ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0198.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Public Safety Personnel; First Responders; Mental Disorders; Mental Health; Well-Being; Trauma; Operational Stress Injuries; Post-Traumatic Stress Injuries; Role Identity Theory; Qualitative Research
Online: 14 January 2022 (08:31:02 CET)
Role identity theory describes the purpose and meaning in life that comes, in part, from occupying social roles. While robustly linked to health and well-being, this may become, however, when an individual is unable to fulfil the perceived requirements of an especially salient role in the way that they believe they should. Amid high rates of mental illness among public safety personnel, we interviewed a purposely selected sample of 21 paramedics from a single service in Ontario, Canada to explore incongruence between an espoused and able-to-enact paramedic role identity. Situated in an interpretivist epistemology, and using successive rounds of thematic analysis, we developed a framework for role identity dissonance wherein chronic, identity-relevant disruptive events cause emotional and psychological distress. While some participants were able to recalibrate their sense of self and understanding of the role, for others, this dissonance was irreconcilable, contributing to disability and lost time from work. In addition to contributing a novel perspective on paramedic mental health and well-being, our work also offers a modest contribution to the theory in using the paramedic context as an example to consider identity disruption through chronic workplace stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0194.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Children; Growth; Development Modeling; Role Modeling; Stunting
Online: 14 June 2022 (05:28:12 CEST)
Stunting, during the Covid-19 pandemic, is increasingly becoming a big problem in the world, especially in poor and developing countries. Observational studies have shown that stunting is associated with poor nutrition, especially a plant-based diet, inflammation, caused by infection, enteric dysfunction, an environment with clean water, inadequate sanitation and hygiene (WASH), and endogenous inflammation associated with excess adiposity. This causes nutritional interventions to be often unsuccessful (Kemenkes RI, 2018).The government intervenes to reduce stunting to the target party, which is divided into two categories. The first category is specific nutrition intervention, namely monitoring children under five at the posyandu, giving immunizations, giving vitamin A, giving Supplementary Foods (PMT), and others. The second category is sensitive nutrition interventions, namely the provision of drinking water and proper sanitation, postnatal family planning (KB) services, providing information related to stunting, food social assistance, conditional cash assistance, and others. (KEMEN-PMK, 2018). WHO states, that the impact of stunting can be divided into short-term and long-term impacts. The short-term impacts are; increased incidence of morbidity and mortality; cognitive, motor, and verbal development in children is not optimal; and increased healthcare costs. While the long-term impact; Posture that is not optimal as an adult (shorter than usual); Increased risk of obesity and other diseases; The decline in reproductive health; Less than optimal learning capacity and performance during school years; and Low productivity and work capacity (Kemenkes RI, 2018). The nursing goal is to help people achieve quality, holistic health. Implementation of Modeling and Role Modeling Theory is an option in implementing nursing care for children with stunting. “Modeling” is gaining an understanding of the client’s world from the client’s perspective. That is to build a “model” of the client’s worldview. “Role‑Modeling” is based on the assumption that all humans want to interact with others, they want to carry out selected roles in society. Role-Modeling is using the client’s model of the world to plan interventions that meet his or her perceived needs, grow, develop and heal. Role-Modeling requires that we aim to build trust, promote a positive orientation and a sense of control, affirm strengths and set specific mutual goals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0408.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: mentoring; women studies; work-life balance; role management; grounded theory
Online: 22 December 2022 (02:31:23 CET)
The purpose of this study was to model the impact of mentoring on women’s work-life balance. Indeed, this study considered mentoring as a solution to create a work-life balance of women. For this purpose, semi-structured interviews with both mentors and mentees of Tehran Municipality were conducted and the collected data were analyzed using constructivist grounded theory. Findings provided a model of how mentoring affects women's work-life balance. According to this model, role management is the key criterion for balancing work-life of women. In this model, antecedents of role management and the contextual factors affecting role management, the constraints of mentoring in the organization, as well as the consequences of effective mentoring in the organization are described. The findings of this research contribute to the mentoring literature as well as to the role management literature and provide recommendations for organizations and for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0363.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Historical Role Models,Contemporary Role Models, Historical and Contemporary Role Models,Rabdan Academy, women leaders,women leaders in media
Online: 14 April 2023 (10:11:41 CEST)
Women's leadership continues to be a critical issue in today's society. Women face significant challenges in leadership, including limited representation in high-level positions and persistent gender-based discrimination. Many factors, including personal experiences, education, work experiences, and the influence of role models, influence women's leadership paths. This study explores how historical and contemporary role models help guide women's leadership choices. Specifically, we seek to understand the role of historical and contemporary role models in shaping women's perceptions of leadership and influencing their career aspirations.The study uses a qualitative research design to explore the experiences of women leaders in different industries. The participants were selected using purposive sampling, and data were collected through semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis was used to identify patterns in the data, and the results were presented using descriptive statistics and qualitative data analysis.The study findings reveal that historical and contemporary role models significantly shape women's perceptions of leadership and influence their career aspirations. Women who have had access to role models in their personal lives or through media exposure are more confident in their ability to lead. They are more likely to pursue leadership positions. Historical role models provide women with tangible examples of what is possible regardingwomen's leadership. Studying role models from diverse backgrounds is essential in inspiring women from diverse backgrounds to pursue leadership roles.The study findings have significant implications for women's leadership development. They suggest efforts to increase the representation of women in leadership positions should focus on providing access to diverse role models. Additionally, the study highlights the importance of media representation of women leaders, as exposure to role models through media can help overcome barriers to access to role models in personal and professional networks.In conclusion, the study provides important insights into the influence of historical and contemporary role models on women's leadership paths. The study underscores the importance of role models in inspiring and guiding women's leadership journeys and the need for diverse and inclusive representation of women leaders in media and personal and professional networks. The findings provide practical recommendations for women's leadership development initiatives and future research.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: purinergic signaling; regulatory role; neutrophils; inflammation
Online: 8 September 2021 (13:16:11 CEST)
Purinergic signaling is that nucleotides (especially ATP) and adenosine are utilized as transmitter molecules, which play an important role in the immune system. In the extracellular ventricle, ATP plays a significant role of pro-inflammatory molecules mainly through activating P2 receptors, while adenosine plays the role as anti-inflammatory molecule mainly through activating P1 receptors. As we know，neutrophils are the most abundant immune cells in our circulation and have become an essential part of coordinating a series of complex events during inflammatory diseases. However, due to the destruction of inflammatory substances from neutrophils, the activation of neutrophils is fine-tuned, and purinergic signaling is associated with this process. As a matter of fact, altering the balance between P2 and P1 signals is of great importance for neutrophils to exert immune activities properly. Here, we review the role of purinergic signaling in regulatory function of neutrophils during inflammatory disease, and then discuss the potential contribution of targeted purinergic signals in the treatment of the neutrophil during inflammatory diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1453.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Discourteous Behavior; Extra-role performance; Emotions; Hardiness
Online: 21 August 2023 (10:02:34 CEST)
This study examined the effect of colleagues uncivil behavior on extra-role performance of teachers. The study further explored the mediating role of emotional exhaustion to intensify the effect. In parallel, moderation of psychological hardiness to absorb the negative shocks was also determined. For examining the direct, mediating, and moderating effects, primary data were collected through mailed questionnaires. To overcome the issues of common method biases, dyadic and time lagged approaches were used for collection of data. Responses were collected in three phases, with appropriate time intervals. Data of independent, mediating, and moderating variables were collected from teachers while of dependent variable form their immediate supervisors, i.e. HoDs. The study found a significant effect of colleagues’ discourteous behavior on extra-role performance of victims at job. Significant mediation of emotional exhaustion in the effect was also observed. In the meantime, hardiness of targets absolutely moderated the effect to minimize the associated consequences. Based on results, several policy implication and interventions were suggested.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1925.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: IoT Security; Clustering; Stakeholders; Role; Decision-making
Online: 26 May 2023 (10:54:38 CEST)
The goal of this study is to categorize stakeholders in Internet of Things (IoT) security based on their roles in order to address the challenges associated with managing the large amount of data generated by IoT devices. With the increasing number of connected devices, the security risks also escalate, necessitating skilled stakeholders to mitigate these risks and prevent potential attacks. This study proposes a two-part approach that involves clustering stakeholders according to their responsibilities and determining relevant features to enhance decision-making. By grouping stakeholders into shared categories, the study aims to provide a more efficient and effective method for managing IoT security. The insights gained from this research will not only benefit stakeholders involved in IoT security but also assist policymakers and regulators in developing effective strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0113.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: microaggressions; responses to microaggressions; role-playing; workshop
Online: 7 May 2018 (10:19:16 CEST)
Microaggressions are subtle verbal and non-verbal slights based on group membership, and they are ubiquitous in the lives of racial minorities, women, and LGBTQ individuals (Sue, 2010). The goal of the current paper is to introduce a role-playing based exercise on effective responses to microaggressions. The workshop draws on the prejudice responding workshops of Plous (2000) and Lawson, et al. (2010) but integrates research-based strategies. The activity was tested in two groups of undergraduate students, and the findings suggested that both groups felt more prepared to deal with microaggressions after participating.
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Adult learners; Transformative learning; Personal story; Role positioning
Online: 11 September 2023 (10:02:37 CEST)
Transformative learning is an emerging and unique learning theory for adults. Foreign adult education scholars, represented by Mezirow, have produced significant research results in this field. However, research in this area in China is relatively lacking. This paper interprets the personal story of an English teacher through six stages and combines transformative learning theory to position the roles of adult learners in transformative learning. The author believes that adult learners today must take on six missions and play the roles of discerners, reflectors, communicators, integrators, aspirers, and resilient individuals in the transformative learning process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0313.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Learning Management System (LMS); perceived role; readiness; integration
Online: 11 March 2021 (11:06:24 CET)
The rapid development of information and communication technologies has led to the use of new and digital technologies in education which involves combinations of text, graphics, audio, video, animations and other eLearning resources such as authoring tools, Learning Management System (LMS), Mobile learning and others. Arguably, using LMS leaves much to be desired. The inherent problem here is that the future of extensive adoption of ICT via LMS to enhance and promote classroom interaction in Open and Distance Learning (ODL) is bleak. This is worrisome given that the country is lagging far behind in the innovative use of this web 2.0 technology to impart knowledge. Further, the low-level application of LMS in instruction connotes the loss of inherent advantages in its adoption. Also, the online setting which makes students less nervous and interactive, sharing of ideas and viewpoints; and a host of other benefit will be lost. While evidence has shown that LMS is not a new phenomenon, the use of LMS in ODL is still at its infancy, particularly in Nigeria. Research in this area is rare. A quick search on prominent research databases could testify that. It is on this thrust that this study investigates University of Ibadan undergraduate students’ perceived roles and readiness towards integration of learning management system into teaching and learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0430.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: neoliberalism; social welfare; crisis; maintenance role; critical activity.
Online: 18 October 2018 (17:14:19 CEST)
Background: The financial austerity policy imposed to Portugal by Troika - the European Commission, European Central Bank and International Monetary Fund in 2011, led to a tremendously social crisis. Under these dominant trends in Europe, which were felt especially in certain countries, such as Portugal, we feel ourselves forced into an analysis and reflection on the impact of this conjuncture in social workers, especially analyzing the role played by social workers and its critical consciousness relative to this neoliberal model and imposed austerity policies. Methods: This article results from an analysis of empirical data collected after the entry of Troika in Portugal, during 2013. Were conducted 26 in-depth interviews to front line social workers, with the purpose of obtaining a narrative of their daily work practice and with the concern of encouraging reflection on them. Results: Analysis shows the predominance of a maintenance role at the expense of more emancipatory approaches and thus, this results point to the relationship of this maintenance role with the sociological paradigm of social regulation and shows also, how social work is still attached to a conservative agenda. Secondly, one finds a weak critical reflection among social workers, being very afraid to speak out against the system, taking on a submissive attitude and subservient to the policies of social cuts imposed. The analysis then raises the challenge for social workers to develop a critical reflexivity Conclusion: The results highlight several important observations in terms of social woker role and that a critical activity is urgently required to social workers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0965.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: candidate entity extraction; document-level event extraction; role overlapping
Online: 15 May 2023 (02:52:04 CEST)
Structured extraction of emergency event information can effectively enhance the ability to re-spond to emergency events. This article focuses on the extraction of Chinese document-level emergency events, which mainly faces two key issues in this field: first, related datasets; Secondly, existing DEE (document-level event extraction) studies mostly use sequence annotation to extract candidate entities in the subtask of candidate entity extraction without considering the problem of role overlapping between candidate entities. On the one hand, this article constructs a Chinese document-level emergency extraction dataset, CDEEE, which first annotates the issues of argu-ment scattering, multiple events, and role overlapping. On the other hand, this article proposes a model RODEE for the problem of role overlapping in DEE tasks. This model first uses two in-dependent modules to represent the head and tail positions of candidate entities, then uses a multiplication attention mechanism to interact with the two to obtain a scoring matrix. Finally, role-overlapping candidate entities are predicted to assist in completing DEE tasks. Experiments were conducted on our manually annotated dataset, CDEEE, and the results showed that RODEE can effectively solve the problem of role overlapping in candidate entities and improve the performance of the DEE model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0119.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; gender role; sex differences
Online: 4 August 2021 (15:30:46 CEST)
Background: from December 2019 and the spreading of syndemics, a lot of medical centers reg-istered data about their patients. In Italy, the most relevant quantity of patients was hospitalized in internal medicine wards. Methods: In this observational, retrospective cross-sectional study, all data of the COVID-19 patients, admitted Latio hospitals, from March 01 to December 31, 2020, were collected and their Epidemiological data, demographics, signs and symptoms on admission, comorbidities, laboratory findings, chest radiography and CT findings, treatment received and mortality rate were analyzed by gender to find any differences of gravity of disease. Clinician details were registered on database (one for every hospital). Cost analysis was performed by length of stay and antiviral drugs use, using point of view of Italian Healthcare System. Results: 2256 patients with mean age of 71.01 ± 28.02 years were included. For men, frequency of hyper-tension, COPD, use of oxygen therapy, Tocilizumab were significantly higher and epidemiolog-ical link was related to rehabilitation ward and community. The gender difference about hospi-talization was one day more for man. No strong significant difference by gender in the death rate was observed. Considering antiviral drugs and hospitalization, a man costs €1000 more than woman. Conclusions: In male patients, hypertension and COPD were observed more frequently and the epidemiological link was related to rehabilitation ward and community. In female sub-jects, the epidemiological link was related to Hospital and we observed significantly higher atypical chest-X ray. Tocilizumab, oxygen therapy and antiviral drugs were prescribed more in male subjects. No differences by gender we report in other treatments and outcomes. Future studies should be analyzed to get a more comprehensive understanding of COVID-19 by gender.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1865.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: Cebuano in the global linguistic landscape; Internationalization; role of Cebuano
Online: 27 June 2023 (09:03:27 CEST)
In an increasingly interconnected world, the internationalization of languages plays a pivotal role in shaping global linguistic landscapes. This qualitative study delves into the intriguing realm of Cebuano, a language with a rich cultural heritage and a vibrant community of speakers. Through a meticulous exploration of language variation, adaptation, and policy dynamics, the researcher unravels the complex interplay between Cebuano and the global linguistic tapestry. Drawing upon a comprehensive literature review and qualitative research, including in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, this paper illuminates the nuanced manifestations of Cebuano beyond its traditional borders and sheds light on its presence in diverse international settings. The findings reveal the intricate dance of language and identity, offering insights into the processes of language maintenance, shift, and revitalization. As the researcher navigates the multifaceted dimensions of Cebuano's internationalization, not only is its global significance unraveled, but also the intricate connections between language, culture, and human experience are investigated. This study not only contributes to the scholarly discourse on language dynamics but also raises compelling questions about the preservation of linguistic diversity, the power of language in shaping identities, and the role of language in fostering intercultural understanding. By embracing the kaleidoscope of Cebuano's global journey, this paper invites readers to contemplate the broader implications for language diversity, communication, and cultural preservation in an increasingly interconnected world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0132.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: aesthetic ability; arts education; students’ learning; teacher role; teaching goals
Online: 9 June 2022 (03:44:33 CEST)
Aesthetic ability is a powerful tool that can enhance student learning outcomes in arts education. This study not only determines the effect of aesthetic ability on student learning but also determines the effects of different factors on improvement in students' aesthetic abilities. The data used to investigate the mentioned relationships have been obtained from randomly selected 322 undergraduate students of arts education at different universities in Chengdu, Sichuan, China. The reliability of the data has been tested through Cronbach’s Alpha and regression analysis has been employed to determine the relationships among variables. Study findings revealed that teacher role, clarity of teaching goal, scientific plan, students' guidance, future creation, learning reflection, participation in exhibitions, improvement of art, appreciation of artwork, and innovative teaching methods influence student learning positively and significantly. Further, the effect of improvement in aesthetic ability on student learning has been found to be positive and significant. Based on the findings, some important implications have been discussed at the end of the study.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0145.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Role-play; medical roleplay; teddy bear hospital; teddy bear clinic
Online: 8 September 2021 (11:54:09 CEST)
Background: Role-playing is often used as a pedagogical method for learning communication in medical education. Therefore, medical play using the Teddy Bear Hospital (TBH) is a concept that can quickly familiarize children with health care and help them develop positive experiences in these areas. This review aims to assess the strengths of TBH, as a form of directed medical role play, in improving health outcomes and well-being in children, along with implanting an awareness of preventive health care in young children.Methods: For this scoping review, we examined the list of recommendations, including 11 studies from two databases, PubMed and Google Scholar. We incorporated pre/post quasi-experimental studies, ANOVA, qualitative research studies, systematic reviews, and control group studies that deliberately utilize the teddy bear hospital as an intervention.Results: The results of individual studies were further categorized into three sections. The first being upon the analysis of 11 studies, the Teddy Bear Hospital was mainly conducted in Europe and Asia. It is evident that regardless of the different approaches and strategies used to implement the Teddy Bear Hospital, they all ultimately share the same intent: to raise health care awareness and alleviate young children's anxiety over medical treatment while focusing on the promotion of positive healthy lifestyle. All studies portray the teddy bear hospital as an intervention of medical roleplay which analyzed the children's feelings, behaviors, and health awareness after visiting the Teddy Bear Hospital.Conclusion: The application of the teddy bear hospital has overwhelmingly positive results, with lower levels of anxiety and improved health knowledge. Its reported efficacy calls for future studies on aspects that lead to its efficacy and potential effectiveness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0082.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: mine waste; lead; zinc; cadmium; microbial role; sulfur-reducing bacteria
Online: 4 August 2018 (11:07:24 CEST)
Milling and mining metal ores are major sources of heavy metal contamination. The Spring River and its tributaries in southeast Kansas are contaminated with Pb, Zn, and Cd as a result of 120 years of mining activities. Trace metal transformations and cycling in mine waste materials greatly influence their mobility and toxicity and affect plant productivity and human health. It has been hypothesized that under reduced conditions in sulfate-rich environments, these metals can be transformed into their sulfide forms, thus limiting mobility and toxicity. We studied biogeochemical transformations of Pb, Zn and Cd in flooded subsurface mine waste materials, natural or treated with organic carbon (OC) and/or sulfur (S), by combining advanced microbiological and X-ray spectroscopic techniques to determine the effects of treatments on the microbial community structure and identify the dominant functional genes involved in the biogeochemical transformations, especially metal sulfide formation over time. Samples collected from medium-, and long-term submerged columns were used for microarray analysis via functional gene array (GeoChip 4.2). The total number of detected gene abundance decreased under long-term submergence, but major functional genes abundance was enhanced with OC plus S treatment. The microbial community exhibited a substantial change in structure in response to OC and S addition. Sulfur-reducing bacteria genes dsrA/B were identified as key players in metal sulfide formation via dissimilatory sulfate reduction. Uniqueness of this study is that microbial analyses presented here in details are in agreements with molecular-scale synchrotron-based X-ray data supporting that OC-plus-S treatment would be a promising strategy for reducing metal toxicity in mine waste materials.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0012.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: role-based access control; attribute-based access control; attribute-based encryption
Online: 8 July 2016 (10:12:21 CEST)
Cloud Computing is a promising and emerging technology that is rapidly being adopted by many IT companies due to a number of benefits that it provides, such as large storage space, low investment cost, virtualization, resource sharing, etc. Users are able to store a vast amount of data and information in the cloud and access it from anywhere, anytime on a pay-per-use basis. Since many users are able to share the data and the resources stored in the cloud, there arises a need to provide access to the data to only those users who are authorized to access it. This can be done through access control schemes which allow the authenticated and authorized users to access the data and deny access to unauthorized users. In this paper, a comprehensive review of all the existing access control schemes has been discussed along with analysis. Keywords: role-based access control, attribute-based access control, attribute-based encryption
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1154.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Cancer; Diabetes; ROS; Oxidative stress; Signaling pathways; Antioxidants’ dual role in cancer
Online: 15 June 2023 (13:54:19 CEST)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) accounts for one-sixth of deaths, globally, whereas cancer is the second leading cause of death in the U.S. T2DM is a known risk factor for many cancers. This review examines the link of Reactive oxygen Species (ROS)-altered metabolic and signaling pathways in T2DM to cancer. These reprogrammed metabolic and signaling pathways are activated that contribute to diabetic complications, impact redox balance (Oxidative Stress), and have differential roles in early and late stages of cancer. If the respiratory chain is highly reduced (as under hyperglycemic conditions) or if reduced cofactors accumulate, ROS are greatly elevated. ROS may cause mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that result in further ROS elevation. Amplification of ROS results in activation of PKC, an overarching signaling pathway that activates MAPK with subsequent regulation of several factors that result in pathophysiological manifestations of T2DM and cancer. Upregulation of PKC leads to deregulation of NF-kß that regulates the PKB/P13/Akt pathway that orchestrates cell survival, growth, proliferation, and glucose metabolism manifested in cancer. It also affects Insulin Receptor Substrate (IRS-1), decreasing insulin stimulated glucose transport and glucose uptake, disrupting subsequent cell signaling pathways contributing to the development of T2DM. Dyslipidemia is a hallmark of T2DM and cancer. ROS-induced lipid peroxidation leads to systemic inflammation, producing inflammatory prostaglandins, cytokines and chemokines that result in tumor proliferation, rapid tumor growth, and modulation of immunity. The dual role of ROS in early and late stages of cancer make antioxidant therapy precarious and may be responsible for controversial results. A system that delivers an antioxidant directly to mitochondria may be useful in inhibiting formation of ROS early during the pre-diabetic stage whereas antioxidant therapy must be halted in later stages to retard metastasis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0230.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Women Leadership; leadership development; identity; experience; role model; narrative; social; culture development
Online: 12 April 2023 (03:07:14 CEST)
This qualitative research study explores the experiences of three Emirati women who have achieved significant success in their higher education institutes in the (UAE). The study aims to understand how childhood and adolescent experiences shape the leadership development of these women, both positively and negatively. The study also includes interviews with family members and close colleagues of the participants to gain additional perspectives. The findings the importance of family support, role models, and mentors in shaping the leadership development of women in the UAE. The study also sheds light on the challenges and barriers that women face in leadership positions, including gender bias and discrimination. Overall, the study contributes to a deeper understanding of the experiences of Emirati women in leadership positions and provides insights into how to support their leadership development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0154.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: β-glucans; polysaccharides; flavonoids; anthocyanins; antioxidants; biological role of pigments; gene families
Online: 4 March 2021 (11:19:12 CET)
Cereal crops, such as oats and barley, possess a number of valuable properties that meet the requirements for functional diet components. This review summarized the available information about bioactive compounds of oat and barley grain. The results of studying the structure and physicochemical properties of the cell wall polysaccharides of barley and oat are presented. The main components of the flavonoids formation pathway are shown and data, concerning anthocyanins biosynthesis in various barley tissues, are discussed. Moreover, we analyzed the available information about structural and regulatory genes of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Hordeum vulgare L. genome, including β-glucan biosynthesis genes in Avena sativa L species. However, there is not enough knowledge about genes responsible for biosynthesis of β-glucans and corresponding enzymes and plant polyphenols. The review also covers contemporary studies about collections of oat and barley genetic resources held by VIR. This review intended to provide information on the processes of biosynthesis of biologically active compounds in cereals that will promote further researches devoted to transcription factors controlling expression of structural genes and their role in other physiological processes in higher plants. Found achievements will allow breeders to create new highly productive varieties with the desirable properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0568.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: service accessibility; dementia knowledge; affordability; carer role strain; self-criticism; negative emotions
Online: 27 January 2021 (16:15:14 CET)
Because of an often complicated and difficult-to-access care system, help-seeking for people with suspected dementia can be stressful. Difficulty in help-seeking may contribute to carer burden, in addition to other known stressors in dementia care. This study examined the relationship between perceived help-seeking difficulty and carer burden, and the barriers contributing to perceived difficulty. We interviewed 110 carers accessing a community-based dementia assessment service for suspected dementia of a family member for their perceived difficulty, delays, and barriers in help-seeking, and carers burden in terms of role strain, self-criticism, and negative emotions. Linear regression models showed that perceived help-seeking difficulty is associated with carer self-criticism, while carer role strain and negative emotions are associated with symptom severity of the person with dementia but not help-seeking difficulty. Inadequate knowledge about symptoms, service accessibility, and affordability together explained more than half of the variance in perceived help-seeking difficulty (Nagelkerke R2 = .56). Public awareness about symptoms, support in navigating service, and financial support may reduce perceived difficulty in help-seeking, which in turn may reduce carer self-criticism during the early course of illness.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0110.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: carbonic anhydrases; CA gene family; Chlamydomonas reinhardtii; model alga; metabolic role; photosynthesis
Online: 12 January 2018 (07:21:25 CET)
Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are metalloenzymes that are omnipresent in nature. The CAs catalyze the basic reaction of reversible hydration of CO2 to HCO3− and H+ in all living organisms. Photosynthetic organisms contain six evolutionarily different classes of CAs, namely, α-CAs, β-CAs, γ-CAs, δ-CAs, ζ-CAs, and θ-CAs. Many of the photosynthetic organisms contain multiple isoforms of each CA family. Model alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii contains fifteen CAs belonging to three different CA gene families. Out of the fifteen CAs, three belong to α-CA gene family, nine to β-CA gene family, and three are γ-CAs. The multiple copies of the CAs in each gene family may be due to gene duplications within the particular CA gene family. The CAs of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii are localized in different subcellular compartments of this unicellular alga. The presence of a large number of CAs and their diverse subcellular localization within a single cell suggests the importance of these enzymes in metabolic and biochemical roles they perform in this unicellular alga. In the present review, we update the information on molecular biology of all the fifteen CAs and their metabolic and biochemical roles in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We also present a hypothetical model showing the known functions of CAs and predicting the functions of CAs for which precise metabolic roles are yet to be discovered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0349.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Moral observer-licensing; Immoral behavior; Role involvement; Moral Credits Model; Internet; Social media
Online: 25 March 2022 (15:29:49 CET)
Moral observer-licensing happens when people condone others’ morally questionable conducts due to their history of moral behaviors. We investigated in four studies (N = 808) this phenomenon in the context of cyberspace and its contributing factors and boundary conditions. Study 1 determined what participants perceived as typically moral and immoral behaviors in cyberspace. Then in Study 2, participants condemned less a story character’s online immoral behavior when they were informed of the character’s prior online moral behavior than when they were not, which indicates moral observer-licensing in cyberspace. Study 3 confirmed the presence of moral observer-licensing in cyberspace and further demonstrated that a character’s prior moral or immoral behavior online respectively reduces or intensifies the negativity of the character’s subsequent immoral behavior. Finally, Study 4 showed that participants who identified with the victim in a hypothetical scenario showed less forgiveness and more condemnation of a character’s immoral behavior than those who identified with the perpetrator or the bystander. These findings are of theoretical and practical significance for our understanding of cyber ethics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0007.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: responsible innovation; user engagement; role of users; digital health; informed; involved; innovative patient
Online: 2 November 2020 (09:38:38 CET)
Despite the recognition of the importance of stakeholder inclusion into decisions about new solutions offered to society, responsible innovation (RI) has stalled at the point of articulating a process of governance with a strongly normative loading, without clear practical guidelines toward implementation practices. The principles of RI direct us to involve the user early in the innovation process. However, it lacks direction of how to involve users and stakeholders into this process. In this article, we try to understand how to empower users to become a part of innovation process though empirical cases. Based on 11 cases of firms innovating in digital health and welfare services, we look on firm practices for user integration into their innovation process, as well as how user’s behavior is changing due to new trends such as availability of information and digitalization of services. We try to explore this question through lenses of responsible innovation in the emerging field of digital healthcare.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0371.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: tourism geography; city connectivity; tourism services value; functional role; urban urbanhierarchy; regional pattern
Online: 17 July 2020 (09:09:52 CEST)
[Background] Previous research achievements of the service-oriented tourist city network have often focused on the analysis of its geographical distribution and service role of the important cities instead of the connections and hierarchical tendencies between the whole city in a large region.[Method]Using big data approaches on the regional connections of 38 tourism organizations including famous hotels, air passenger transport, tourism service agencies across 63 most important tourist cities in China. Fuzzy c-means clustering analysis is used to define 8 city arena clusters. [Results]According to the distributions of connectivity between 63 cities, these eight clusters play different service functional roles in the urban tourism network at four hierarchies. With their “center-edge” memberships, these arena clusters are formed by the interweaving process of regional and hierarchical tourism service connections. The results include the analysis of the various service-oriented tourist city in China and point out the geography “gap” faced by network. [Conclusion] Service-oriented tourist cities need to find their hierarchies and positioning in the network scientifically to avoid blind development, to make regional urban tourism sustainable development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0615.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: emerging pollutants; wastewater treatment; electrochemical oxidation; role of operational parameters; cost analysis assessment; photoelectrocatalysis
Online: 20 April 2023 (07:20:41 CEST)
In recent years, the discharge of various emerging pollutants, chemicals and dyes in water and wastewater has represented one of the prominent human problems. Since water pollution is directly related to human health, highly resistant and emerging compounds in aquatic environments will pose many potential risks to the health of all living. Therefore, water pollution is a very acute problem that has constantly increased in recent years with the expansion of various industries. Consequently, choosing efficient and innovative wastewater treatment methods to remove contaminants is crucial. Among advanced oxidation processes, electrochemical oxidation (EO) is the most common and effective method for removing persistent pollutants from municipal and industrial wastewater. However, there are still many gaps despite the great progress in using EO to treat real wastewater. This is due to the lack of comprehensive information on the operating parameters which affect the process and its operating costs. In this paper, among various scientific articles, the impact of operational parameters on the EO performances, a comparison between different electrochemical reactor configurations, and a report on general mechanisms of electrochemical oxidation of organic pollutants have been reported. Moreover, an evaluation of cost analysis and energy consumption requirements have also been discussed. Finally, the combination process between EO and another important advanced oxidation technology, PEC, called photoelectrocatalysis (PEC), has shortly been discussed and reviewed. This article showed that there is a direct relationship between important operating parameters with the amount of costs and the final removal efficiency of emerging pollutants. Optimal operating conditions can be achieved by paying special attention to reactor design, which can lead to higher efficiency and more efficient treatment. The rapid development of EO for removing emerging pollutants from impacted water and its combination with other green methods can result in more efficient approaches to face the pressing water pollution challenge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0753.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: unsupervised feature selection; histogram-valued data; compactness; hierarchical conceptual clustering; multi-role measure; visualization
Online: 31 March 2021 (07:53:39 CEST)
This paper presents an unsupervised feature selection method for multi-dimensional histogram-valued data. We define a multi-role measure, called the compactness, based on the concept size of given objects and/or clusters described by a fixed number of equal probability bin-rectangles. In each step of clustering, we agglomerate objects and/or clusters so as to minimize the compactness for the generated cluster. This means that the compactness plays the role of a similarity measure between objects and/or clusters to be merged. To minimize the compactness is equivalent to maximize the dis-similarity of the generated cluster, i.e., concept, against the whole concept in each step. In this sense, the compactness plays the role of cluster quality. We also show that the average compactness of each feature with respect to objects and/or clusters in several clustering steps is useful as feature effectiveness criterion. Features having small average compactness are mutually covariate, and are able to detect geometrically thin structure embedded in the given multi-dimensional histogram-valued data. We obtain thorough understandings of the given data by the visualization using dendrograms and scatter diagrams with respect to the selected informative features. We illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method by using an artificial data set and real histogram-valued data sets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0092.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: semantic spatial trajectory; role based access control; Bell-Lapadula model; multi-policy; Web Ontology Language
Online: 17 November 2016 (15:19:51 CET)
With the proliferation of locating devices, more and more raw spatial trajectories are formed, and many works enrich these raw trajectories with semantics, and mine patterns from both raw and semantic trajectories, but access control of spatial trajectories is not considered yet. We present a multi-policy secure model for semantic spatial trajectories. In our model, Mandatory Access Control, Role Based Access Control and Discretionary Access control are all enforced, separately and combined, and we represent the model semi-formally in Ontology Web Language.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1340.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: ascorbic acid; electrosinthesized molecularly imprinted polymers; molecularly imprinted polypyr-role; screen-printed electrodes; voltammetric sensors; chemosensors; analytical chemistry
Online: 18 May 2023 (11:02:29 CEST)
This paper presents the development of a cheap and rapid electrochemical sensor for ascorbic acid detection. In particular, the graphite ink working electrode of screen-printed cells was covered by a film of elecrosynthesized molecularly imprinted polypyrrole (e-MIP); differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was the selected method for the analyte detection. The ascorbic acid molecules were suc-cessfully entrapped in the polypyrrole film, creating the recognition sites. The best results were obtained after polypyrrole overoxidation and performing the measurements in phosphate buffer solution 0.05 M/KCl 0.1M at pH 7.5. The comparison with the bare and the not imprinted polypyrrole-modified electrodes showed the highest selectivity and reproducibility of the e-MIP-based sensor. The developed method was applied to assess ascorbic acid in farmaceutical products obtaining values not significantly different from the declared content.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0073.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: circular city model; city-port; Sustainable Indicators; SDGs; Role Play Game (RPG); PROMETHEE method; Stakeholders analysis; multi-dimensional evaluation; adaptive decision-making process
Online: 9 January 2020 (07:03:51 CET)
The city-port involves a decisive reality for the economic development of the territories and nations, capable of significantly influencing the conditions of well-being and quality of life, and of making the Circular City Model operational, preserving and enhancing seas and marine resources in a sustainable way, through the construction of appropriate production and consumption models, with attention to relations with the urban and territorial system. The Circular Economy paradigm identifies the ideal context in the city-port to rethink traditional development models and make ports driver areas for the regeneration of the city and metropolitan territories, in compliance with the EU Directive 2014/89 which considers maritime spatial planning as a tool for public authorities and stakeholders to achieve an integrated approach, promoting the development of maritime and coastal economies and the sustainable use of resources. The paper, starting from these assumptions, presents an adaptive decision-making process for the strategies development of the Naples (Italy) commercial port, aimed at re-establishing a sustainable city-port relationship and making operative Circular Economy principles.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: effective communication; community pharmacy; pharmacist’s role; modern society; modern services; on-line pharmacy; pharmacy educational methodologies; communication skills improvement; pharmacist’s professionalism; efficient consultancy service
Online: 15 November 2019 (03:33:33 CET)
Ever since pharmacy has become a profession, pharmacist's role has been continuously subjected to changes due to specific influences from historical, socio-economic, political, and scientific context. Nowadays the classic perception of pharmaceutical profession in Community Pharmacy is facing worldwide extinction due to many factors. Modern services, such as online, mail-order, and telephone-order pharmacies are increasingly gaining ground thanks to their ability to facilitate customer demand. However, at the same time, they are endangering “face-to-face” contact, affecting the building of customer loyalty based on direct “human” interaction, and consequently reducing pharmacists to mere commercial figures. Communication is in fact emphasized as the essential element to build a solid and appropriate interpersonal relationship with the client, to make the consultancy process effective, and to strengthen pharmacist's professionalism in community pharmacy. The aim of this work is to analyze pharmacist’s role in modern society by pinpointing the factors affecting pharmacy profession practice. Specific purpose will be improving both the academic training of future professionals and their capacity to approach public relations through a deepened study and practice of behavioral, communication, educational, and sociological methodologies and techniques that would allow the development of more effective communication skills useful for providing an efficient consultancy service.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1189.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Functional role of GABA in insulin secretion stimulation; GABA metabolism in pancreatic islets; GABA and insulin secretion; interaction of glucose and GABA metabolism in pancreatic islets; GABA shunt
Online: 29 April 2023 (02:51:09 CEST)
The stimulus-secretion coupling of glucose-induced release is generally attributed to the metabolism of the hexose in the β-cells in the glycolytic pathway and the citric acid cycle. Glucose metabolism generates an increased cytosolic concentration of ATP and of the ATP/ADP ratio that closes the ATP-dependent K+-channel at the plasma membrane by the interaction of ATP with the regulatory Kir6.2 channel subunit The resultant depolarization of the β-cells opens voltage-dependent Ca2+-channels at the plasma membrane that allow an increase of the cytosolic cation concentration that triggers the exocytosis of insulin secretory granules. The resultant secretory response evolves in time as a biphasic secretion with a first and transient peak of approximately 10 minutes duration followed by a sustained phase of secretion lasting as long as the stimulus. Whereas the first transient peak can be reproduced by a simple depolarization of β-cells with high extracellular KCl maintaining the KATP-channels open with diazoxide, the sustained phase is agreed to depend on the participation of some metabolic signal that remains to be determined Our group has been investigating for several years the participation of β-cell GABA metabolism, together with that of glucose (the β-cell “specific” nutrient secretagogue) and some other “metabolic” secretagogues (branched-chain alpha-ketoacids and a mixture of L-Leucine + L-glutamine, at supraphysiological concentrations) in their mechanism of stimulation of insulin secretion. All three types of stimuli promote the flux in the GABA shunt of rat islets by different metabolic pathways that end in the production of α-ketoglutarate. This citric acid cycle intermediary is preferentially derived to the GABA shunt instead of its continuous oxidation in the citric acid cycle. Islet content of GABA is significantly suppressed by all the stimuli and blocking the GABA shunt with gabaculine, or ϒ-vinyl-GABA (GABAT inhibitors), diminish the insulin secretory responses as well as total ATP and the ATP/ADP ratio. It is concluded that GABA metabolism is increased in parallel to glucose metabolism and is significantly contributing to the magnitude of the insulin secretory response. Its possible implication in β-cells degradation in type-2 (perhaps also in type 1) diabetes is suggested.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0500.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Oxidative stress and cell death; Reactive oxygen species; ROS; ROS cell death; autophagy; role of antioxidants; eye disease; cornea; lens; epithelium; retinal ganglion cells; retinal pigment epithelium; macular degeneration; antioxidants in the macula; oxidative stress prevention with antioxidants; lifestyle changes; digital eye strain; glaucoma; cataracts; dry eye disease; computer vision syndrome; digital eye strain; diabetic retinopathy; Vitamin A; Vitamin C; copper; glutathione; zinc; selenium; magnesium; blue light damage; UV light damage; blue light reactive oxygen species; autophagy; ferroptosis; ROS cell death; superoxide dismutase; optic nerve gliomas; food deserts; myopia; free radicals
Online: 29 March 2023 (03:33:55 CEST)
Increased screen time during the COVID-19 pandemic and the accelerated incorporation of technology into daily practices have directly contributed to the increased prevalence of eye disease. The human eye is not built for continual technological use and must adjust to exposure to digital screens. Overexposure to technology can result in eye strain and an increased risk of eye diseases such as myopia with complications later in life, including retinal tears, cataracts, and macular degeneration. As vision and ocular diseases become more prevalent, the study of eye diseases, including their causes and treatments, is especially relevant. There is a need to prevent ocular diseases before they become a burden to individuals, their families, and their communities by better understanding the pathophysiology of ocular diseases. Several ocular diseases are thought to be caused by imbalances in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and autophagy. ROS refers to a class of highly reactive oxygen-containing molecules that can undergo damaging reactions with other molecules in the cell. Autophagy is a cellular process of self-eating whereby damaged, harmful, or dead material in cells is broken down to maintain cellular homeostasis. This paper discusses the role of ROS and autophagy in the pathogenesis of computer vision syndrome (CVS), digital eye strain (DES), myopia, cataracts, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy (DR), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), optic nerve crush injury (OCN), optic nerve gliomas, and retinoblastoma. Lifestyle changes such as limiting screen time, ensuring adequate exposure to evening sunlight, and using blue light protection measures or protective eyewear are important in the prevention of eye disease. Nutrition also contributes significantly to eye health. A balanced diet rich in vitamins and antioxidants may help to prevent ROS and autophagy imbalance-induced eye disease. Medical and surgical treatments become necessary when preventative measures fail. This paper also addresses how government measures to decrease the onset of eye disease, including targeted programs to increase access to fresh vegetables and fruits in food deserts, are a critical macro-level avenue to reduce eye disease prevalence in the US, which according to the National Eye Institute, costs $139 billion yearly.