Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Grip Strength Generalization of the Body Mass Index

Version 1 : Received: 7 August 2020 / Approved: 8 August 2020 / Online: 8 August 2020 (17:53:09 CEST)

How to cite: Godescu, A. Grip Strength Generalization of the Body Mass Index. Preprints 2020, 2020080211 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202008.0211.v1). Godescu, A. Grip Strength Generalization of the Body Mass Index. Preprints 2020, 2020080211 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202008.0211.v1).


The Body Mass Index (BMI) formula has been developed by Belgian mathematician Adolphe Quetelet and published in 1840 [1] as a law of nature and society, based on statistics about the weight and height of the population of that time, the first part of the 19th century. He called it “social physics”. From then, for nearly two centuries, the BMI had been the most important formula describing the normal relations and ratio of weight to the square of the height for humans. The problem arises if the BMI formula, developed in the first part of the 19th century is still good today when the type of work people perform is very different? In modern times, most people are less muscular than at the time when the BMI was developed because they do not work physically as heavy as at that time. In many cases, the Body Mass index can predict mortality, morbidity and illness but not always, for example cases such as (a) the obesity paradox for some cardiovascular problems and (b) the U shape mortality paradox as well as (c) false positive obesity diagnostic in regard to people who are strong and muscular, have low body fat percentage but are classified as obese by the BMI and (d) cases where BMI is normal but people have an “obese metabolism” (e) BMI normal but high fat percentage. The objective is to develop a formula good for all body types, a formula that makes the difference between fat and non-fat body weight such as muscle and body frame and quantifies the effect of strength and fitness, which BMI does not. Another objective is to develop a formula to predict the health risks and fitness status of people, better than BMI. The first generalizations of BMI using anthropometric metrics could be found in [2], where I discuss and analyze many formulae, developed, tested, and simulated by me, using similar new methods, accounting for body shape, physical shape and body function, making the difference between muscle mass and fat, fat and non fat body weight. Nearly all formulae and methods developed and proposed in this new model are new, never published before. Many experiments published before, in highly cited papers show that grip strength and muscle strength is a predictor of health, mortality, morbidity, endocrine and metabolic disease outside the BMI and anthropometric measures. The purpose of my formula is to explain the outcome of those experiments and create a formula which predicts these experiments [21-41].

Subject Areas

BMI; Body Mass Index; Grip Strength; Health; Sport; strength

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