-edge studies, the article highlights APN's multifaceted functions, ranging from anti-inflammatory properties and oxidative stress reduction to angiogenic regulation within retinal and macula tissues. The involvement of APN/AdipoRs in mediating these effects opens up novel avenues for potential therapeutic interventions targeting prevalent aging eye conditions. Moreover, this review unravels the interplay between APN signaling pathways and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The single-cell RNA seq results validate the expression of both the receptor isoform (AdipoR1/R2) in retinal cells. The transcriptomic analysis showed lower expression of AdipoR1/2 in dry AMD pathogenesis compared to healthy subjects. The inhibitory peptide (APN1) demonstrated over 75% suppression of CNV, whereas the control peptide did not exert any inhibitory effect on CNV. The elucidation of these relationships fosters a deeper under-standing of adipose tissue's profound influence on ocular health, presenting new prospects for personalized treatments and preventative measures. In conclusion, "Obesity Hormone's Role in Aging Eyes: Linking Adiponectin/AdipoRs to AMD" provides a captivating journey into the enthralling world of APN intertwining the realms of adipose biology and aged ophthalmology.