REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0195.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Nanoparticles, interactions, protein corona, nanomedicine
Online: 16 July 2019 (12:36:38 CEST)
Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary science covering matters involving nanoscale level that is being developed for a great variety of applications. Nanomedicine is one of these attractive and challenging uses focused on the employment of nanomaterials in medical applications such as drug delivery. However, the uses of these nanometric systems requires specific parameters to establish the possible advantages and disadvantages in specific applications. This review presents the fundamental factors of nanoparticles and it´s microenvironment that must be considered to make an appropriate design for medical applications: (i) Interactions between nanoparticles and their biological environment, (ii) the interaction mechanisms, (iii) and the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles. On the other hand, the repercussions of the control, alteration and modification of these parameters in the final applications. Additionally, we here briefly report the implications of nanoparticles in nanomedicine and provide perspectives for some particular applications which still are challenged
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0187.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: pancreatic cancer; molecular markers; target therapy; nanomedicine
Online: 12 October 2021 (20:45:44 CEST)
Pancreatic cancer leads the most common lethal tumor in America. This lethality is related to limited treatment options. Conventional treatments involve a non-specific use of chemotherapeutical agents like 5-FU, capecitabine, gemcitabine, cisplatine, oxaliplatine, or irinotecan, that produce several side effects. This review we focus on the use of targeted nanoparticles as an alternative to the standard treatment for the pancreatic cancer. The principal objective of the use of nanoparticles is the reduction in side effects that conventional treatments produce, mostly because of their nonspecificity. Currently, several molecular markets of pancreatic cancer cells have been studied to target nanoparticles and improve the actual treatment. Therefore, properly functionalizated nanoparticles with specific aptamers or antibodies can be used to recognize pancreatic cancer cells and once cancer is recognized, these nanoparticles can attack the tumor by drug delivery, hyperthermia, or gene therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0045.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Minocycline, Silver Nanoparticles, Tetracycline, Antidiabetic, In Vivo, Nanomedicine
Online: 1 June 2021 (15:21:02 CEST)
Diabetes is a life-threatening disease and chronic diabetes affects the parts of the body including the liver, kidney and pancreas. The root cause of diabetes is mainly associated with oxidative stress produced by reactive oxygen species. The minocycline is a polyphenolic drug with excellent antioxidant activities. The objective of the present study was to investigate the antidiabetic potential of minocycline modified silver nanoparticles (Mino/AgNPs) against alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The Mino/AgNPs were synthesized using minocycline as reducing and stabilizing agents. UV-vis, FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were applied for the characterization of Mino/AgNPs. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay was conducted to determine the antioxidant potential of newly synthesized Mino/AgNPs. The results revealed that the Mino/AgNPs showed higher radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 19.7 µg/mL) as compared to the minocycline (IC50 = 26.0 µg/mL) and ascorbic acid (IC50 = 25.2 µg/mL). Further, the Mino/AgNPs were successfully employed to examine their antidiabetic potential against Alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Hematological results showed that the mice treated with Mino/AgNPs demonstrated a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose level and lipid profile as compared to the diabetic group. The histopathological examination confirmed that the diabetic mice treated with Mino/AgNPs showed significant recovery and revival of histo-morphology of kidney, central vein of liver and islet cells of the pancreas compared to the diabetic mice. Hence Mino/AgNPs have good antidiabetic potential and could be an appropriate nanomedicine to prevent the development of diabetes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0146.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Nanomedicine; drug resistance; lung cancer; chemotherapeutic agents; drug delivery
Online: 11 January 2022 (13:48:22 CET)
Lung cancer (LC) is one of the leading causes of cancer occurrence and mortality worldwide. Treatment of patients with advanced and metastatic LC presents a significant challenge as malignant cells use different mechanisms to resist chemotherapy. Drug resistance (DR) is a complex process that occurs due to a variety of genetic and acquired factors. Identifying the mechanisms underlying DR in LC patients and possible therapeutic alternatives for more efficient therapy is a central goal of LC research. Advances in nanotechnology resulted in the development of targeted and multifunctional nanoscale drug constructs. The possible modulation of the components of nanomedicine, their surface functionalization, and encapsulation of various active therapeutics provide promising tools to bypass crucial biological barriers. These attributes enhance the delivery of multiple therapeutic agents directly to the tumor microenvironment (TME), resulting in reversal of LC resistance to anticancer treatment. This review provides a broad framework for understanding the different molecular mechanisms of DR in lung cancer; presents novel nanomedicine therapeutics aimed to improve the efficacy of treatment of various forms of resistant LC; outlines current challenges in using nanotechnology for reversing DR; and discusses the future directions for clinical application of nanomedicine in management of LC resistance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0496.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: Nanomedicine; molecularly imprinted polymer; drug delivery; targeting; hybrid material
Online: 29 September 2021 (14:16:32 CEST)
Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have been widely used in nanomedicine during the last few years. However, their potential is limited by their intrinsic properties resulting, for instance, in lack of control in drug release processes or complex detection for in vivo imaging. Recent attempts in creating hybrid nanomaterials combining MIPs with inorganic nanomaterials succeeded in providing a wide range of new interesting properties suitable for nanomedicine. Through this review, we aim to illustrate how hybrids molecularly imprinted polymers may improve patient care with enhanced imaging, treatments and combination of both.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0301.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Nanotechnology; Nanomaterials; Antiviral; Sanitizers; Nanomedicine; Infectious Diseases; COVID-19
Online: 24 June 2020 (14:21:10 CEST)
The current emerging COVID-19 pandemic has caused a global impact on every major aspect of our societies. It is known that SARS-Cov-2 can endure harsh environmental conditions for up to 72 h, which may contribute to its rapid spread. Therefore, effective containment strategies, such as sanitizing, are critical. Nanotechnology can represent an alternative to reduce the COVID-19 spread, particularly in critical areas, such as healthcare facilities and public places. Nanotechnology-based products are effective at inhibiting different pathogens, including viruses, regardless of their drug-resistant profile, biological structure, or physiology. Although there are several approved nanotechnology-based antiviral products, this work aims to highlight the use of nanomaterials as sanitizers for the prevention of the spread of mainly SARS-Cov-2. It has been widely demonstrated that nanomaterials are an alternative for sanitizing surfaces to inactivate the virus. Also, antimicrobial nanomaterials can reduce the risk of secondary microbial infections on COVID-19 patients, as they inhibit the bacteria and fungi that can contaminate healthcare-related facilities. Finally, cost-effective, easy-to-synthesize antiviral nanomaterials could reduce the burden of the COVID-19 on challenging environments and in developing countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0115.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: nanodiamond; tritium; biodistribution; Ewing sarcoma; drug delivery; siRNA; nanomedicine
Online: 9 February 2020 (17:37:11 CET)
Nanodiamonds of detonation origin are promising delivery agents of anti-cancer therapeutic compounds in a whole organism like mouse, owing to their versatile surface chemistry and ultra-small 5 nm average primary size compatible with natural elimination routes. However, to date, little is known about tissue distribution, elimination pathways and efficacy of nanodiamonds-based therapy in mice. In this report, we studied the capacity of cationic hydrogenated detonation nanodiamonds to carry active small interfering RNA (siRNA) in a mice model of Ewing sarcoma, a bone cancer of young adult due in the vast majority to the EWS-Fli1 junction oncogene. Replacing hydrogen gas by its radioactive analog tritium gas led to the formation of labeled nanodiamonds and allowed us to investigate their distribution throughout mouse organs and their excretion in urine and feces. We also demonstrated that siRNA directed against EWS-Fli1 inhibited this oncogene expression in tumor xenografted on mice. This work is a significant step to establish cationic hydrogenated detonation nanodiamond as an effective agent for in vivo delivery of active siRNA.
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Elaeocarpus ganitrus; Hydrothermal synthesis; Gold nanoparticles; Prostate cancer; Cancer nanomedicine
Online: 25 December 2019 (10:32:12 CET)
In the present study, we have followed the hydrothermal path for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) from the biomaterial Elaeocarpus ganitrus seeds extract, which is a rapid, eco-friendly, non-chemical way. The prepared NPs were thoroughly analyzed by PXRD & HR-TEM studies and also tested for photocatalytic dye degradation and anticancer studies. Besides, antioxidant, antibacterial and anticancer properties of Au NPs were studied. In vitro studies revealed the dose-dependent cytotoxic effect of Au NPs. The prepared nanoparticles showed good cytotoxic impact against Prostate cancer (PC-3) cells line. The results of the present study could contribute to synthesize new and cost-effective drugs from Elaeocarpus ganitrus seeds extract by using bio approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0124.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: plasmonics; nanomedicine; theranostics; copper; VEGF; glioblastoma; differentiated neuroblastoma; peptidomimetics; qPCR; actin.
Online: 11 August 2019 (07:13:00 CEST)
Angiogenin (ANG), an endogenous protein that plays a key role in cell growth and survival, has been scrutinised here as promising nanomedicine tool for the modulation of pro-/ anti-angiogenic processes in brain cancer therapy. Specifically, peptide fragments from the putative cell membrane binding domain (residues 60-68) of the protein were used in this study to obtain peptide-functionalised spherical gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) of about 10 nm and 30 nm in optical and hydrodynamic size, respectively. Different hybrid biointerfaces were fabricated by peptide physical adsorption (Ang60-68) or chemisorption (the cysteine analogous Ang60-68Cys) at the metal nanoparticle surface, and the cellular assays were performed in the comparison with ANG-functionalised AuNPs. Cellular treatments were performed both in basal and in copper-supplemented cell culture medium, to scrutinise the synergic effect of the metal, which is another known angiogenic factor. Two brain cell lines were investigated in parallel, namely tumour glioblastoma (A172) and neuron-like differentiated neuroblastoma (d-SH-SY5Y). Results on cell viability/proliferation, cytoskeleton actin, angiogenin translocation and VEGF release pointed to the promising potentialities of the developed systems as anti-angiogenic tunable nanoplaftforms in cancer cells treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0308.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: gold nanoparticles; green chemistry; Piper betle; Lung cancer cell line (A549); nanomedicine
Online: 25 December 2018 (14:05:09 CET)
The present work encompasses an application-oriented perspective to the possible employment of gold nanoparticles as nanomedicine in cancer therapeutics. The rationale of the work lies in the growing needs for assessment of advanced alternative treatment of cancer employing functionalized nanoparticles as nanomedicine. Gold nanoparticles fabricated via green chemistry methods by leaves of a time-honored medicinal plant, Piper betle were ascertained for their synthesis and properties under the umbrella of characterization of nanoparticles, through various techniques like UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The cytotoxicity assay of well-characterized gold nanoparticles was monitored against lung cancer cell line (A549) by metabolic and imaging assays. MTT assay or the metabolic assay was performed for a range of nanoparticles’ concentrations. The results were promising and proved to be a leading-edge venture, envisaging the possibility of gold nanoparticles for cancer therapeutics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0748.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Keywords: Brimonidine; Laponite; drug delivery; glaucoma; nanomedicine; monitoring; optical coherence tomography; vitreous; intravitreal.
Online: 30 November 2020 (20:25:24 CET)
Intravitreal injection is the gold standard therapeutic option for posterior segment pathologies, and long-lasting release is necessary to avoid reinjections. There is no effective intravitreal treatment for glaucoma or other optic neuropathies in daily practice, nor is there a non-invasive method to monitor drug levels in the vitreous. Here we show that a glaucoma treatment combining a hypotensive and neuroprotective intravitreal formulation (IF) of brimonidine-Laponite (BRI/LAP) can be monitored non-invasively using vitreous imaging captured with optical coherence tomography (OCT) over 24 weeks of follow-up. Qualitative and quantitative characterization was achieved by analysing the changes in vitreous (VIT) signal intensity, expressed as a ratio of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) intensity. Vitreous hyperreflective aggregates mixed in the vitreous and tended to settle on the retinal surface. Relative intensity and aggregate size progressively decreased over 24 weeks in treated rat eyes as the BRI/LAP IF degraded. VIT/RPE relative intensity and total aggregate area correlated with brimonidine levels measured in the eye. The OCT-derived VIT/RPE relative intensity may be a useful and objective marker for non-invasive monitoring of BRI/LAP IF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0032.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Nanomedicine; human ferritin; gastrointestinal tumors; non-camptothecin topoisomerase I inhibitors; drug-delivery; CD71
Online: 2 October 2020 (09:21:53 CEST)
Gastrointestinal tumors including pancreatic and colorectal cancers represent one of the greatest public health issues worldwide, leading to million global deaths. Recent research demonstrated that the human heavy chain ferritin (HFt) can encapsulate different type of drugs in its cavity and can bind to its receptor, CD71, in several solid and hematological tumors, thus highlighting the potential use of ferritin for tumor-targeting therapies. Here, we describe the development and characterization of a novel nanomedicine based on the HFt that is named The-0504. In particular, this novel system is a nano-assembly comprising an engineered version of HFt that entraps about 80 molecules of a potent, wide-spectrum, non-camptothecin topoisomerase I inhibitor (Genz-644282). The-0504 can be produced by a standardized pre-industrial process as a pure and homogeneously formulated product with favourable lyophilization properties. The preliminary anticancer activity was evaluated in cultured cancer cells and in a mouse model of pancreatic cancer. Overall results reported here make The-0504 a candidate for further preclinical development against CD-71 expressing deadly tumors
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0271.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Cancer; cancer therapies; cancer recurrence; stem cells; porphine-related macrocycles, enhanced targeting; nanomedicine
Online: 12 October 2018 (14:31:03 CEST)
Deregulation of cell growth and development lead to cancer, a severe condition that claims millions of lives worldwide. Targeted or selective approaches used during cancer treatment determine the efficacy and outcome of the therapy. In order to enhance specificity and targeting and better treatment options for cancer, novel and alternative modalities are currently under development. Photodynamic therapy has the potential to eradicate cancer and combination therapy would yield even greater outcomes. Nanomedicine-aided cancer therapy shows enhanced specificity for cancer cells and minimal side-effects coupled with effective cancer destruction both in vitro and in vivo. Nanocarriers used in drug-delivery systems are well able to penetrate cancer stem cell niche, simultaneously killing cancer cells and eradicate drug-resistant cancer stem cells, yielding therapeutic efficiency up to 100 fold against drug-resistant cancer in comparison with free drugs. Safety precautions should be considered when using Nano-mediated therapy as the effects of extended exposure to biological environments are still to be determined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0724.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: TNBC; dasatinib; poly(styrene-co-maleic acid) micelles; nanoformulation; metabolism; EPR; nanomedicine; targeted therapy.
Online: 27 April 2021 (13:56:12 CEST)
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive breast cancer accounting for around 15% of identified breast cancer cases. TNBC, by lacking estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), is unresponsive to current targeted therapies. Existing treatment relies on chemotherapeutic treatment but, despite an initial response to chemotherapy, the inception of resistance and relapse is unfortunately common. Dasatinib is an approved second-generation inhibitor of multiple tyrosine kinases and literature data strongly support its use in the management of TNBC. However, dasatinib binds to plasma proteins and undergoes extensive metabolism through oxidation and conjugation. To protect dasatinib from fast pharmacokinetic degradation and to prolong its activity, it was encapsulated on poly(styrene-co-maleic acid) (SMA) micelles. The obtained SMA-dasatinib nanoparticles (NPs) were evaluated for their physicochemical properties, in vitro antiproliferative activity in different TNBC cell lines, and in vivo anticancer activity in a syngeneic model of breast cancer. Obtained results showed that SMA-dasatinib is more potent against 4T1 TNBC tumor growth in vivo compared to free drug. This enhanced effect was ascribed to the encapsulation of the drug protecting it from a rapid metabolism. Our finding highlights the often-overlooked value of nanoformulations in protecting its cargo from degradation. Overall, results may provide an alternative therapeutic strategy for TNBC management.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0060.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: exosomes; extrusion; proteolipid nanoparticles; drug delivery; nanomedicine; doxorubicin; ex-truded nanoparticles; hydroxychloroquine; endolysosomal escape; lysosomotropic
Online: 5 December 2022 (06:04:21 CET)
Because of their high biocompatibility, stability, ability to negotiate biological barrier passage, and functionalization properties, biological nanoparticles have been actively investigated for many medical applications. Biological nanoparticles, including natural extracellular vesicles (EVs) and synthetic extracellular vesicle-mimetic nanovesicles (EMNVs) represent novel drug delivery vehicles that can accommodate different payloads. In this study, we investigated EVs and EMNVs for their physical, biological and delivery properties and we showed that EMNVs have similar delivery properties compared to EVs. In addition, these nanotherapeutics were analyzed for their cytostatic properties in combination with the FDA-approved drug hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), which increased their cytostatic thanks to its lysosome-destabilizing properties. Altogether, these data demonstrated that, at least in vitro, the use of synthetic biomimetic particles is comparable to the natural counterparts, while their synthesis is significantly faster and more cost effective. In addition, we highlighted the benefits of combining biological nanoparticles with a lysosome destabilizing agent that increased the delivery properties of the particles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0219.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: protruding features; spherical virus; point arrays; surface modifications; VLP; drug delivery; icosahedral; nanomedicine; ligand binding
Online: 20 January 2020 (06:59:09 CET)
Since its introduction, the Triangulation number has been the most successful and ubiquitous scheme for classifying spherical viruses. However, despite its many successes, it fails to describe the relative angular orientations of proteins, as well as their radial mass distribution within the capsid. It also fails to provide any insight into critical sites of stability, modifications or possible mutations. We show how classifying spherical viruses using icosahedral point arrays, introduced by Keef and Twarock, unveils new geometric rules and constraints for understanding virus stability and key locations for exterior and interior modifications. We present a modified fitness measure which classifies viruses in an unambiguous and rigorous manner, irrespective of local surface chemistry, steric hinderance, solvent accessibility or triangulation number. We then utilize these point arrays to explain the immutable surface loops of bacteriophage MS2, the relative reactivity of surface lysines in CPMV and the non-quasiequivalent flexibility of the HBV dimers. We explain how using sister and double point arrays can function as predictive tools for site directed modifications in other systems. This success builds on our previous work showing that viruses place their protruding features along the great circles of the asymmetric unit, demonstrating that viruses indeed adhere to these geometric constraints.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0619.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Nanotechnology 1; Nanomedicine 2; organic and inorganic nanoparticles 3; drug delivery 4; antitumour therapy5; tissue engineering 6.
Online: 26 February 2021 (13:31:45 CET)
Nanotechnology is an emerging field of modern science based on the use of nanoparticles (NPs) with a huge potential in many sectors, including nanomedicine. Their small size confers them unique properties because they are subject to physical laws that are in the middle between classical and quantum physics. In this context, NPs project plays a pivotal role because the composition, size, shape and surface proprieties need to be carefully considered for their optimal design and application. As reported in this review, NPs are classified in inorganic (metallic NPs; quantum dots; carbon-based nanostructures; mesoporous silica nanoparticles) and organic (liposomes and micelles, dendrimers and polymer nanoparticles) ones. Here, we report an accurate description of the potential of each NPs type focusing on their multiple areas of application like theranostics drug delivery, imaging, tissue engineering, antimicrobial techniques and nanovaccines, and therefore they represent a promise to revolutionize the new era of nanomedicine, especially in cancer research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0047.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: silk fibroin; nanoparticles; drug loading content; quantification; infrared spectroscopy; FTIR spectroscopy.; nanotechnology; nanomedicine; drug delivery; controlled release
Online: 3 September 2020 (03:56:19 CEST)
Nanotechnology has enabled the development of novel therapeutic strategies such as targeted nanodrug delivery systems, control and stimulus-responsive release mechanisms, and the production of theranostic agents. As a prerequisite for the use of nanoparticles as drug delivery systems, the amount of loaded drug must be precisely quantified, a task for which two approaches are currently used. However, both approaches suffer from the inefficiencies of drug extraction and of the solid-liquid separation process, as well as from dilution errors. This work describes a new, reliable, and simple method for direct drug quantification in polymeric nanoparticles using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, which can be adapted for a wide variety of drug delivery systems. Silk fibroin nanoparticles and naringenin were used as model polymeric nanoparticle carrier and drug, respectively. The specificity, linearity, detection limit, precision and accuracy of the spectroscopic approach were determined in order to validate the method. A good linear relation was observed within 0.00 to 7.89 % of naringenin relative mass with an R2 of 0.973. The accuracy was determined by the spike and recovery method. Results showed an average 104% recovery. The limit of detection and limit of quantification of the drug loading content were determined to be 0.3 and 1.0 %, respectively. The method's robustness is demonstrated by the notable similarities between the calibrations carried out in two different equipment and institutions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0053.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: gastrin releasing peptide receptor; GRPR; bombesin receptor subtype 2; BB2; bombesin; targeted therapy; molecular imaging; theranostics; nanotechnology; nanoparticle; nanomedicine
Online: 4 January 2023 (03:19:26 CET)
Advances in nanomedicine bring the attention of researchers to the molecular targets which can play a major role in the development of novel therapeutic and diagnostic modalities for cancer management. The choice of a proper molecular target can decide on the efficacy of the treatment and endorse the personalized medicine approach. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) is a G-protein-coupled membrane receptor, well known to be overexpressed in numerous malignancies including pancreatic, prostate, breast, lung, colon, cervical and gastrointestinal cancers. Therefore, many research groups express a deep interest in targeting GRPR with their nanoformulations. A broad spectrum of the GRPR ligands has been described in the literature, which allows tuning of the properties of the final formulation, particularly in the field of the ligand affinity to the receptor and internalization possibilities. Hereby the recent advances in the field of applications of various nanoplatforms which are able to reach the GRPR expressing cells are reviewed.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0443.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Coronavirus disease 2019; COVID-19 pandemic; HIV/AIDS; Nanoantivirals; Smart nanomaterials; Synergistic oxidant @ reductant agents, antiviral coatings; Oxidizer and Reductant Nano agents; Nanomedicine
Online: 19 July 2020 (20:56:28 CEST)
Research on the chemical mechanism and reciprocal behavior of the coronavirus relate to living organisms, engaging in the give and take of electrochemical mediators, is a very important, controversial and vital issue. What we should accept is the chemical identity of this scenario, and not preferably a characteristic of a biological system. This chemical reaction should be familiar, referring to the theory of chemical pathways involved in DNA/proteins in the body against aggressive guests (such as viruses). From the point of view of a chemist, this simple reaction is nothing more than an oxidation-reduction reaction (redox-stress signaling) which conducted and carried out by coronavirus in a biointerface medium. Thereby, oxidizing as well as reducing reagents should be very constructive, promoting development in such chemical process. We understand redox reactions as switchable thiol/disulfide exchanges (formation and cleavage of inherent disulfide bonds), then, we can hugely profit from redox-responsive nano-surfaces equipped with multiple new ionic and covalent interactions. This game-changing idea can substantiate by surface modified-nanoparticles to play powerful roles in synthesis of nano oxidizers as well as reducing agents in nanomedicine. Chemists and pharmacists must then explore new thoughts and present modern experiences/approaches of preparation nanoparticles and nanocomposites to create novel vaccines as well as coronavirus drugs. In this regard, this experience can also be so helpful for HIV/AIDS, which is caused by viruses.