ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0904.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: obesity; total knee replacement surgery; BMI
Online: 14 November 2023 (10:10:10 CET)
Introduction: These days, obesity is considered an important factor for many medical problems such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and joint degeneration. Obesity is one of the leading causes of osteoarthritis and the need for arthroplasty. We aim to study the effect of obesity and the duration of knee replacement surgery.Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the orthopedic department between February 2023 and July 2023. We had 68 patients who underwent total knee replacement surgery. Variables like age, gender, smoking history, ASA grade, BMI, and side of injury (unilateral or bilateral) were studied.Results: Out of 68 patients, we had 37 (54.4 %) of patients were female. The most common age group was 44- 54 years. 60.3 % of patients were non-smokers. We had 50 patients with unilateral injury and the rest were bilateral. ASA grade II (51 patients) were more than ASA grade I (17 patients). In this study, 41 patients were obese and the duration for total knee replacement was 90 - 120 minutes, in contrast to overweight patients (75 – 90 minutes) and normal patients (60-75 minutes).Conclusion:We found a significant correlation between BMI and the duration of total knee replacement surgery. The time could be doubled if the arthroplasty was bilateral.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0222.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: PEDOT:PSS; Neural recording; Immune response; BMI
Online: 15 September 2022 (08:04:38 CEST)
One of the significant challenges today in the brain-machine interface using invasive methods is the stability of the chronic record. In recent years, polymer-based electrodes have gained notoriety for achieving mechanical strength values close to that of brain tissue, promoting a lower immune response to the implant. In this work, we fabricated fully polymeric electrodes based on PEDOT:PSS for neural recording in Wistar rats. We characterized the electrical properties and both in-vitro and in-vivo functionality of the electrodes. Also, we employed histological processing and microscopical visualization to evaluate tecidual immune response in 7, 14, and 21 days post-implant days. Electrodes with 400-micrometer channels showed a 12dB signal-to-noise ratio. Local field potentials were characterized under two conditions: anesthetized and free-moving. There was a proliferation of microglia to the tissue-electrode interface in the first days, with a decrease after 14 days. Astrocytes also migrated to the interface, but there was no continuous recruitment of these cells in the tissue, showing inflammatory stability at 21 days. The signal was not affected by this inflammatory action, demonstrating that fully polymeric electrodes can be an alternative to prolong the valuable time of neural recordings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0133.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: COPD; asthma; bmi; eosinophils; blood morphology
Online: 8 December 2021 (14:28:32 CET)
The two main chronic obstructive diseases are asthma – affecting 1-18% of adult population – and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prevalent in up to 6% of adults. In both cases the treatment depends on diseases’ severity. In management of these conditions, spirometry and complete blood count are two major monitoring tests. Our aim was to compare blood morphology results and spirometry values between patients in groups of different treatment intensity in asthma and COPD. By measuring that, we expected to study whether asthma/COPD patients have a need of stepping-up their treatment steps. Methods A retrospective analysis of patients admitted in 2013-2019 to an outpatient pulmonology clinic in Łódź (Poland). Spirometry values, complete blood count and information on pharmacological treatment were obtained from archival data. Patients were assigned with disease severity according to present GINA/GOLD recommendations. The study included 125 patients – 47 with COPD (22 females) and 78 with asthma (57 females). Results Among patients with asthma, a positive correlation in white blood cell count (WBC) (r=0,236, p=0.038) and ascending GINA treatment steps was found. Significant negative correlations were shown between ascending GINA treatment steps and FEV1, FEV1%, FVC%, MEF50, MEF50, PEF%. In COPD patients, positive correlations between ascending GOLD treatment groups and white blood cell count, neutrophil count, basophil percentage, platelet count (r=0.346; 0.309; 0.321; 0.401 respectively) were found. Negative correlations were shown between ascending GOLD treatment groups and FEV1, FEV1%, FVC, FVC%, MEF50, MEF50%, PEF, PEF% (r=-0.732; -0.575; -0.705; -0.498; -0.632; -0.558; -0.688; -0.597 respectively). Conclusions Negative correlations between ascending GINA and GOLD treatment steps and spirometry values may suggest that asthma and COPD patients may benefit from stepping-up the treatment steps earlier. Potential advantages of that more intensive treatment needs to be examined in the future
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0537.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: Obesity; BMI; maternal outcomes; neonatal outcomes.
Online: 20 April 2021 (11:50:24 CEST)
Background: The rising prevalence of obesity has a significant impact on obstetrics practice regarding maternal and perinatal complications includes recurrent miscarriage, pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, and prolonged labor. Objective: To assess the impact of obesity on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes among Saudi women. Methods: The study was conducted at King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, Jeddah. Design: A cross-sectional retrospective design. A total number of 186 participants were recruited from July to Dec.2018 according to eligibility criteria. The data were collected retrospectively by a review of the chart records of the labor and delivery department. Results: The mean (SD) age of participants was 31.94(5.67) years old; two-thirds were in obesity class1. There was a significant association between obesity and pre-existing thyroid disease and induced hypertension class3. However, episiotomy showed that obesity class3 was significantly different from obesity class2. Conclusion: This study concludes obesity affects the outcomes of pregnant Saudi associations between obesity and preeclampsia, perineal tears, and episiotomy variables, and other variables reflect no associations. Recommendations: Further studies are needed to generalize the results. This study endorses the pregnant women start the antenatal follow-up from 1st trimester so, the data will be available on the system for research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0475.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Obesity; BMI; maternal outcomes; neonatal outcomes
Online: 22 February 2021 (13:27:06 CET)
The rising prevalence of obesity has a significant impact on obstetrics practice regarding maternal and perinatal complications includes recurrent miscarriage, pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, and prolonged labor. Objective: To assess the impact of obesity on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes among Saudi women. Methods: The study was conducted at King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, Jeddah. Design: A quantitative research, cross-sectional retrospective design. A total number of 186 participants were recruited from July to Dec.2018 according to eligibility criteria. The data were collected retrospectively by a review of the chart records of the labor and delivery department. Results: The mean (SD) age of participants was 31.94(5.67) years old; two-thirds were in obesity class1. There was a significant association between obesity and pre-existing thyroid disease and induced hypertension class3. However, Episiotomy showed that obesity class3 was significantly different from obesity class2. Conclusion: This study concludes obesity affects the outcomes of pregnant Saudi associations between obesity and preeclampsia, perineal tears, and episiotomy variables, and other variables reflect no associations. Recommendations: Further studies are needed to generalize the results. This study endorses the pregnant women start the antenatal follow-up from 1st trimester so, the data will be available on the system for research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0485.v1
Online: 21 August 2020 (11:29:10 CEST)
Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) measuring tool is a reliable and accurate technology to measure bone density and bone mineral composition. This research examined the composition and bone density (bone mineral composition and bone mineral density) of the whole body and representative body parts using DEXA. The participants were 240 healthy adult men and women who were divided into three groups based on age. The total bone mineral density (BMD) of women amounted to an average of 1.14 g/㎠ in Group A, 1.14 g/㎠ in Group B, and 0.98 g/㎠ in Group C. For men, the average BMD was 1.25 g/㎠ in Group A, 1.20 g/㎠ in Group B, and 1.17 g/㎠ in Group C. As a result, the reduction of age-specific BMD was shown to have a correlation with aging and body mass index(BMI), and it is determined that exercising on a regular basis can prevent reduction in BMD by maintaining appropriate muscle mass.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0166.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: BMI; COVID-19; obesity; overweight; nutrition
Online: 10 May 2020 (14:37:36 CEST)
On March 11, 2020, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). This review focuses on where the body mass index (BMI) value can be used as a tool to evaluate the risk of development and/or aggravation of this disease. Databases were used to search studies published up to April 18, 2020. In total, 4285 articles and other scientific literature were found, and twelve articles were included in this systematic review. The mean BMI value of severe COVID-19 patients ranged from 24.5 to 33.4 kg/m2, versus 22.0 to 24.3 kg/m2 for non-severe patients Articles using the terms obesity or overweight, without indicating the BMI value, in these patients were common, but this is not useful as the nutritional status, when not defined by this index, is confusing due to the classification being different in the West compared to among,, Asian and Korean criteria-based adults. Furthermore, the use of BMI is important during this pandemic, as it should be applied to nutritional support therapy during hospitalization of infected patients, as well as being considered in the home confinement population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1443.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: frailty; older adults; diet quality; sociodemographic; BMI
Online: 22 August 2023 (03:25:51 CEST)
This study aimed to identify sociodemographic and health indicators of diet quality in pre-frail community-dwelling older adults. Pre-frail older adults are those at risk of progression to clinical manifestations of frailty and are targets for preventative intervention. We previously reported that pre-frail older adults have reasonably good overall diet quality. However, further analyses found low intake of energy, protein and several micronutrients. Methods: We collected detailed dietary intake from pre-frail (FRAIL scale 1-2) older adults using NZ Intake24, an online version of 24-hour multiple pass dietary recall. Diet quality was ascertained with the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I). We used regression Generalised Linear Models to determine predictors of diet quality and Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis to examine the complex relationships of predictors and identified profiles of sub-groups of older adults that predict diet quality. Results. The median age in this sample (n=468) was 80.0 years (77.0-84.0). Living with others, high deprivation index and a higher BMI were independent predictors of poorer diet quality. With CART analysis, we found that those with a BMI >29 kg/m2, living with others and younger than 80 years were likely to have a lower diet quality. Conclusions: We found BMI, living arrangement and socioeconomic status were independent predictors of diet quality in pre-frail older adults, with BMI being the most important variable in this sample when the interacting relationships of these variables were considered. Future research is needed to determine the similarities and/or differences in the profile of subgroups of older adults with poorer diet quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0750.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: obesity; overweight; morbid obesity; veterans; underdiagnosis; BMI
Online: 23 April 2023 (03:44:35 CEST)
Background: This paper examined the gap between obesity and its diagnosis for cohorts of patients with overweight, obesity, and morbid obesity in the Veterans Administration (VA) population. Using the risk adjustment models, it also identified factors associated with the underdiagnosis of obesity. Methods: Analysis was performed on a VA data set. We identified diagnosed patients and undiag-nosed patients (identified through BMI but not diagnosed by ICD-10 codes). The groups’ de-mographics were compared using nonparametric chi-square tests. We used logistic regression analysis to predict the likelihood of the omission of diagnosis. Results: Of the 2,900,067 veterans with excess weight, 46% were overweight, 46% had obesity, and 8% of them had morbid obesity. The overweight patients were the most underdiagnosed (96%), followed by the obese (75%) and morbidly obese cohorts (69%). Older, male, and White patients were more likely to be undiagnosed as overweight and obese; younger males were more likely to be undiagnosed as morbidly obese. (p<.05) Comorbidities significantly contributed to diagnosis. Conclusion: Underdiagnosis of obesity continues to be a significant problem despite its prevalence. Diagnosing obesity accurately is necessary to provide effective management and treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0059.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: physical activity; overweight; obesity; BMI; university students
Online: 5 July 2022 (04:45:02 CEST)
Overweight and obesity, including its prevalence and consequences reflect a leading public health problem. Studies have already shown that physical activity leads to a reduction in body weight in children and adults. However, the university setting has rarely been investigated. The aim of this review is therefore to examine and summarize the effectiveness of physical-activity-based interventions to reduce obesity and overweight in university students. Three databases (PubMed, Scopus & Web of Science) were searched for relevant studies published in English between January 2010 and February 2022. Quantitative studies, conducting a physical-activity-based intervention with overweight or obese university students and reporting changes in BMI, were included. Data were described in a narrative synthesis. Eleven of 16 included studies reported a significant reduction in BMI. However, all studies except one were able to demonstrate some BMI improvements, whereas all studies reported significant changes in at least one health-related indicator. Aerobic exercises were able to demonstrate the greatest reductions in BMI. This review is the first systematic presentation on the effectiveness of physical-activity-based interventions on overweight and obese university students. Future work should reconsider BMI as the primary outcome because it is prone to bias. More interventions are needed to improve strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0638.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: BMI, Child Obesity; Convergence; Clubs; Gender differences
Online: 25 November 2020 (12:52:34 CET)
Infant obesity has become one of the most serious global health challenges of our time. The combined prevalence of overweight and obesity has rapidly increased worldwide during the last two decades, especially in some developing countries where obesity is reaching levels on a par with some industrialized countries, or even higher. This fast growth has occurred especially in countries in the midst of rapid social-economic transitions. Most international comparisons focus on the adult population while analyses focusing on the child population are more limited. Using the methodology developed by Phillips and Sul , this paper studies the worldwide evolution of infant body mass index (BMI), overweight and obesity prevalence for a large sample of countries during the period 1975-2016. Our results indicate that the figures for BMI or the prevalence of obesity in different countries do not converge, while the opposite is the case for overweight prevalence in children. Furthermore, there is a non-linear relationship between obesity and income or human capital, indicating that low and middle-income countries require a strong initiative for health policies targeting obesity prevention.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0493.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; Obesity; BMI; heart; lung; severity
Online: 23 October 2020 (13:28:04 CEST)
Obesity is a significant public health concern with higher morbidity. Obesity patients are at risk of severe COVID-19 infection and obesity is a higher risk factor for intensive Care Unit admission in COVID-19 infection. Obesity status affects lung volumes, cardiac structure and hemodynamics. Obesity is associated with a low inflammation state, endothelial dysfunction, hyperinsulinaemia and metabolic disorders. The authors review cardio-respiratory pathophysiological aspects involved in obesity and propose clinical management in obese patients infected by COVD-19.
DATASET | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0180.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: IBS; BMI; Nanostring; White Blood Cells; RNA expression
Online: 13 December 2019 (10:41:56 CET)
Chronic gastro-abdominal pain with altered bowel habits are associated with pathologies including gastroenteritis, autoimmune and inflammatory bowel disease, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In IBS, diagnostic evidence of infection or inflammation are absent, yet symptoms nonetheless include chronic abdominal pain and alterations of stool frequency and consistency, with most common subtypes including diarrhea-predominant (IBS-D) or constipation predominant (IBS-C). [1, 2] IBS is a common clinical complaint in westernized nations, with females more frequently diagnosed than males . Obesity is also associated with increased likelihood of chronic pain , and is associated with intestinal dysbiosis, and systemic inflammatory signatures . Improving personalized medicine therefore requires patient stratification based on a combination of biological factors contributing to the individual’s symptom and biomarker spectrum. The “buffy coat” method isolates leukocytes and PBMCs from whole blood, comprises the immune cell population in peripheral blood. These cells are relatively inactive but are primed to respond to generalized and localized immune activation signals; they are under active investigation as diagnostic biomarkers . Collection of buffy coat is a standard method in clinical laboratories; detection of immune activation via RNA expression biomarkers will be informative of differential biological response, and be tractable to collect in clinical settings. Results of differential expression, pathway analysis, and cell-type abundance analysis from buffy coat RNA, is presented here using variables for BMI, Gender, and IBS-subtype from publicly available Nanostring RNA expression and phenotypic data from the NCBI GEO database.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1534.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; school health; BMI; underweight; overweight; obesity
Online: 24 October 2023 (10:57:42 CEST)
Background: Several reports indicate that long stay at home for online schools due to the COVID-19 pandemic changed the normal physical activity and body weight of school-age students. Previous studies revealed that almost 50% of school students complained of increased or decreased more than 3 kg of weight due to lower physical activity. This study aims to provide insight about the Body Mass Index (BMI) among school students during COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A retrospective matched-longitudinal study was conducted in 2022 based on previous data about BMI-for-age percentile in school-age students aged 6 to 18 years. These data were collected the year before and during COVID-19 pandemic (2019-2021). Results: All the included students were Arabic (N = 53,580) and were not diagnosed with chronic illness. The outcomes showed that the overall percentage of students with normal weight was 54%, 56%, and 53% during the 2019-2021 years, respectively. Overweight among students increased during the COVID-19 pandemic years, as almost 10% of the students were overweight in 2019 compared with 12% in 2020 and 2021 years. Besides, obese students also increased in the 2020-2021 period compared with the 2019 year (15-17% vs. 10%). In contrast, underweight trends among students declined, as 26% reported in 2019 compared to 17-18% in 2020 and 2021. Conclusion: There are significant variations in Arabic school-age students regarding their BMI values. Obesity was highly detected among children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic years compared to 2019, while underweight cases declined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0001.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: BMI; obesity; pregnancy; maternal outcome; neonatal outcome; Qatari women
Online: 3 April 2023 (02:07:18 CEST)
Background Obesity compromises the health of a woman's pregnancy and her newborn. Aim: To describe weight-gaining changes throughout pregnancy and evaluating outcomes for the mother and the baby. Methods A retrospective review of women who delivered singletons using Large Perinatal Registry. According to their BMI, patients were categorized into four categories: underweight, normal, overweight, and obese. Mode of delivery, gestational diabetes, hypertensive diseases, obstetric cholestasis, and postpartum hemorrhage were the main maternal outcome measures. The newborn outcome indicators were birth weight, NICU hospitalization, premature birth, and stillbirth. Results The study sample included 2,352 natives (25%) and 7,058 expatriates (75%). The majority of the sample (4726) were aged 20-29 years, 43.6% were aged 30-39 years, and 2.1% and 3.9% were aged 19 years and 40 years respectively. The incidence of hypertension, obstetric cholestasis, diabetes, postpartum hemorrhage, and cesarean section varied among the entire sample. In the underweight group, the incidence of CS was 15.7%, in the normal weight group (24.9%), in the overweight group (31.3%), and in the obese group (41%). Hypertensive disorders were 3 times more prevalent in obese women than in normal-weight women (2%), and 5.3% of obese women had PPH compared to 5. 6% of women of normal weight. The underweight groups gained the most weight during pregnancy, whereas the obese gained the least. Conclusions A significant proportion of pregnant women in our sample will become obese by the time of delivery. Obesity during pregnancy is associated with negative maternal and fetal outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0251.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: ovarian cancer; BMI; obesity; overweight; normal weight; statistical significance
Online: 14 November 2022 (09:57:58 CET)
A significant number of research studies have focused on determining whether BMI influences various types of cancer. The findings of these studies showed that people have to manage their BMIs to decrease their risk of developing various types of cancer, one of which is ovarian cancer. A PRISMA guideline for systematic review and meta-analysis was used to identify 20 research studies related to the topic to establish the truth or falsity of the findings. Later, their findings were synthesized. The synthesis of the findings of such research articles suggests that overweight and obesity increase an individual’s risk of developing ovarian cancer and experiencing severe symptoms of the disease. In such a manner, the current research study can conclude that effective management of BMI is necessary for decreasing the prevalence and mortality rates associated with ovarian cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0087.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: alcoholic liver disease; cognitive function; calorie intake; nutrition; BMI
Online: 3 December 2020 (14:22:03 CET)
Malnutrition and cognitive dysfunction are typical features of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and are correlated with the development of complications. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of nutritional state and diet on cognitive function in ALD. A total of 43 patients with compensated alcoholic cirrhosis were enrolled, and neuropsychological test was assessed according to body mass index (BMI, <22 and ≥22). In the ALD animal study, mice were divided into 5 groups (n=9/group; normal liquid, 5% EtOH+regular liquid, 5% EtOH+high-carbohydrate liquid, 5% EtOH+high-fat liquid, and 5% EtOH+high-protein liquid diet) and fed the same calories for 8-week. To assess cognitive function, we performed T-maze studies weekly before/after alcohol binging. In cognitive function (BMI <22 /≥22), language score of Korea mini-mental state (7.4±1.4/7.9±0.4), Rey-complex figure (72.0±25.9/58.4±33.6), Boston naming (11.7±2.7/13.0±1.8), forward digit span (6.7±1.8/7.5±1.6), Korean Color Word Stroop (24.2±26.5/43.6±32.4), and interference score (33.9±31.9/52.3±33.9) revealed significant differences. In the T-maze test, alcohol significantly delayed the time to reach food, and binge drinking provided a temporary recovery in cognition. The alcohol-induced delay was significantly reduced in the high-carbohydrate and high-fat diet groups. Synaptic function exhibited no changes in all groups. Cognitive dysfunction is affected by nutritional status and diet in ALD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0211.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: BMI; Body Mass Index; Grip Strength; Health; Sport; strength
Online: 8 August 2020 (17:53:09 CEST)
The Body Mass Index (BMI) formula has been developed by Belgian mathematician Adolphe Quetelet and published in 1840  as a law of nature and society, based on statistics about the weight and height of the population of that time, the first part of the 19th century. He called it “social physics”. From then, for nearly two centuries, the BMI had been the most important formula describing the normal relations and ratio of weight to the square of the height for humans. The problem arises if the BMI formula, developed in the first part of the 19th century is still good today when the type of work people perform is very different? In modern times, most people are less muscular than at the time when the BMI was developed because they do not work physically as heavy as at that time. In many cases, the Body Mass index can predict mortality, morbidity and illness but not always, for example cases such as (a) the obesity paradox for some cardiovascular problems and (b) the U shape mortality paradox as well as (c) false positive obesity diagnostic in regard to people who are strong and muscular, have low body fat percentage but are classified as obese by the BMI and (d) cases where BMI is normal but people have an “obese metabolism” (e) BMI normal but high fat percentage. The objective is to develop a formula good for all body types, a formula that makes the difference between fat and non-fat body weight such as muscle and body frame and quantifies the effect of strength and fitness, which BMI does not. Another objective is to develop a formula to predict the health risks and fitness status of people, better than BMI. The first generalizations of BMI using anthropometric metrics could be found in , where I discuss and analyze many formulae, developed, tested, and simulated by me, using similar new methods, accounting for body shape, physical shape and body function, making the difference between muscle mass and fat, fat and non fat body weight. Nearly all formulae and methods developed and proposed in this new model are new, never published before. Many experiments published before, in highly cited papers show that grip strength and muscle strength is a predictor of health, mortality, morbidity, endocrine and metabolic disease outside the BMI and anthropometric measures. The purpose of my formula is to explain the outcome of those experiments and create a formula which predicts these experiments [21-41].
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0482.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: screen time; sleep duration; body mass index (BMI); time use
Online: 31 May 2018 (16:34:38 CEST)
Today, due to recent developments in technology, children devote plenty of time for screen viewing. However, its harmful effects are not yet clear. The purpose of present study was to examine the associations among screen viewing and sleep duration, and body mass index (BMI) in under-five years old children. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 322 under-five healthy children that were selected using multistage stratified cluster sampling method in 2017. The data that were gathered by time-use diary method were analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Spearman correlation tests, multiple linear regression analysis, one-way ANCOVA, two-way ANCOVA. There was a negative correlation between screen time and sleep duration (rs = -0.42, p = 0.00), positive correlation between screen time and BMI (rs = 0.38, p = 0.00) and sleep duration negatively correlated with BMI (rs = -0.22, p = 0.00). screen viewing was a predictive factor for both sleep duration (β = -0.26, p = 0.00) and BMI (β = -0.26, p = 0.00). screen viewing had a significant impact on sleep duration (4, 314) = 5.02, P = 0.001) and BMI (F (4, 314) = 1.16, P=0.298). Results of this study indicated that screen viewing is related to sleep duration and BMI in under-five children. furthermore, screen time has an impact on sleep duration and BMI scores of children. findings of our study suggest that sleep duration negatively is associated with BMI in under-five-year-old children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1672.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: BMI index; professionally active adult population; cardiovascular diseases; obesity; bariatric procedures
Online: 24 August 2023 (03:22:34 CEST)
Unfortunately in recent years, the global healthcare system has noted a notable increase in the prevalence of obesity and its associated health complications. What is more, one of the significant phenomena is the increasing demand for bariatric procedures among individuals of working age. This trend is pronounced in Poland., due to the increasing number of patients meeting the qualifying criteria for surgery among the group of professionally active and as well as unactive patients. The aim of the study is to characterize alarmingly increasing number of candidates for bariatric procedures among professionally active Poles, who underwent occupational medicine examinations in Poland in 2016-2022 and its strong relationship with cardiovascular co-morbidities (POL-O-CARIA 2022 study). In total, the results of 2,056,861 initial, control and periodic visits as part of the occupational medicine certificate were analyzed. Statistical calculations were performed with the use of IBM SPSS Statistics 25. It was noticed that, there was a consistent rise in the proportion of individuals classified as candidates for bariatric procedures ( increase of 0.3%) alongside a notable decrease in the percentage of individuals maintaining a healthy body weight Moreover, it is imperative to conduct yearly evaluations of the prevalence of obesity and its associated health conditions. This proactive approach is essential in order to adequately equip the healthcare system for addressing the increasing population of obese individuals who are actively engaged in their professions. By doing so, we can strategically implement the most efficient interventions to counteract this trend and ensure optimal health outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0629.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Community Health Survey; CHS; PM10 long-term effect; young adults; BMI
Online: 28 August 2020 (09:26:19 CEST)
Background: The associations between long-term exposure to particulate matters (PM) in residential ambiance and obesity are comparatively less elucidated among young adults. Methods: Using 2017 Community Health Survey data with aged 19−29 participants in 25 communities, Seoul, the relationship between obesity and long−term PM10 levels of living district was examined. We defined obesity as overweight (25≤BMI<30) or obese (30≤BMI) using Body Mass Index (BMI) from self-reported anthropometric information. Analysis was conducted sampling weighted logistic regression models by fitting municipal PM10 levels according to individual residence periods with 10 years and more residing in a current municipality. Socio-demographic factors were adjusted over all models and age−specific effect was explored among aged 19–24 and 25–29. Results: Total study population are 3,655 [men 1,680 (46.0%) and aged 19–24 1,933 (52.9%)] individuals. Among the communities with greater level of PM10; 2001–2005, associations with obesity were increased for overall with residence period; 10 years ≤ [Odds ratio, OR 1.071, 95% Confidence interval (CI) 0.969–1.185], 15 years ≤ [OR 1.118, 95% CI 1.004–1.245], and 20 years ≤ [OR 1.156, 95% CI 1.032–1.294]. However, decreased associations were detected for PM10; 2006–2010, and age–specific effects were modified according to the residence period. Conclusions: Although currently PM10 levels are decreasing, higher levels of PM10 exposure at the residential area during the earlier life-time may contribute in increasing obesity among young adults.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1615.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Anti-obesity drugs; BMI; Glucose tolerance; Homeostasis; Obesity; Sleep disturbances; Molecular pathology
Online: 23 May 2023 (08:15:14 CEST)
Accumulation of extra fats in the body results in disturbance in homeostasis causing obesity. The pathophysiology of obesity has been associated with various genetic, epigenetic factors and the disturbed lifestyles of an individual. One of the outcomes is disturbance in the sleep cycle which leads to sleep disorders. The evolutionary significance of sleep lies in the fact that it saves energy and is crucial for adjustment of an individual to ecological and environmental factors, and thus maintains homeostasis. Sleep has an anabolic function and replenishes the wakefulness-associated loss of glycogen stores. However, the modern lifestyle is well known to disrupt sleep behavior and patterns affecting human health negatively. Alteration in homeostasis leads to several acute and chronic pathophysiological conditions like obesity and related metabolic morbidities being one amongst them. Shorter sleep duration and poor sleep quality are important risk factors associated with the development of obesity and have more adverse effects on energy homeostasis. Consequently, it is crucial to comprehend the obesity and sleep relationship and its therapeutic strategies, given that strong crosstalk exists between energy balance that favors obesity and sleep apnea. It is therefore highly recommended to the people with a high risk of obesity to maintain sleep discipline and good sleep hygiene in our daily life. Interventions are required to improve both sleep quality and quantity, and associated obesity. More focused research is needed for uncovering the pieces of evidence that determine whether such interventions can improve obesity-related health consequences. The present review discusses the important findings on the therapeutic and neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating sleep and obesity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0772.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: robot-assisted simple prostatectomy, Obesity, BMI, benign prostatic obstruction, functional outcomes, Trifecta, pentafecta.
Online: 9 August 2023 (10:53:31 CEST)
Obesity represents a worldwide epidemic disorder, increasing the overall morbidity and mortality rate. In this study we investigated the impact of obesity on peri-operative and long-term functional outcomes of Robotic assisted simple prostatectomy (RASP). Baseline flowmetry parameters and validated questionnaires’ scores were prospectively recorded. Follow-up assessments included Flowmetry and validated questionnaires. Composite outcomes (Trifecta) was defined as combination of: post-operative Q-max>15 ml/sec, IPSS score<8 and absence of complications. Pentafecta included also post-operative ejaculation persistence (MSHQ score>0) and the Erectile function maintenance (∆IEEF<6). Data were stratified by BMI (<30 or ≥30). 81 patients underwent RASP in our Institution. Baseline demographics and clinical features, questionnaires score and baseline flowmetry results were comparable between obese and non-obese cohorts. At follow-up, obese patients reported lower subjective improvement in IPSS (p=0.02) and OABQ scores (p<0.001) and higher incidence of stress incontinence requiring Duloxetin (p<0.001). Flowmetry outcomes, were also worse in this cohort (p=0.02 and p=0.03, respectively). At comprehensive outcomes assessment, obese patients had comparable Trifecta (67% vs 54%, p=0.39) and pentafecta achievement rate (p=0.76). Our prelimirary results proved that obesity is associated with worse functional outcomes (storage LUTS and incontinence rate) after RASP, but doesn’t affect trifecta and pentafecta achievement rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0331.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: female college student; appetitive traits; BMI; food choice; meal regularity; latent profile analysis
Online: 5 May 2023 (08:49:04 CEST)
Appetitive traits have been associated with eating behaviors and weight in youth. However, the relationships among adults have received less attention. In this study, we measured appetitive traits among 520 female college students from a University in eastern Chinese using the Chinese translated Adults Eating Behavior Questionnaire (C-AEBQ) and found that two food approach traits (food enjoyment and emotional over-eating) were positively while two food avoidance traits (slowness in eating and satiety responsiveness) were negatively associated with BMI. Individual trait was differentially associated with eating behaviors. Specifically, a positive correlation was found between food responsiveness and higher frequency of selecting delivery food, spicy food, and sugared beverage; conversely, satiety responsiveness was associated with higher frequency of skipping meals. Using latent profile analysis, participants were classified into four appetitive patterns: food approacher, food approacher with emotional under-eating, food avoider, and food avoider with emotional over-eating. Food avoiders had significant lower BMI and higher proportion of underweight than other three patterns. Compared to food approacher, food avoiders had higher frequency of skipping breakfast, and food avoiders with emotional over-eating had higher frequency of skipping both breakfast and lunch. No significant differences were observed in food choice and dieting behavior among four appetitive patterns. The findings suggested a correlation between an individual’s appetitive pattern and eating behaviors among female college students, those with food avoidance patterns are more likely to have irregular meals, which may contribute to their low BMI. The findings provide valuable insights for female college students to cultivate a healthy eating behavior and sustain a healthy body weight.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0060.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: overweight; obesity; BMI; Nepal; women; socioeconomic factors; household environmental factors; sustainable development goals
Online: 2 July 2021 (14:17:54 CEST)
This study aimed to examine the trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity and to determine the associated socioeconomic and household environmental factors among women in Nepal. Using nationally representative data from the 1996, 2001, 2006, 2011 and 2016 cross-sectional Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHSs) (n = 33,507), the prevalence of overweight–obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) among women aged 15–49 years were examined. From the latest NDHS 2016, non-pregnant women with recorded anthropometric measurements (n = 6165) were included in the final analyses. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine the socioeconomic and household environmental factors associated with BMI ≥ 25 and BMI ≥ 30. Between 1996 and 2016, the prevalence of overweight–obesity increased from 1.8% to 19.7%, while the prevalence of obesity increased from 0.2% to 4.1%. Age, marital status, wealth index, province of residence, cooking fuel, refrigerator, and bicycle were significantly associated with having both overweight–obesity and obesity. Similarly, educational status, religion, type of toilet facility, television, and mobile phone were significantly associated with having overweight–obesity. Given the alarming increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Nepalese women, there is an urgent need of interventions addressing these critical socioeconomic and household environmental factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0237.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; vaccine; BNT162b2; antibody, serology; kinetic; age; gender; BMI; blood-group.
Online: 8 June 2021 (13:48:34 CEST)
Background: Little is known about potential confounding factors influencing the humoral response in individuals having received the BNT162b2 vaccine. Methods: Blood samples from 231 subjects were collected before and 14, 28 and 42 days following COVID-19 vaccination with BNT162b2. Anti-Spike Receptor-Binding-Domain protein (anti-Spike/RBD) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies were measured at each time-point. Impact of age, sex, childbearing age status, hormonal therapy, blood group, body mass index and past-history of SARS-CoV-2 infection were assessed by multivariable analyses. Results and Conclusions: In naïve subjects, the level of anti-Spike/RBD antibodies gradually increased following administration of the first dose to reach the maximal response at day 28 and then plateauing at day 42. In vaccinated subjects with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, the plateau was reached sooner (i.e. at day 14). In the naïve population, age had a significant negative impact on anti-Spike/RBD titers at day 14 and 28 while lower levels were observed for males at day 42, when corrected for other confounding factors. BMI as well as B and AB blood groups had a significant impact in various subgroups on the early response at day 14 but no longer after. No significant confounding factors were highlighted in the previously infected group.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0163.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: cholesterol; BMI; blood sugar; psychosis; LDL; HDL; antidepressants; antipsychotics; metabolism; metabolic abnormalities, platelet aggregation
Online: 8 October 2020 (09:03:41 CEST)
Patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) are at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to an inherited predisposition, a sedentary life style and the use of antipsychotic medications. Several approaches have been taken to minimize this risk but results continue to be unsatisfactory. A potential alternative is prescribing Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs). SSRIs decrease platelet aggregation and reduce the risk of coronary heart disease in patients with depression. We therefore aim to investigate whether there is evidence that supports the use of SSRIs to reduce the risk for CVD in SCZ. A systematic review of the literature revealed five published reports relating to the impact of SSRIs on CV risk in SCZ. Three trials assessed the influence on metabolic parameters of fluvoxamine when combined with clozapine. Two of those studies found improvements with fluvoxamine. Of the other two reports, one indicates SSRIs as a group caused minimal but statistically significant increments in total cholesterol, LDL and triglyceride. The second report suggests that when SSRIs are combined with antipsychotics, the metabolic impact depends on the antipsychotic prescribed. While there are promising results, further studies are needed to establish the impact of SSRIs on CV risk in SCZ.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0182.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Abdominal obesity, obesity, BMI, BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine, antibody response, IgG-TrimericS, booster dose, COVID-19
Online: 2 November 2023 (14:42:21 CET)
Little is known about the long-term durability of the induced immune response in subjects af-fected by obesity, particularly in those with an abdominal distribution of adipose tissue. We evaluated SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody response after BNT162b2 vaccine booster dose, com-paring individuals with abdominal obesity (AO) with those without, discerning between indi-viduals previously infected or not. IgG-TrimericS were measured in 511 subjects at baseline, 21 days after vaccine dose-1 and at one, three, six and nine months after dose-2 and at one and three months after booster dose. Nucleocapsid antibodies were assessed at baseline and at the end of the study to detect SARS-CoV-2 infection. To evaluate the three-months difference in absolute variation of IgG-TrmicericS levels from booster dose we used multivariable linear regression that showed interaction between AO and SARS-CoV-2 infection status (p=0.016). AO is associated with higher absolute IgG-TrimericS variation in prior infected individuals, regardless of possi-ble confounders and IgG-TrimericS levels at booster dose (p=0.0125). No interaction was evinced using BMI in the same regression model (p=0.418). The robust response in the development of antibodies after booster dose, observed in people with OA and previous infection, may support the recommendations to undergo the booster dose also in this population group.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0423.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: breakfast skipping; overweight; obesity; weight gain; BMI change; systematic review; meta-analysis; observational longitudinal studies
Online: 17 December 2020 (11:05:41 CET)
Globally, increasing rates of obesity are one of the most important health issues. The association between breakfast skipping and body weight is contradictory between cross-sectional and interventional studies. The systematic review and meta-analyses aim to summarize this association based on observational longitudinal studies. We included prospective studies on breakfast skipping and overweight/obesity or weight change in adults. Literature was searched until September 2020 in PubMed and Web of Science. Summary RRs with a 95% CI were estimated in pairwise meta-analyses by applying a random-effects model. In total, 9 studies were included in the systematic review and 6 of them were included in the meta-analyses. The meta-analysis indicated an 13% increased RR for overweight/obesity when breakfast was skipped on ≥ 3 days per week compared to ≤ 2 days per week (95% CI: 1.06, 1.21, n=3 studies). The meta-analysis on weight change displays a 21% increased RR for weight gain for breakfast skippers compared to breakfast eaters (95% CI: 1.05, 1.40, n=2 studies). The meta-analysis on BMI change displayed no difference between breakfast skipping and eating (RR=1.02, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.05, n=2 studies). This study provides low meta-evidence for an increased risk for overweight/obesity and weight gain for breakfast skipping.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0555.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: nutritional risk screening; severe mental illness; psychiatric treatment; BMI; nutritional status; malnutrition; depression; schizophrenia; nutrition; diet
Online: 30 November 2022 (02:44:53 CET)
People with severe mental illness (SMI) are often in poor physical health, resulting in higher mortality and reduced life expectancy compared to the general population. Although eating habits are one of the main predictors of physical health, few studies assess the nutritional status and eating behaviour of people with SMI. The aim of this study was to examine the nutritional status and risk of malnutrition in people with SMI and in need of intensive psychiatric treatment. The cross-sectional study included 65 inpatients and 67 outpatients with psychotic or depressive disorders from the Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Zurich. Patients’ assessments at admission included anthropometric measurements, such as weight and height, and interview data including severity of symptoms and functioning (SCL-K-9, PHQ-D, CGI, m-GAF), personal and medical data, nutrition risk screening tools (adapted NRS, MNA-SF) and laboratory values. The results showed that 32% of the inpatients (body mass index [BMI] = 25.3) and 34% of the outpatients (BMI = 27.9) were at risk of malnutrition, which was associated with higher levels of psychiatric symptoms and lower levels of functioning. These results indicate that a substantial proportion of psychiatric patients seem to be at risk of malnutrition, despite most being overweight, and hence they might benefit from nutritional support during their psychiatric treatment. Moreover, nutritional risk screening tools specifically developed for the mental healthcare setting are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0236.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Blood Pressure; Rope Exercise; physical activity; Lifestyle Modification; Adolescents; BMI; Hypertension; Cardiovascular risk factors; Academic Performance
Online: 18 October 2021 (10:21:34 CEST)
There are evidences of shared biological mechanisms between obesity and hypertension during childhood in the adulthood, and loads of research literatures have proven that, it will cost the economies and health of nations profoundly if neglected. The Prevention and early diagnosis of cardiovascular risk factors such as overweight and hypertension is an essential strategy for control, effective treatment and prevention of its’ complications. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of school based Exercise and Life style Motivation Intervention (SEAL-MI) on adolescent's cardiovascular risk factors and academic performance. An experimental study was conducted among 1005 adolescents - 520 and 485 adolescents were randomly selected for control and study group, respectively. Demographic details and the data related to dietary habits, physical activity and sleep quality were collected by a structured interview questionnaire. The study group adolescents were given the SEAL-MI for six months which includes a school based rope exercise for 45 minutes per day for 5 days a week and a motivation intervention related to dietary habits, physical activity and sleep. Post-test 1 and 2 were done after 3 and 6 months of intervention. The prevalence of overweight among adolescents was 28.73% and prehypertension was 9.26%. Among overweight adolescents, the prevalence of prehypertension was found to be very high (32.25%). In post intervention, there was a significant reduction in weight, BP (p=0.000) and improvement in dietary habits, physical activity, sleep (p=0.000) and academic performance. A significant positive correlation was found between BMI and SBP (p=0.000) and BMI and academic performance (p=0.003). The linear regression analyses revealed that the gender (ß: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.81), age (ß: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.17, 0.46), family income (ß: 0.2, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.5), residence (ß: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.27) and type of family (ß: 0.25, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.02) had the strongest correlate with the BMI of the adolescents. Also, Mother’s education Mother’s education (ß: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.59) had the strongest correlate with the SBP of the adolescents. In contrast, the DBP was negatively persuaded by age (ß: -0.36, 95% CI: 1.54, 0.29) and gender (ß: -0.26, 95% CI: 1.34, 0.12) of the adolescents. Regular practice of rope exercise and lifestyle modification such as diet, physical activity and sleep quality among adolescents prevent and control childhood CVD risk factors like overweight, hypertension. The SEAL-MI may lead to age appropriate development of adolescents and improves their academic performance and quality of life. Giving importance to the adolescents from urban habitat, from affluent nuclear family and catching them young will bring significant change in the disease burden.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0306.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: COVID-19 Pandemic; Dietary patterns; BMI; Nutrition; Vitamins; Healthy Food; Dietary Supplements; Factor analyses; Internal Consistency; weight gain
Online: 17 November 2021 (12:09:58 CET)
Since its inception in 2019, COVID-19 has been associated with significant changes in lifestyle-related behavior, including physical activity, diet, and sleep, which are vital to maintaining our well-being. This study measures lifestyle-related behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown using a 21-item questionnaire. The responses were collected from March 2021 to September 2021. Four hundred sixty-seven participants were engaged in assessing the changes caused by the pandemic and their effect on BMI. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were tested for 71 participants. Cronbach's alpha values for the questionnaire all exceeded 0.7, demonstrating good validity and internal consistency for it. The effect of each question regarding physical activity and dietary habits over the BMI difference was studied using ANOVA. The study shows that more than half of the participants reported snacking more between meals and increased their sitting and screen time, while 74% felt more stressed and anxious. These indications were the cause of the increase in the BMI rate for individuals in the lockdown. In contrast, 62% of the participants showed more awareness about their health by increasing the intake of immunity-boosting foods, and 56% of the participants showed an increase in the consumption of nutrition supplements. Females and married individuals tended to be healthier, so their BMI showed stability compared to others based on their gender and marital status.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0143.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Adolescents; Physical Activity; Muscle Power; Handgrip Strength; Dynamic Knee Val-28 gus; Screen Time; Movement Behavior; BMI; body mass index; Single Leg Drop Jump Test
Online: 6 October 2023 (08:35:34 CEST)
Obesity in adolescents combined with the increased exposure time to electronic devices, enhances a sedentary lifestyle and is linked to the risk of developing musculoskeletal injuries. The aim of this study was to identify possible correlations between anthropometric characteristics, body composition, exposure time to electronic devices or screen time (ST) and physical activity (PA) level along with muscle power and dynamic knee valgus (DKV) in young athletes to avoid future injuries. A total of 125 adolescent basketball athletes (66.4% boys), 12 to 17 years old (13.94±1.58 years) participated. Anthropometric and demographic characteristics were recorded. PA level was assessed through IPAQ and ST through a single question from the HELENA study. The Counter Movement Jump test was used for the evaluation of the lower limb muscle power, while the Single Leg Drop Jump test was used for the evaluation of the dynamic knee valgus via two-dimensional (2D) kinematic analysis. The Pearson index showed a statistically significant positive correlation between muscle power and height (r=0.788, p<0.001), while the Spearman index showed a smaller but equally statistically significant positive correlation with BMI (rs =0.651, p<0.001) and age (rs=0.579, p<0.001). The ST (rs= -0.194, p=0.03) showed a weak negative correlation with DKV, while PA (r=0.85, p<0.001) showed a high, statistically significant, positive correlation. The anthropometric characteristics of adolescent athletes can determine their ability to produce muscle power. A high level of physical activity could play a key role in compensating and thus reducing the negative effects of high exposure to screen time on the dynamic knee valgus
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2018.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: healthy life style; physical activity; frequency of practicing of physical activity; BMI; tobacco consumption; alcohol consumption; doctor’s visits; visits to psychiatrists, moderate-to-high-intensity sports, low-to-moderate-intensity sports; leisure activity
Online: 31 October 2023 (09:53:20 CET)
Several studies have shown that physical activity (PA) is related to physical and mental health. Yet, there are few studies on the frequency of PA as it relates to health and a healthy lifestyle. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the frequency of practicing different types of physical activities (dependent variables), living a healthy lifestyle (BMI, smoking and alcohol consumption), physical health (sum of all doctor visits except psychiatrists) and mental health (a sum of visits to psychiatrists) at different ages (independent variables). We fo-cused on three types of PA: (1) medium to high-intensity aerobic exercises; (2) low to medium intensity relaxing and stretching exercises, (3) outdoor leisure PA. 9,617 participants (ages: 19 -81) were included in the study (with health registries over a period of 10 years prior to a cross-sectional survey). Descriptive statistics and multinomial logistic regression on frequencies of three types of PA and factors related to health and healthy lifestyles, as well as age and sex, were performed in this study. The results indicate that a higher frequency of practicing PA had a higher probability of association with the following factors: lower BMI, less or non-smoking behavior (types 1 & 3); higher education (types 1 & 2); higher age (types 2 & 3) and better physical health (type 1). Occasional (practicing sometimes) PA, type 2, was positively associated with poorer mental health (higher number of psychiatrist visits). Women were more likely to practice PA type 2, and men – PA types 3 & 1. Conclusion: In general, a higher frequency of PA is related with better health and healthy life styles; with the exception of PA type 2 that is related to poorer mental health.