REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1090.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Nanomedicine; implantable; wearable devices
Online: 15 August 2023 (05:19:50 CEST)
In this communication the concept of functional materials is understood such as real modified substrates for nanomedicine applications. Functional and modified substrates focused on microcapsules and devices for new nanomedicine diagnosis and treatments. Cases of different materials are shown to support the functionality strategy, as in particular chemicals, pharmacophores, and controlled nano-chemistry for the design of nanoplatforms. Recent studies have reported hybrid inorganic/organic compositions for biocompatible, biodegradable, and support materials added to particular physical properties such as conductive, semiconductive, and high electromagnetic fields from the near field within the nanoscale to far-field applications and new nano-pharmacophores and nanomedicine therapeutics. New approaches are shown from the nano-scale to the micro- and higher sizes of substrates for improved therapeutic strategies. Micro-capsules for biosensing and drug delivery applications were developed. In addition, we report recent and novel research centered on implantable, portable, and wearable devices applied to future treatments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0195.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Nanoparticles, interactions, protein corona, nanomedicine
Online: 16 July 2019 (12:36:38 CEST)
Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary science covering matters involving nanoscale level that is being developed for a great variety of applications. Nanomedicine is one of these attractive and challenging uses focused on the employment of nanomaterials in medical applications such as drug delivery. However, the uses of these nanometric systems requires specific parameters to establish the possible advantages and disadvantages in specific applications. This review presents the fundamental factors of nanoparticles and it´s microenvironment that must be considered to make an appropriate design for medical applications: (i) Interactions between nanoparticles and their biological environment, (ii) the interaction mechanisms, (iii) and the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles. On the other hand, the repercussions of the control, alteration and modification of these parameters in the final applications. Additionally, we here briefly report the implications of nanoparticles in nanomedicine and provide perspectives for some particular applications which still are challenged
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0601.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: sepsis; diagnostic; treatment; drug delivery; nanomedicine; nanotechnology
Online: 9 May 2023 (08:27:02 CEST)
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition caused by a dysregulated host response to an invading pathogen such as multidrug-resistant bacteria. Despite recent advancements, sepsis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, resulting in a significant global impact and burden. This condition affects all age groups, with clinical outcomes depending mainly on timely diagnosis and appropriate early therapeutic intervention. Because of the unique features of nanosized systems, there is a growing interest in developing and designing novel solutions. Nanoscale-engineered materials allow a targeted and controlled release of bioactive agents, resulting in improved efficacy with minimal side effects. Additionally, nanoparticle-based sensors provide a quicker and more reliable alternative to conventional diagnostic methods for identifying infection and organ dysfunction. Despite recent advancements, fundamental nanotechnology principles are often presented in technical formats that presuppose advanced chemistry, physics, and engineering knowledge. Consequently, clinicians may not grasp the underlying science, hindering interdisciplinary collaborations and successful translation from bench to bedside. In this review, we abridge some of the most recent and most promising nanotechnology-based solutions for sepsis diagnosis and management using an intelligible format to stimulate a seamless collaboration between engineers, scientists, and clinicians.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0187.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: pancreatic cancer; molecular markers; target therapy; nanomedicine
Online: 12 October 2021 (20:45:44 CEST)
Pancreatic cancer leads the most common lethal tumor in America. This lethality is related to limited treatment options. Conventional treatments involve a non-specific use of chemotherapeutical agents like 5-FU, capecitabine, gemcitabine, cisplatine, oxaliplatine, or irinotecan, that produce several side effects. This review we focus on the use of targeted nanoparticles as an alternative to the standard treatment for the pancreatic cancer. The principal objective of the use of nanoparticles is the reduction in side effects that conventional treatments produce, mostly because of their nonspecificity. Currently, several molecular markets of pancreatic cancer cells have been studied to target nanoparticles and improve the actual treatment. Therefore, properly functionalizated nanoparticles with specific aptamers or antibodies can be used to recognize pancreatic cancer cells and once cancer is recognized, these nanoparticles can attack the tumor by drug delivery, hyperthermia, or gene therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0045.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Minocycline, Silver Nanoparticles, Tetracycline, Antidiabetic, In Vivo, Nanomedicine
Online: 1 June 2021 (15:21:02 CEST)
Diabetes is a life-threatening disease and chronic diabetes affects the parts of the body including the liver, kidney and pancreas. The root cause of diabetes is mainly associated with oxidative stress produced by reactive oxygen species. The minocycline is a polyphenolic drug with excellent antioxidant activities. The objective of the present study was to investigate the antidiabetic potential of minocycline modified silver nanoparticles (Mino/AgNPs) against alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The Mino/AgNPs were synthesized using minocycline as reducing and stabilizing agents. UV-vis, FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were applied for the characterization of Mino/AgNPs. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay was conducted to determine the antioxidant potential of newly synthesized Mino/AgNPs. The results revealed that the Mino/AgNPs showed higher radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 19.7 µg/mL) as compared to the minocycline (IC50 = 26.0 µg/mL) and ascorbic acid (IC50 = 25.2 µg/mL). Further, the Mino/AgNPs were successfully employed to examine their antidiabetic potential against Alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Hematological results showed that the mice treated with Mino/AgNPs demonstrated a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose level and lipid profile as compared to the diabetic group. The histopathological examination confirmed that the diabetic mice treated with Mino/AgNPs showed significant recovery and revival of histo-morphology of kidney, central vein of liver and islet cells of the pancreas compared to the diabetic mice. Hence Mino/AgNPs have good antidiabetic potential and could be an appropriate nanomedicine to prevent the development of diabetes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1935.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: glaucoma drainage device; glaucoma surgery; valve; nanotechnology; nanoparticles; nanomedicine.
Online: 29 September 2023 (09:39:52 CEST)
Purpose: Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness, however, it remains incurable even with the appropriate treatment. Intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction is currently the only proven method to decline glaucoma progression. When medical therapy fails, surgical treatment usually arises as the solution to a better IOP control. Nevertheless, its success is compromised by frequent post-operative complications, most of them due to excessive fibrous tissue formation during wound healing process. Nanotechnology devices for glaucoma surgery can improve post-operative IOP control and reduce undesirable fibrosis. This systematic review aims to summarize some advances of nanotechnology application to ophthalmology, giving an overview about the state of the art of the nanotechnology based glaucoma drainage devices. Methods: A literature search in the PubMed/Medline database was performed using the keywords: “glaucoma surgery”, “glaucoma drainage device”, “nanotechnology”, “nanoparticles”, “nanomedicine” and “valve”. Were included articles published until March 1, 2023. A first identification of relevant articles was done through the title and abstract’s information, and a second selection was done by full-text articles assessment. Seven articles were included in this systematic review. Results: Nanotechnology-based glaucoma drainage devices included in this review promise to overcome the challenges of glaucoma surgical treatment by allowing a more effective control over post-operative scarring, a noninvasive and customized control of aqueous humour (AH) drainage while achieving optimal IOP reduction through all phases of the post-operative period. Conclusion: Despite the decreased post-operative complications and apparently enhanced biocompatibility of nano-based drainage devices, further in vivo tests and human studies are needed to evaluate cytotoxicity and corroborate the biocompatibility and efficacy showed in the initial testing results of these devices.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0146.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Nanomedicine; drug resistance; lung cancer; chemotherapeutic agents; drug delivery
Online: 11 January 2022 (13:48:22 CET)
Lung cancer (LC) is one of the leading causes of cancer occurrence and mortality worldwide. Treatment of patients with advanced and metastatic LC presents a significant challenge as malignant cells use different mechanisms to resist chemotherapy. Drug resistance (DR) is a complex process that occurs due to a variety of genetic and acquired factors. Identifying the mechanisms underlying DR in LC patients and possible therapeutic alternatives for more efficient therapy is a central goal of LC research. Advances in nanotechnology resulted in the development of targeted and multifunctional nanoscale drug constructs. The possible modulation of the components of nanomedicine, their surface functionalization, and encapsulation of various active therapeutics provide promising tools to bypass crucial biological barriers. These attributes enhance the delivery of multiple therapeutic agents directly to the tumor microenvironment (TME), resulting in reversal of LC resistance to anticancer treatment. This review provides a broad framework for understanding the different molecular mechanisms of DR in lung cancer; presents novel nanomedicine therapeutics aimed to improve the efficacy of treatment of various forms of resistant LC; outlines current challenges in using nanotechnology for reversing DR; and discusses the future directions for clinical application of nanomedicine in management of LC resistance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0496.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: Nanomedicine; molecularly imprinted polymer; drug delivery; targeting; hybrid material
Online: 29 September 2021 (14:16:32 CEST)
Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have been widely used in nanomedicine during the last few years. However, their potential is limited by their intrinsic properties resulting, for instance, in lack of control in drug release processes or complex detection for in vivo imaging. Recent attempts in creating hybrid nanomaterials combining MIPs with inorganic nanomaterials succeeded in providing a wide range of new interesting properties suitable for nanomedicine. Through this review, we aim to illustrate how hybrids molecularly imprinted polymers may improve patient care with enhanced imaging, treatments and combination of both.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0301.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Nanotechnology; Nanomaterials; Antiviral; Sanitizers; Nanomedicine; Infectious Diseases; COVID-19
Online: 24 June 2020 (14:21:10 CEST)
The current emerging COVID-19 pandemic has caused a global impact on every major aspect of our societies. It is known that SARS-Cov-2 can endure harsh environmental conditions for up to 72 h, which may contribute to its rapid spread. Therefore, effective containment strategies, such as sanitizing, are critical. Nanotechnology can represent an alternative to reduce the COVID-19 spread, particularly in critical areas, such as healthcare facilities and public places. Nanotechnology-based products are effective at inhibiting different pathogens, including viruses, regardless of their drug-resistant profile, biological structure, or physiology. Although there are several approved nanotechnology-based antiviral products, this work aims to highlight the use of nanomaterials as sanitizers for the prevention of the spread of mainly SARS-Cov-2. It has been widely demonstrated that nanomaterials are an alternative for sanitizing surfaces to inactivate the virus. Also, antimicrobial nanomaterials can reduce the risk of secondary microbial infections on COVID-19 patients, as they inhibit the bacteria and fungi that can contaminate healthcare-related facilities. Finally, cost-effective, easy-to-synthesize antiviral nanomaterials could reduce the burden of the COVID-19 on challenging environments and in developing countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0115.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: nanodiamond; tritium; biodistribution; Ewing sarcoma; drug delivery; siRNA; nanomedicine
Online: 9 February 2020 (17:37:11 CET)
Nanodiamonds of detonation origin are promising delivery agents of anti-cancer therapeutic compounds in a whole organism like mouse, owing to their versatile surface chemistry and ultra-small 5 nm average primary size compatible with natural elimination routes. However, to date, little is known about tissue distribution, elimination pathways and efficacy of nanodiamonds-based therapy in mice. In this report, we studied the capacity of cationic hydrogenated detonation nanodiamonds to carry active small interfering RNA (siRNA) in a mice model of Ewing sarcoma, a bone cancer of young adult due in the vast majority to the EWS-Fli1 junction oncogene. Replacing hydrogen gas by its radioactive analog tritium gas led to the formation of labeled nanodiamonds and allowed us to investigate their distribution throughout mouse organs and their excretion in urine and feces. We also demonstrated that siRNA directed against EWS-Fli1 inhibited this oncogene expression in tumor xenografted on mice. This work is a significant step to establish cationic hydrogenated detonation nanodiamond as an effective agent for in vivo delivery of active siRNA.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0615.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Holotomography, Atomic force microscopy, Lable-free, Nanomedicine, Nanotoxicology, Refractive index.
Online: 10 October 2023 (10:09:46 CEST)
Modern imaging strategies are paramount to studying living systems such as cells, bacteria, and fungi and their response to pathogens, toxicants, and nanomaterials as modulated by exposure and environmental factors. The need to understand the processes and mechanisms of damage, healing and cell survivability of living systems continues to motivate the development of alternative imaging strategies. Of particular interest is the use of label-free techniques that minimize interference of biological processes by foreign marking substances and reduce intense light exposure and potential photo-toxicity effects. This review focus on the potential synergic capabilities of atomic force microscopy (AFM) as a well-developed and robust imaging strategy with demonstrated applications to unravel intimate details in biomedical applications, with the label-free, fast, and enduring Holotomographic Microscopy (HT) strategy. We first review the operating principles that form the basis for the complementary details provided by these techniques regarding the surface and internal information provided by HT and AFM is essential and complimentary for the development of several biomedical areas studying the interaction mechanisms of nanomaterials with living organisms. First, AFM can provide superb resolution on surface morphology and biomechanical characterization. Second, the quantitative phase capabilities of HT enable superb modeling and quantification of the volume, surface area, protein content, and mass density of the main components of cells and microorganisms, including morphology of cells in microbiological systems. These capabilities result from directly quantifying refractive index changes without requiring fluorescent markers or chemicals. As such, HT is ideally suited for long-term monitoring of living organisms in conditions close to their natural settings. We present a case-based review of the principal uses of both techniques and their essential contributions to nanomedicine and nanotoxicology, emphasizing cancer and infectious disease control. The synergic impact of the sequential use of these complementary strategies provides a clear drive for adopting these techniques as interdependent fundamental tools.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Elaeocarpus ganitrus; Hydrothermal synthesis; Gold nanoparticles; Prostate cancer; Cancer nanomedicine
Online: 25 December 2019 (10:32:12 CET)
In the present study, we have followed the hydrothermal path for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) from the biomaterial Elaeocarpus ganitrus seeds extract, which is a rapid, eco-friendly, non-chemical way. The prepared NPs were thoroughly analyzed by PXRD & HR-TEM studies and also tested for photocatalytic dye degradation and anticancer studies. Besides, antioxidant, antibacterial and anticancer properties of Au NPs were studied. In vitro studies revealed the dose-dependent cytotoxic effect of Au NPs. The prepared nanoparticles showed good cytotoxic impact against Prostate cancer (PC-3) cells line. The results of the present study could contribute to synthesize new and cost-effective drugs from Elaeocarpus ganitrus seeds extract by using bio approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0124.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: plasmonics; nanomedicine; theranostics; copper; VEGF; glioblastoma; differentiated neuroblastoma; peptidomimetics; qPCR; actin.
Online: 11 August 2019 (07:13:00 CEST)
Angiogenin (ANG), an endogenous protein that plays a key role in cell growth and survival, has been scrutinised here as promising nanomedicine tool for the modulation of pro-/ anti-angiogenic processes in brain cancer therapy. Specifically, peptide fragments from the putative cell membrane binding domain (residues 60-68) of the protein were used in this study to obtain peptide-functionalised spherical gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) of about 10 nm and 30 nm in optical and hydrodynamic size, respectively. Different hybrid biointerfaces were fabricated by peptide physical adsorption (Ang60-68) or chemisorption (the cysteine analogous Ang60-68Cys) at the metal nanoparticle surface, and the cellular assays were performed in the comparison with ANG-functionalised AuNPs. Cellular treatments were performed both in basal and in copper-supplemented cell culture medium, to scrutinise the synergic effect of the metal, which is another known angiogenic factor. Two brain cell lines were investigated in parallel, namely tumour glioblastoma (A172) and neuron-like differentiated neuroblastoma (d-SH-SY5Y). Results on cell viability/proliferation, cytoskeleton actin, angiogenin translocation and VEGF release pointed to the promising potentialities of the developed systems as anti-angiogenic tunable nanoplaftforms in cancer cells treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0308.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Toxicology Keywords: gold nanoparticles; green chemistry; Piper betle; Lung cancer cell line (A549); nanomedicine
Online: 25 December 2018 (14:05:09 CET)
The present work encompasses an application-oriented perspective to the possible employment of gold nanoparticles as nanomedicine in cancer therapeutics. The rationale of the work lies in the growing needs for assessment of advanced alternative treatment of cancer employing functionalized nanoparticles as nanomedicine. Gold nanoparticles fabricated via green chemistry methods by leaves of a time-honored medicinal plant, Piper betle were ascertained for their synthesis and properties under the umbrella of characterization of nanoparticles, through various techniques like UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The cytotoxicity assay of well-characterized gold nanoparticles was monitored against lung cancer cell line (A549) by metabolic and imaging assays. MTT assay or the metabolic assay was performed for a range of nanoparticles’ concentrations. The results were promising and proved to be a leading-edge venture, envisaging the possibility of gold nanoparticles for cancer therapeutics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0748.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Keywords: Brimonidine; Laponite; drug delivery; glaucoma; nanomedicine; monitoring; optical coherence tomography; vitreous; intravitreal.
Online: 30 November 2020 (20:25:24 CET)
Intravitreal injection is the gold standard therapeutic option for posterior segment pathologies, and long-lasting release is necessary to avoid reinjections. There is no effective intravitreal treatment for glaucoma or other optic neuropathies in daily practice, nor is there a non-invasive method to monitor drug levels in the vitreous. Here we show that a glaucoma treatment combining a hypotensive and neuroprotective intravitreal formulation (IF) of brimonidine-Laponite (BRI/LAP) can be monitored non-invasively using vitreous imaging captured with optical coherence tomography (OCT) over 24 weeks of follow-up. Qualitative and quantitative characterization was achieved by analysing the changes in vitreous (VIT) signal intensity, expressed as a ratio of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) intensity. Vitreous hyperreflective aggregates mixed in the vitreous and tended to settle on the retinal surface. Relative intensity and aggregate size progressively decreased over 24 weeks in treated rat eyes as the BRI/LAP IF degraded. VIT/RPE relative intensity and total aggregate area correlated with brimonidine levels measured in the eye. The OCT-derived VIT/RPE relative intensity may be a useful and objective marker for non-invasive monitoring of BRI/LAP IF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0032.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Nanomedicine; human ferritin; gastrointestinal tumors; non-camptothecin topoisomerase I inhibitors; drug-delivery; CD71
Online: 2 October 2020 (09:21:53 CEST)
Gastrointestinal tumors including pancreatic and colorectal cancers represent one of the greatest public health issues worldwide, leading to million global deaths. Recent research demonstrated that the human heavy chain ferritin (HFt) can encapsulate different type of drugs in its cavity and can bind to its receptor, CD71, in several solid and hematological tumors, thus highlighting the potential use of ferritin for tumor-targeting therapies. Here, we describe the development and characterization of a novel nanomedicine based on the HFt that is named The-0504. In particular, this novel system is a nano-assembly comprising an engineered version of HFt that entraps about 80 molecules of a potent, wide-spectrum, non-camptothecin topoisomerase I inhibitor (Genz-644282). The-0504 can be produced by a standardized pre-industrial process as a pure and homogeneously formulated product with favourable lyophilization properties. The preliminary anticancer activity was evaluated in cultured cancer cells and in a mouse model of pancreatic cancer. Overall results reported here make The-0504 a candidate for further preclinical development against CD-71 expressing deadly tumors
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0271.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Cancer; cancer therapies; cancer recurrence; stem cells; porphine-related macrocycles, enhanced targeting; nanomedicine
Online: 12 October 2018 (14:31:03 CEST)
Deregulation of cell growth and development lead to cancer, a severe condition that claims millions of lives worldwide. Targeted or selective approaches used during cancer treatment determine the efficacy and outcome of the therapy. In order to enhance specificity and targeting and better treatment options for cancer, novel and alternative modalities are currently under development. Photodynamic therapy has the potential to eradicate cancer and combination therapy would yield even greater outcomes. Nanomedicine-aided cancer therapy shows enhanced specificity for cancer cells and minimal side-effects coupled with effective cancer destruction both in vitro and in vivo. Nanocarriers used in drug-delivery systems are well able to penetrate cancer stem cell niche, simultaneously killing cancer cells and eradicate drug-resistant cancer stem cells, yielding therapeutic efficiency up to 100 fold against drug-resistant cancer in comparison with free drugs. Safety precautions should be considered when using Nano-mediated therapy as the effects of extended exposure to biological environments are still to be determined.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0472.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; pulmonary fibrosis; coronavirus; nanoparticles; nanomedicine; pandemic; acute respiratory syndrome
Online: 28 March 2023 (03:59:29 CEST)
There have been significant collaborative efforts over the past three years to develop therapies against COVID-19. During this journey, there has also been a lot of focus on understanding at-risk groups of patients who either have pre-existing conditions or have developed concomitant health conditions due to the impact of COVID-19 on immune system. There was a high incidence of COVID-19 induced pulmonary fibrosis (PF) observed in patients. PF can cause significant morbidity, long-term disability, and lead to death in the long run. Additionally, being a progressive disease, PF can also impact the patient for a long time after COVID infection and affect the overall quality of life. Although current therapies are being used as the mainstay for treating PF, there is no therapy specifically for COVID-induced PF. As observed in the treatment of other diseases, nanomedicine can show a significant promise in overcoming the limitations of current anti-PF therapies. In this review, we summarize the efforts reported by various groups to develop nanomedicine therapeutics to treat COVID-induced PF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0724.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: TNBC; dasatinib; poly(styrene-co-maleic acid) micelles; nanoformulation; metabolism; EPR; nanomedicine; targeted therapy.
Online: 27 April 2021 (13:56:12 CEST)
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive breast cancer accounting for around 15% of identified breast cancer cases. TNBC, by lacking estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), is unresponsive to current targeted therapies. Existing treatment relies on chemotherapeutic treatment but, despite an initial response to chemotherapy, the inception of resistance and relapse is unfortunately common. Dasatinib is an approved second-generation inhibitor of multiple tyrosine kinases and literature data strongly support its use in the management of TNBC. However, dasatinib binds to plasma proteins and undergoes extensive metabolism through oxidation and conjugation. To protect dasatinib from fast pharmacokinetic degradation and to prolong its activity, it was encapsulated on poly(styrene-co-maleic acid) (SMA) micelles. The obtained SMA-dasatinib nanoparticles (NPs) were evaluated for their physicochemical properties, in vitro antiproliferative activity in different TNBC cell lines, and in vivo anticancer activity in a syngeneic model of breast cancer. Obtained results showed that SMA-dasatinib is more potent against 4T1 TNBC tumor growth in vivo compared to free drug. This enhanced effect was ascribed to the encapsulation of the drug protecting it from a rapid metabolism. Our finding highlights the often-overlooked value of nanoformulations in protecting its cargo from degradation. Overall, results may provide an alternative therapeutic strategy for TNBC management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0822.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Complementary And Alternative Medicine Keywords: Medicinal plants; antiviral; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Influenza; Delivery systems; Nanomedicine; Nanocarriers; Antiviral therapies
Online: 11 May 2023 (08:30:22 CEST)
Synthetic antivirals and corticosteroids have been used to treat both influenza and the SARS-CoV-2 disease named COVID-19. However, these medications are not always effective, produce several adverse effects, and are associated with high costs. Medicinal plants and their constituents act in several different targets and signaling pathways involved in the pathophysiology of Influenza and COVID-19. This study aimed to perform a review to evaluate the effects of medicinal plants on Influenza and COVID-19 and to investigate the potential delivery systems for new antiviral therapies. EMBASE, PubMed, GOOGLE SCHOLAR, and COCHRANE databases were searched. The studies included in this review showed that medicinal plants, in different formulations, can help decrease viral spread and time of full recovery. Plants reduced the incidence of acute respiratory syndromes and the symptom scores of the illnesses. Moreover, plants are related to few adverse effects and have low costs. In addition to their significance as natural antiviral agents, medicinal plants and their bioactive compounds may exhibit low bioavailability. This highlights the need for alternative delivery systems, such as metal nanoparticles, that can effectively transport these compounds to infected tissues.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0060.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: exosomes; extrusion; proteolipid nanoparticles; drug delivery; nanomedicine; doxorubicin; ex-truded nanoparticles; hydroxychloroquine; endolysosomal escape; lysosomotropic
Online: 5 December 2022 (06:04:21 CET)
Because of their high biocompatibility, stability, ability to negotiate biological barrier passage, and functionalization properties, biological nanoparticles have been actively investigated for many medical applications. Biological nanoparticles, including natural extracellular vesicles (EVs) and synthetic extracellular vesicle-mimetic nanovesicles (EMNVs) represent novel drug delivery vehicles that can accommodate different payloads. In this study, we investigated EVs and EMNVs for their physical, biological and delivery properties and we showed that EMNVs have similar delivery properties compared to EVs. In addition, these nanotherapeutics were analyzed for their cytostatic properties in combination with the FDA-approved drug hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), which increased their cytostatic thanks to its lysosome-destabilizing properties. Altogether, these data demonstrated that, at least in vitro, the use of synthetic biomimetic particles is comparable to the natural counterparts, while their synthesis is significantly faster and more cost effective. In addition, we highlighted the benefits of combining biological nanoparticles with a lysosome destabilizing agent that increased the delivery properties of the particles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0219.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: protruding features; spherical virus; point arrays; surface modifications; VLP; drug delivery; icosahedral; nanomedicine; ligand binding
Online: 20 January 2020 (06:59:09 CET)
Since its introduction, the Triangulation number has been the most successful and ubiquitous scheme for classifying spherical viruses. However, despite its many successes, it fails to describe the relative angular orientations of proteins, as well as their radial mass distribution within the capsid. It also fails to provide any insight into critical sites of stability, modifications or possible mutations. We show how classifying spherical viruses using icosahedral point arrays, introduced by Keef and Twarock, unveils new geometric rules and constraints for understanding virus stability and key locations for exterior and interior modifications. We present a modified fitness measure which classifies viruses in an unambiguous and rigorous manner, irrespective of local surface chemistry, steric hinderance, solvent accessibility or triangulation number. We then utilize these point arrays to explain the immutable surface loops of bacteriophage MS2, the relative reactivity of surface lysines in CPMV and the non-quasiequivalent flexibility of the HBV dimers. We explain how using sister and double point arrays can function as predictive tools for site directed modifications in other systems. This success builds on our previous work showing that viruses place their protruding features along the great circles of the asymmetric unit, demonstrating that viruses indeed adhere to these geometric constraints.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0289.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: cancer therapy; nanomedicine; drug delivery; pH-responsiveness; EPR; intratumoral delivery; intracellular delivery; nanoparticles; metal-organic frameworks
Online: 5 May 2023 (03:45:54 CEST)
The paradigm of drug delivery via nano- and microcarriers is one of the leading ideas that enable overcoming the limitations of traditional chemotherapy. The trend toward more complex drug carriers capable of multifunctionality is observed in the literature. To date, prospects of stimuli-responsive systems to control the cargo release in the lesion nidus are widely accepted. Both endogenous and exogenous stimuli are employed for this purpose, however, endogenous pH is one of the most common triggers. Unfortunately, scientists face difficulties in the implementation of this idea since a range of biological barriers, drug bioavailability issues, and challenges in the synthesis of carriers with required properties have arisen. Here, we discuss fundamental strategies of pH-responsive drug delivery as well as limits in its application and reveal the main problems, weak sides, and reasons for poor clinical results. Also, we have made an attempt to formulate the profiles of "ideal" drug carrier in the frame of different strategies and considered recently published studies through the lens of these profiles. This approach enables the identification of current trends and promising vectors in the development of pH-responsive drug delivery systems, as well as challenges to be resolved in the next generation of carriers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0033.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: water; fullerene C60; icosahedral soft-matter; hydrogen bonds; Fibonacci water chains; nano/micro molecular machinery; cancer; nanomedicine
Online: 1 November 2023 (09:07:20 CET)
The human body contains 60-70% of water, depending on age. As a body fluid, it is not only a medium in which physical and chemical processes take place, but it is also one of the active mediators. Water is the richest substance with non-covalent hydrogen bonds. Water molecules, by themselves (in vacuum), are diamagnetic, but when organized into clusters, become diamagnetic or paramagnetic. Also, biomolecules (DNA, collagen, clathrin, and other proteins) have non-covalent hydrogen bonds in their structure. The interaction, as well as signal transmission, between water and biomolecules is achieved through the vibrations of covalent and non-covalent hydrogen bonds, which determine the state and dynamics of conformational changes of biomolecules. Disruptive conformational changes of biomolecules, cells, and tissues lead to their dysfunctionality, so they are a frequent cause of many disorders and diseases. For example, the rearrangement of hydrogen bonding due to mitochondrial disease mutation in cytochrome bc1 disturbs heme bH redox potential and spin state. In order to prevent and repair the dysfunctional conformational changes, a liquid substance was developed based on the second derivative of the C60 molecule (SD-C60), which has classical and quantum properties. Characterization of SD-C60 by UV-VIS-NIR, FTIR, TEM, and AFM/MFM was done and it is shown that SD-C60 water layers generate vibrations with near-zero phase dispersion which are transmitted through the Fibonacci’s water chains to biomolecules. In comparison to previously published SD-C60 derivate (3HFWC, size until 10 nm, and 1-5 water layers), improved formulation (3HFWC-W, size 10-25 nm, and 6-9 water layers) showed multiplied cytotoxic activity against melanoma cell lines of different aggressiveness. Apart from this, the mode of action was preserved and based on induction of senescence rather than cell death. Importantly, high selectivity toward malignant phenotype was detected. Observed effects can be ascribed to a machinery of hydrogen bonds, which are generated in SD-C60 and transmitted through water to biomolecules. This approach may open a new field in science and healthcare - a “water-based nanomedicine”.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0619.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Nanotechnology 1; Nanomedicine 2; organic and inorganic nanoparticles 3; drug delivery 4; antitumour therapy5; tissue engineering 6.
Online: 26 February 2021 (13:31:45 CET)
Nanotechnology is an emerging field of modern science based on the use of nanoparticles (NPs) with a huge potential in many sectors, including nanomedicine. Their small size confers them unique properties because they are subject to physical laws that are in the middle between classical and quantum physics. In this context, NPs project plays a pivotal role because the composition, size, shape and surface proprieties need to be carefully considered for their optimal design and application. As reported in this review, NPs are classified in inorganic (metallic NPs; quantum dots; carbon-based nanostructures; mesoporous silica nanoparticles) and organic (liposomes and micelles, dendrimers and polymer nanoparticles) ones. Here, we report an accurate description of the potential of each NPs type focusing on their multiple areas of application like theranostics drug delivery, imaging, tissue engineering, antimicrobial techniques and nanovaccines, and therefore they represent a promise to revolutionize the new era of nanomedicine, especially in cancer research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0047.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: silk fibroin; nanoparticles; drug loading content; quantification; infrared spectroscopy; FTIR spectroscopy.; nanotechnology; nanomedicine; drug delivery; controlled release
Online: 3 September 2020 (03:56:19 CEST)
Nanotechnology has enabled the development of novel therapeutic strategies such as targeted nanodrug delivery systems, control and stimulus-responsive release mechanisms, and the production of theranostic agents. As a prerequisite for the use of nanoparticles as drug delivery systems, the amount of loaded drug must be precisely quantified, a task for which two approaches are currently used. However, both approaches suffer from the inefficiencies of drug extraction and of the solid-liquid separation process, as well as from dilution errors. This work describes a new, reliable, and simple method for direct drug quantification in polymeric nanoparticles using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, which can be adapted for a wide variety of drug delivery systems. Silk fibroin nanoparticles and naringenin were used as model polymeric nanoparticle carrier and drug, respectively. The specificity, linearity, detection limit, precision and accuracy of the spectroscopic approach were determined in order to validate the method. A good linear relation was observed within 0.00 to 7.89 % of naringenin relative mass with an R2 of 0.973. The accuracy was determined by the spike and recovery method. Results showed an average 104% recovery. The limit of detection and limit of quantification of the drug loading content were determined to be 0.3 and 1.0 %, respectively. The method's robustness is demonstrated by the notable similarities between the calibrations carried out in two different equipment and institutions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0017.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: nanomedicine; CNS cancer; therapeutics; blood-brain barrier; personalized medicine; nanoparticles; COVID-19; drug delivery; regulatory landscape; precision oncology
Online: 1 November 2023 (08:31:47 CET)
Central Nervous System (CNS) cancers pose a formidable challenge in the medical world, characterized by aggressive behaviors and limited therapeutic options. The emergence of nanomedicine has offered new hope in CNS cancer treatment. The COVID-19 pandemic has further accelerated the need for innovative therapeutic strategies, emphasizing the significance of nanomedicine in this era. This mini review explores the current status of nanomedicine in CNS cancer therapy, with a particular focus on the post-COVID-19 landscape. We discuss the unique challenges presented by CNS cancers, the potential of nanomedicine in overcoming these challenges, and the recent developments in the field. Additionally, we highlight the lessons learned from the pandemic and how they can be applied to improve CNS cancer therapeutics. We also shed light on the evolving regulatory landscape and the prospects of personalized nanomedicine in CNS cancer treatment. The integration of nanomedicine in CNS cancer therapy is becoming increasingly promising, and its role in the post-COVID-19 era is poised to shape the future of neuro-oncology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0053.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: gastrin releasing peptide receptor; GRPR; bombesin receptor subtype 2; BB2; bombesin; targeted therapy; molecular imaging; theranostics; nanotechnology; nanoparticle; nanomedicine
Online: 4 January 2023 (03:19:26 CET)
Advances in nanomedicine bring the attention of researchers to the molecular targets which can play a major role in the development of novel therapeutic and diagnostic modalities for cancer management. The choice of a proper molecular target can decide on the efficacy of the treatment and endorse the personalized medicine approach. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) is a G-protein-coupled membrane receptor, well known to be overexpressed in numerous malignancies including pancreatic, prostate, breast, lung, colon, cervical and gastrointestinal cancers. Therefore, many research groups express a deep interest in targeting GRPR with their nanoformulations. A broad spectrum of the GRPR ligands has been described in the literature, which allows tuning of the properties of the final formulation, particularly in the field of the ligand affinity to the receptor and internalization possibilities. Hereby the recent advances in the field of applications of various nanoplatforms which are able to reach the GRPR expressing cells are reviewed.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0443.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Coronavirus disease 2019; COVID-19 pandemic; HIV/AIDS; Nanoantivirals; Smart nanomaterials; Synergistic oxidant @ reductant agents, antiviral coatings; Oxidizer and Reductant Nano agents; Nanomedicine
Online: 19 July 2020 (20:56:28 CEST)
Research on the chemical mechanism and reciprocal behavior of the coronavirus relate to living organisms, engaging in the give and take of electrochemical mediators, is a very important, controversial and vital issue. What we should accept is the chemical identity of this scenario, and not preferably a characteristic of a biological system. This chemical reaction should be familiar, referring to the theory of chemical pathways involved in DNA/proteins in the body against aggressive guests (such as viruses). From the point of view of a chemist, this simple reaction is nothing more than an oxidation-reduction reaction (redox-stress signaling) which conducted and carried out by coronavirus in a biointerface medium. Thereby, oxidizing as well as reducing reagents should be very constructive, promoting development in such chemical process. We understand redox reactions as switchable thiol/disulfide exchanges (formation and cleavage of inherent disulfide bonds), then, we can hugely profit from redox-responsive nano-surfaces equipped with multiple new ionic and covalent interactions. This game-changing idea can substantiate by surface modified-nanoparticles to play powerful roles in synthesis of nano oxidizers as well as reducing agents in nanomedicine. Chemists and pharmacists must then explore new thoughts and present modern experiences/approaches of preparation nanoparticles and nanocomposites to create novel vaccines as well as coronavirus drugs. In this regard, this experience can also be so helpful for HIV/AIDS, which is caused by viruses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1113.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Inflammatory bowel disease; Colitis-associated colorectal cancer; exogenous frees hemoglobin alpha chain; Fenton reaction; DNA damage; haptoglobin; deferoxamine; flavonoids; hydrogen peroxide; hygiene; iron; nanomedicine; oxidative stress; polyphenol; pharmaceutical therapy
Online: 16 June 2023 (07:11:38 CEST)
The aggregate aftermath of persistent inflammation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) places them at increased risk for the advancement to colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CACRC). CACRC is preceded by IBD, the highly heterogenous, pharmacologically incurable, pertinacious, reverting/worsening, and immune-mediated inflammatory pathologies of the colon and rectum. The molecular and immunological basis of CACRC is highly correlated with the length/duration and stringency/severity of colon inflammation predisposed by the exogenous/free hemoglobin alpha chain (HbαC) the byproduct of infiltrating immune cells, extravasated erythrocytes, and macrophage erythrophagocytosis. The exogenous free HbαC prompts oxygen-free radical-arbitrated DNA damage (DNAD) through increased cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) exacerbated by decreased tissue antioxidant defenses. Mitigation of Fenton reaction via pharmaceutical therapy would attenuate the ROS, promote apoptosis, DNAD repair, and subsequent prevent the incidence of CACRC. Three pharmaceutical options that attenuate hemoglobin toxicity include haptoglobin, deferoxamine, and flavonoids (vitamins C/E). Haptoglobin’s clearance rare from plasma is inversely correlated with its size; the smaller the size, the faster the clearance. Thus, the administration of Hp1-1 may prove to be beneficial. Furthermore, deferoxamine’s hydrophilic structure limits its ability to cross cell membranes. Thus, it may be beneficial if administered intracellularly to avoid the higher plasma concentrations and longer incubation periods associated with extracellular administration. Finally, the effectiveness of flavonoids and natural herb antioxidants is associated with high reactivity of hydroxyl substituents. Multiple analyses are currently underway to assess the clinical context of CACRC and outline the molecular basis of HbαC-induced ROS pathogenesis by exposing colonocytes and/or colonoids to HbαC. These cells are then treated with haptoglobin, deferoxamine (DFO), and flavonoids in order to separate free HbαC and measure their impact on hydroxyl radical formation therapies. The molecular pathogenesis of sporadic colorectal cancer (SCRC) i.e., “inflammation-dysplasia-carcinoma” progression sequence is well described, but the immunopathogenesis of CACRC herein reviewed is broadly still in prodromal stage/phase to be validated and understood. Therefore this timely review outlines the molecular and immunological basis of disease pathogenesis and the pharmaceutical intervention as a protective measure for CACRC.