ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0014.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: SGLT2 inhibition; empagliflozin; heart failure; interleukin 6
Online: 1 June 2023 (03:33:38 CEST)
Background: Inhibition of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) has been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of diabetic and non-diabetic patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). The underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. The present prospective study investigates for the first time the effect of empagliflozin on various soluble markers of inflammation in HFrEF. Methods: We included 50 inpatients with HFrEF and diabetes mellitus type 2. Half of the patients received a therapy with the SGLT-2-inhibitor empagliflozin in addition to standard medication, the other half of the patients did not receive empagliflozin and were considered as control group. Quality of life, functional status and soluble immunological parameters in serum were assessed at baseline and after 3 months. Results: Baseline characteristics of both groups revealed no significant differences. Patients on empagliflozin demonstrated a significant improvement in the Minnesota living with heart failure questionnaire (baseline 44.2 ± 20.2 vs. 24 ± 17.7; p<0.001), in distance in the 6-minute walk test (baseline 343 ± 145 m vs. 450 ± 115 m; p<0.001) and in soluble interleukin-6 level (baseline 21.7 ± 21.8 pg/ml vs. 13.7 ± 15.8 pg/ml; p=0.008). There was no significant change of these or other parameters in the control group (p>0.05 each). Conclusions: The empagliflozin-induced improvement of quality of life and functional capacity in patients with HFrEF and type 2 diabetes mellitus is accompanied by a substantial reduction of interleukin-6 levels. Thus, antiinflammatory effects may contribute to the benefits of SGLT2-inhibitors in heart failure.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2249.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; heart rate variability; cardiac; cardiovascular; parasympathetic; sympathetic; autonomic
Online: 31 May 2023 (12:55:32 CEST)
Cardiac damage has been attributed to SARS-Cov-2-related pathology contributing to increased risk of vascular events. Heart rate variability (HRV) is a parameter of functional neurocardiac integrity with low HRV constituting an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality. Whether structural cardiac damage translates into neurocardiac dysfunction in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 remains poorly understood. Hypothesized mechanisms of possible neurocardiac dysfunction in COVID-19 comprise direct systemic neuroinvasion of autonomic control centers, ascending virus propagation along cranial nerves and cardiac autonomic neuropathy. While the relationship between the autonomic nervous system and the cytokine cascade in general has been studied extensively, the interplay between the inflammatory response caused by SARS-CoV-2 and autonomic cardiovascular regulation remains largely unclear. We reviewed the current literature on the potential diagnostic and prognostic value of autonomic neurocardiac function assessment via analysis of HRV in patients with COVID-19. Furthermore, we discuss potential therapeutic targets of modulating neurocardiac function in this high-risk population.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2169.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Cardiac Metastasis; Cardio-oncology; Cardiac Disease; Acute myocardial infarction; Cardiology
Online: 31 May 2023 (04:04:21 CEST)
Abstract Background: Most cardiac metastases emerge from primary lung, breast, and hematologic malignancies. The clinical manifestations of cardiac metastasis vary depending on tumor location and size. Cardiac metastasis from cervical squamous cell carcinoma is extremely rare and is mostly found on autopsy. We report a case of cervical cancer metastasis to the interventricular septum. Case Summary. This report discusses the case of a 48-year-old woman with interventricular septal metastases, originating from squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. The woman came to our hospital after experiencing a fainting spell. Her hospital stay was notable for a brief syncopal event during a 30-second asystole episode, which ended spontaneously. Upon awakening, she reported severe chest pain. In response, she was quickly taken to the catheterization laboratory. There, a coronary angiography revealed an 80% blockage in her left anterior descending artery. Two years prior, our patient was diagnosed with invasive squamous cell cervical carcinoma with PET/CT showing no evidence of metastatic disease. A repeat PET/CT scan was done following cardiac catheterization and was significant for a mass along the interventricular septum of the heart. Discussion. Cardiac metastasis from primary cervical squamous cell carcinomas is scarcely reported in medical literature. Among these rare cases, the majority involved the right ventricle, with only three involving the left ventricle. There are no documented instances of metastasis to the interventricular septum. To our knowledge, this would be the first such case.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2019.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: aortic stenosis; transcatheter aortic valve replacement; age; surgical risk; low-intermediate risk
Online: 29 May 2023 (14:36:38 CEST)
Background: Current European guidelines support transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TA-VI) in intermediate to low-risk patients ≥75 years-old but its prognostic relevance is unknown. Methods: Intermediate-to-low-risk (Society of Thoracic Surgeon score <8%) patients enrolled in the HORSE registry were included. We compared the population with less versus more than 75 years old. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. Results: A total of 2685 patients were included, 280 (8.6%) <75 and 2405 ≥75 years. Through a mean follow-up of 437 ± 381 days, 198 (8.2%) and 23 (8.2%) patients died in the two arms, without statistically significant differences (log-rank p=0.925). At Cox regression analysis, age did not predict the occurrence of all-cause death, neither as a continuous variable (HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.99-1.04, p=0.294) nor dichotomizing according to the prespecified cutoff of 75 years (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.63-1.51p=0.924). Time-to-event ROC curves showed low accuracy of age to predict all-cause mortality (area under the curve of 0.54 for both 1-year and 2-year outcomes). Conclusions: TAVI has comparable benefits across age strata in intermediate-to-low risk patients. The age cut-off suggested by current guidelines is not predictive of the risk of adverse events during hospital stay, neither of all-cause mortality through a mid-term follow-up.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1963.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Adult Fontan patients: exercise capacity; oxygen uptake efficiency slope; lung function; inspiratory muscle weakness.
Online: 29 May 2023 (04:35:37 CEST)
We aimed to provide a comprehensive assessment of exercise physiology of adult Fontan patients (FP) and factors limiting functional capacity (FC). A prospective single-centre study of 37 FP aged ≥16years and 19 healthy-controls (HC), who underwent CPET on cycle-ergometer in February-March 2022. Lung function was impaired in FP, mostly mild restrictive pattern (56.8%). Mean peakVO2 was 21±5.4ml/kg/min, 55% predicted. Morphologically left-single ventricle showed higher peakVO2%predicted (57.4±14.4% vs 43.4±8.1%, p=0.045). A lower peakVO2%predicted was observed in patients with an early flattened and/or descending O2 pulse at maximal exertion (52±14% vs 62±12.5, p=0.04 and 47.6±9% vs 60±14 respectively, p=0.018) and chronotropic insufficiency (53±12% vs 69.8±20%, p=0.008). Strong positive correlation was observed between %OUES and peakVO2%predicted (r=0.726, p>0.001). PeakVO2%predicted was progressively higher as the level of physical activity increased (low-level 49.5±14%, moderate-level 55±12%, intense-level 69±20%). FP showed lower inspiratory muscle strength compared to HC but it was no statistically associated with either peakVO2 or VE/VCO2 slope. In FP OUES is a useful submaximal parameter in those who fail to reach maximal exertion. Chronotropic insufficiency and early flattened or descending oxygen pulse slope were factors associated with low peakVO2. Regular intense physical activity improves FC. Although FP have inspiratory muscle weakness, its impact on FC is unclear.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1811.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: cardiac surgery; ascending aorta dissection, ascending aorta aneurysm
Online: 25 May 2023 (13:00:28 CEST)
(1) Background: There is a need of a novel surrogate marker to ease decision making when facing ascending aortic dilatation. In this article we study the ratio between ascending and descending aorta diameters as a potential one; (2) Methods: Retrospective observational cohort study, including all the patients who have undergone surgery for aTAAD between January 2014 and September 2020 at our center. A total of 50 patients were included. Clinical and demographic data was collected. Anatomical measurements were made including orthogonal maximal diameters of the ascending and descending aorta, post-dissection whole circumference length (post-wCL), post-dissection true lumen circumference length (post-tCL), surface and sphericity index of the ascending and descending aorta. Pre-dissection ascending aorta diameter (pre-AAD) and pre-dissection descending aorta diameter (pre-DAD) were calculated as well as the ratio between them and compared with reference values; (3) Results: 96% of the patients pre-AAD was smaller than the recommended 55mm. The ratio between the descending and ascending aorta pre-dissection diameters was significantly smaller compared to the reference value (0.657±0.125 versus 0.745± 0.016 with a mean difference of -0.088 and a p<0.001); (4) Conclusions: The 55mm threshold for aorta maximal diameter is an insufficient criterion when assessing the risk of dissection. The ratio between DAD and AAD is a parameter worthy of analysis as a tool to stratify the risk of dissection.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1778.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Brugada Syndrome; channelopathy; arrhythmias
Online: 25 May 2023 (08:56:31 CEST)
Brugada Syndrome is a cardiac channelopathy closely related to lethal arrhythmias and sudden death in people without underlying structural pathology. The diagnosis is usually assumed with electrocardiographic patterns strictly limited to the right precordial leads, V1 or V2; but this is not so at all. In our article, we describe the clinical case of a patient with a novel and different electrocardiographic presentation: the typical diagnostic pattern was presented in a lower lead of the electrocardiogram, and next to it, another pattern was presented in a contiguous lead. In addition, we propose the possible association of a structural pathology (non-compaction cardiomyopathy) with Brugada Syndrome, since both share a possible common genetic origin in the SCN5A gene.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1666.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: minimal access; coronary artery; revascularisation; MIDCAB; TECAB; HCR
Online: 24 May 2023 (02:04:38 CEST)
Minimal access cardiac surgery appears to be the future. It is increasingly desired by cardiologists and demanded by patients who perceive superiority. Minimal access coronary artery revascularisation has been increasingly adopted throughout the world. Here we review the history of minimal access coronary revascularization and see that it is almost as old as the history of cardiac surgery. Modern minimal access coronary revascularization takes a variety of forms – namely minimal access direct coronary artery bypass grafting (MIDCAB), hybrid coronary revascularisation (HCR) and totally Endoscopic Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (TECAB). It is noteworthy that there is significant variation in nomenclature and approaches for minimal access coronary surgery and this truly presents a challenge to comparing the different methods. However, these approaches are increasing in frequency and proponents demonstrate clear advantages for their patients. The challenge that remains, as for all areas of surgery, is demonstrating superiority of these techniques over tried and tested open techniques which is very difficult. There is a paucity of randomized controlled trials to help answer this question, and the future of minimal access coronary revascularisation to some extent is dependent on such trials. Thankfully some are underway and the results eagerly anticipated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1639.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: endothelial barrier; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; hydrogen sulfide; cytokine; TNF-α
Online: 23 May 2023 (10:31:05 CEST)
Recent studies have confirmed that lung microvascular endothelial injury plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of COVID-19. Our group and others have demonstrated the beneficial effects of H2S in several pathological processes and provided a rationale for considering the therapeutic implications of H2S in COVID-19 therapy. Here, we evaluated the effect of the slow-releasing H2S donor, GYY4137, on the barrier function of a lung endothelial cell monolayer in vitro, after challenging the cells with plasma samples from COVID-19 patients or inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus. We also assessed how the cytokine/chemokine profile of patients’ plasma, endothelial barrier permeability, and disease severity correlated with each other. Alterations of barrier permeability after treatments with patient plasma, inactivated virus, and GYY4137 were monitored and assessed by electrical impedance measurements in real-time. We present evidence that GYY4137 treatment reduced endothelial barrier permeability after plasma challenge and completely reversed the endothelial barrier disruption caused by inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus. We also showed that disease severity correlated with the cytokine/chemokine profile of the plasma but not with barrier permeability changes in our assay. Overall, these data demonstrate that treatment with H2S-releasing compounds has the potential to ameliorate SARS-CoV-2–associated lung endothelial barrier disruption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1559.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: anxiety; cardiac rehabilitation; depression; medical education; primary care
Online: 23 May 2023 (04:16:09 CEST)
Depression and anxiety in cardiovascular disease worsen the prognosis of patients. Treatments for these disorders often provide limited improvement. The present study aimed to test, for the first time, the impact of educational technology on anxiety and depressive symptoms in patients participating in a cardiac rehabilitation program. A 12-month randomized controlled trial was conducted, in which 207 patients were randomly assigned to either the experimental (n=76) or control (n=69) groups. The intervention involved a structured patient education program provided by medical students who had undergone specially designed training in cardiac rehabilitation. The primary outcomes were death, hospitalization, heart failure, and recurrent myocardial infarction. The study also assessed anxiety and depression. A year later, the experimental group showed a statistically significant decrease in anxiety and depression on the HADS scale, with reductions of 2.0 and 1.9 points respectively (p<0.05). The control group showed reductions of 1.5 and 1.2 points (p<0.05). The difference in depression (HRDS) between the groups at 12 months was -1.29 in favor of the main group (95% CI, -0.7 to -1.88), and the standardized effect size (SMD) was 0.36 (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.69). No treatment-related adverse events were observed. The results suggest that educational interventions can have a positive impact on mental health. The study's strengths include a structured intervention, randomization, and long-term follow-up. Limitations include the lack of blinding of study participants and a relatively small sample size.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1516.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: lipid-lowering treatment; primary prevention; coronary calcium; intima-media thickness; arterial stiffness; carotid artery; femoral artery
Online: 22 May 2023 (11:19:08 CEST)
Several noninvasive vascular biomarkers have been suggested for improving the risk stratification for atherothrombotic events. To identify biomarkers suitable for detecting intermediate-risk individuals who might benefit from lipid-lowering treatment (L-LT) in primary prevention, the present study tested the association of plasma LDL-cholesterol with coronary artery calcification (CAC) Agatston score, high carotid and femoral intima-media thickness (IMT), low carotid distensibility and high carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity in 260 asymptomatic individuals at intermediate cardiovascular risk and free of diabetes and L-LT. High or low vascular biomarkers were considered when their value was above the 95th or below the 5th percentile, respectively, of the distribution in the healthy or in the study population. LDL-cholesterol was independently associated with the CAC score =0 (OR 0.67; 95%CI 0.48-0.92, P=0.01), CAC score >100 (1.59; 1.08-2.39, P=0.01) and with high femoral IMT (1.89; 1.19-3.06, P<0.01), but not with other biomarkers. Our data confirm that in the presence of CAC score =0 in individuals at intermediate risk, L-LT can be avoided, while it should be used in those with CAC score >100. Femoral artery IMT could represent a useful biomarker for decision regarding L-LT, however the reference values according to sex and age should be established in a large healthy population
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1398.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Pulmonary embolism; asymptomatic; cancer; chemotherapy
Online: 19 May 2023 (07:51:33 CEST)
Abstract: Cancer patients are explored by CT-scans more than others. The study reports the local prevalence of these embolisms, the oncological profile of the cases as well as the therapeutic management. Patients and methods: The work was based on the Analysis of the CT-examinations performed on patients of the Radiology department, for reasons other than the search for pulmonary embolism. The examinations are interpreted by 2 radiologist doctors. Results: In 389 patients, 12 cases of asymptomatic pulmonary embolism were detected, representing a prevalence of the order of 3%. The mean age of onset is 67 years. 11 patients had metastatic cancer at the time of diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. 4 PE patients are proximal, while 8 others had segmental and / or sub-segmental PE. 10 patients are treated for carcinomas, the rest for melanoma and splenic lymphoma. After analysis of clinical records, 3 of the 4 proximal pulmonary embolisms were manifested by a discrete clinical symptom attributed to diagnoses other than pulmonary embolism. 10 patients are undergoing chemotherapy alone or combined with radiotherapy, surgery or hormone therapy. At the time of the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, 3 patients were hospitalized, while 9 were followed up on an outpatient basis. Conclusion: Asymptomatic pulmonary embolism in cancer patients is becoming more frequent. Asymptomatic pulmonary embolisms are mainly peripheral, segmental or sub-segmental. As for symptomatic VTE, asymptomatic pulmonary embolism is diagnosed in patients with metastatic cancer, especially carcinoma type, and treated with chemotherapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1365.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: coronary artery disease; plasma lipids; carotid intima-media thickness; pharmacogenetics; personalized medicine; single nucleotide polymorphisms; lipid-lowering therapy; rosuvastatin.
Online: 19 May 2023 (03:26:56 CEST)
We have shown that lipid-associated loci discovered by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have pleiotropic effects on lipid metabolism, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and CAD risk. Here, we investigated the impact of lipid-associated GWAS loci on the efficacy of rosuvastatin therapy in terms of changes in plasma lipid levels and CIMT. The study comprised 116 CAD patients with hypercholesterolemia. CIMT, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) were measured at baseline and after 6 and 12 months of follow-up, respectively. Genotyping of fifteen lipid-associated GWAS loci was performed by the MassArray-4 System. Linear regression analysis adjusted for sex, age, body mass index, and rosuvastatin dose was used to estimate the phenotypic effects of polymorphisms, and P-values were calculated through adaptive permutation tests. Over one-year therapy, a decrease in CIMT was linked to rs1689800, rs4846914, rs12328675, rs55730499, rs9987289, rs11220463, rs16942887, and rs881844 polymorphisms (Pperm<0.05). TC change was associated with rs55730499, rs11220463, and rs6065906; LDL-C change was linked to the rs55730499, rs1689800, and rs16942887 polymorphisms; and TG change was linked to polymorphisms rs838880 and rs1883025 (Pperm<0.05). In conclusion, the polymorphisms rs1689800, rs55730499, rs11220463, and rs16942887 were found to be predictive markers for multiple antiatherogenic effects of rosuvastatin in CAD patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1335.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Heart Transplantation; Cardiac Preservation Solutions; Inotropic Score; Early Results; Mid-term Results
Online: 18 May 2023 (10:50:02 CEST)
Introduction: The choice of Cardiac Preservation Solution (CPS) for myocardial protection at the time of heart procurement remains controversial and uncertainties persist regarding its effect on the early and midterm Heart Transplantation (HTx) outcomes. Thus, we retrospectively analyzed our adult HTx performed with two different CPS, during a period of 12 years, in terms of hospital mortality, mid-term survival, inotropic score, primary graft dysfunction and rejection score. Methods: From January 2009 to December 2020, 154 adult HT were performed in our hospital. Patients were divided in two groups according to the CPS used: St. Thomas (n=75, group P 1) and HTK-Custodiol (n=79, group P 2). The choice of CPS was related to an institutional policy; from 2009 to 2015, St. Thomas solution was exclusively used, and after that, HTK-Custodiol alone. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of preoperative and intraoperative features. Postoperatively, the Custodiol group showed significantly lower inotropic score (p<0.0001), mean rejection score (p= 0.036) and 30 days mortality (p=0.0068). The use of HTK-Custodiol was the only variable that improved midterm survival (HTK-Custodiol vs St Thomas, HR= 0.20 (95% CI: 0.069 -0.6) p=0.0039). Conclusion: In our single center experience, using HTK-Custodiol as myocardial protection during heart procurement leads to improved outcomes after HTx, including postoperative inotropic score, rejection score, 30-days mortality and midterm survival.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1269.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: aortic valve; bioprosthesis; surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR)
Online: 18 May 2023 (05:06:17 CEST)
Currently, aortic valve (AV) disease is the most common reason for heart valve surgery. The gold standard of care for people with aortic pathology is thought to be AV replacement. The issue of prosthesis selection has always been important. Although mechanical prosthesis are robust, lifelong anticoagulation medication is necessary due to the significant risk of thromboembolic consequences. Biological prostheses have a flow structure that is similar to the physiological one, and as malfunction gradually sets in, scheduled recurrent surgery can be carried out. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the short- and long-term effects of biological prosthetic aortic valve replacement (AVR) in elderly individuals. The study included 198 patients with AV pathology [85 men (42.9%)/113 women (57.1%)]. The median age was 70 [66–73] years. There were 175 (88.4%) patients with degenerative AV, 5 (2.5%) with infective endocarditis, and 30 patients (15.2%) had bicuspid AV. The median follow-up period was 26.3±1.4 months. Hospital mortality was 4.5%. No wound complications were detected. Thirty-one patients died in the long-term period. The causes of lethality were: cardiovascular disease (13 patients), malignant neoplasm (5 patients), gastrointestinal disease (2 patients), urinary system disease (1 patient), COVID-19 (1 patient), unknown cause (9 patients). Thus, the five-year postoperative survival rate was 63%, respectively. Throughout the observation period, two patients (2.9%) underwent reoperation on AV. 97.1% of patients were free of reoperation after five years. The five-year survival rate was 63% due to the history of severe concomitant pathology and mean age of the patients of 70 years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1242.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: rostafuroxin; arterial hypertension; chronic undernutrition; Regional Basic Diet; sodium and water balance; renal Na+-transporting ATPases
Online: 17 May 2023 (10:58:02 CEST)
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether chronic undernutrition modifies the response to rostafuroxin in juvenile rats. Chronic undernutrition was induced in male rats using a multideficient diet known as Regional Basic Diet (RBD), mimicking alimentary habits in impoverished regions worldwide. Animals were given RBD – or a control/CTRL normal diet for rodents – from weaning to 90 days, and rostafuroxin (1 mg/kg body mass) or vehicle were orally administered during the last 30 days. Undernourished rats became hypertensive at 55–60 days of age (tail-cuff recording). During the last two days, the rats were hosted in metabolic cages to measure food/energy, water, Na+ ingestion, and urinary volume. Blood and kidneys were collected after euthanasia. Rostafuroxin increased food/energy and Na+ intake in CTRL and RBD rats but had opposite effects on Na+ balance (intake minus urinary excretion): negative in CTRL and positive in RBD. The drug normalized the decreased plasma Na+ concentration found in RBD rats, increased urinary volume in RBD but not in CTRL, and decreased and increased urinary Na+ concentration in the RBD and CTRL groups, respectively. Rostafuroxin decreased the ouabain-sensitive (Na++K+)ATPase and increased the ouabain-resistant, furosemide-sensitive Na+-ATPase from proximal tubule cells in both groups, and normalized the systolic blood pressure in RBD without effect in CTRL rats. We conclude that chronic undernutrition modifies the response of blood pressure, caloric metabolism, Na+ distribution in liquid compartments, mobilization of Na+ from non-osmotic compartments, Na+ and water balance, and activity of renal Na+-transporting ATPases to rostafuroxin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1170.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: autopsy; post-mortem investigation; sudden unexpected death; sudden infant death syndrome; sudden intrauterine unexpected death; cardiac conduction system.
Online: 17 May 2023 (02:39:12 CEST)
Sudden unexpected death (SUD) is a fatal event that occurs in an apparently healthy subject so that such an abrupt outcome could have not been predicted. SUD - including sudden intrauterine unexplained death (SIUD), sudden neonatal unexpected death (SNUD), sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), sudden unexpected death of the young (SUDY), sudden unexpected death in the adult (SUDA) - occurs as the first manifestation of an unknown underlying disease or within a few hours of presentation of a disease. SUD is a major unsolved, shocking form of death that occurs frequently and can happen at any time without warning. For each case of SUD, a review of clinical history data and performance of a complete autopsy, particularly focused on the study of the cardiac conduction system were carried out according to the necropsy protocol devised by the Lino Rossi Research Center, Università degli Studi di Milano, Italy. Research cases are represented by 75 SUD victims, subdivided into 15 SIUD, 15 SNUD, 15 SUDY, and 15 SUDA victims, collected and selected for this study. After the routine autopsy and clinical history analysis, the death remained unexplained and hence a diagnosis of SUD was assigned to the 75. subjects, which included45 females (60%) and 30 (40%) males, ranging in age from 27 gestational weeks to 76 years. Serial sections of the cardiac conduction system disclosed frequent congenital alterations, of the cardiac conduction system in fetuses and infants. An age-related significant difference in distribution among the 5 age-related groups was detected for the following anomalies of the conduction system: central fibrous body (CFB) islands of conduction tissue, fetal dispersion, resorptive degeneration, Mahaim fiber, CFB cartilaginous meta-hyperplasia, His bundle septation, sino-atrial node (SAN) artery fibromuscular thickening, atrio-ventricular junction hypoplasia, intramural right bundle branch, and SAN hypoplasia. The results data are useful to understand the cause of death for all SUD cases that were unexpected and would have otherwise remained unexplained, so to motivate medical examiners and pathologists to perform more in-depth studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1056.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: heart failure; hospitalization; cardiovascular outcomes; electronic consultation
Online: 15 May 2023 (15:30:16 CEST)
(1) Objectives. Patients with heart failure (HF) who experience hospitalizations for worsening HF (HFH) are at high risk of subsequent events. We aimed to evaluate the impact of an outpatient care management program that includes a clinician-to-clinician e-consultation using an integrated electronic medical record in a healthcare area with a widely dispersed population on delay time in care, hospital admissions, and mortality in a high-risk group of patients with HF and previous episodes of HFH. (2) Methods. We selected 6,444 HF patients who visited the cardiology service at least once between 2010 and 2021. Of these, 4,851 were attended in e-consult, and 2,008 in one-time in-person consultations. In 2,230 HF patients, there was documentation of a previous episode of HFH. Using an interrupted time series regression model, we analysed the impact of incorporating e-consult into the health care model in the group of patients with HFH and evaluated the elapsed time to cardiology care, heart failure (HF), cardiovascular (CV), and all-cause hospital admissions and mortality, calculating the incidence relative risk (iRR). (3) Results. In the group of patients with previous HF hospitalizations, the introduction of e-consult substantially decreased waiting times to cardiology care. The time elapsed to care after e-consult implementation was significantly reduced compared with the previous in-person period (8.6 [8.7] vs 55.4 [79.9] days, p<0.001). In that group of patients, after e-consult implantation, hospital admissions for HF were reduced (iRR [CI95%]: 0,837 [0,840-0,833]), 0,900 [0,862-0,949] for CV and 0,699 [0,678-0,726] for all-cause hospitalizations. There was also lower mortality (iRR [CI95%]: 0.715 [0.657-0.798] due to HF, 0,737 [0.764-0.706] for CV and 0,687 [0.652-0,718] for all-cause). The improved outcomes after e-consultation implementation were significantly higher in the group of patients with previous HFH and were independent of the patient’s clinical characteristics managed during the in-person or e-consultation periods. (4) Conclusions. In HF patients with previous HFH, an outpatient care program that includes an e-consult significantly reduced waiting times to cardiology care and was safe, with a lower rate of hospital admissions and mortality in the first year.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0868.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: minimally invasive; aortic valve; surgery
Online: 11 May 2023 (14:00:03 CEST)
Minimally invasive approaches to the aortic valve have been described since 1993, with great hopes that they would become universal and facilitate day-case cardiac surgery. The literature has shown that these procedures can be undertaken with equivalent mortality, similar operative time, comparative cost and some benefits in hospital length of stay. The competing efforts of the transcatheter aortic valve implantation for these same outcomes have provided an excellent range of treatment options for patients from the Heart Team. We describe the current state of the art, including technical considerations, caveats and complications of minimal access aortic surgery and predict future directions in this space.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0784.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy; PKP2; Founder pathogenic variant; Arrhythmic events; Heart Failure
Online: 11 May 2023 (04:38:37 CEST)
Introduction and objectives: arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is a hereditary heart disease defined by the progressive replacement of the ventricular myocardium with fibroadipose tissue, which can act as a substrate for arrhythmias, sudden death, or even give rise to heart failure (HF). Sudden death is frequently the first manifestation of the disease, particularly among young patients. The aim of this study is to describe a new pathogenic variant in the PKP2 gene. Methods: A descriptive observational study that included 8 initially non-interrelated families with a diagnosis of ACM undergoing follow-up at our HF and Familial Cardiomyopathies Unit, who were carriers of the NM_004572.3:c.775_776insG; p. (Glu259Glyfs*77) variant in PKP2 gene. The genetic testing employed next-generation sequencing for the index cases, and the Sanger method for the targeted study with family members. We compiled personal and family histories, demographic and clinical characteristics, data from the additional tests at the time of diagnosis, and arrhythmic events at diagnosis and during follow-up. Results: We included 47 subjects, of whom 8 were index cases (17%). Among the evaluated family members, 16 (34%) were carriers of the genetic variant, 3 of whom also had a diagnosis of ACM. The majority were women (26 patients; 55.3%), with a mean age on diagnosis of 48.9 ± 18.6 years, and a median follow-up of 39 [24-59] months. Worthy of note are the high incidence of arrhythmic events as the form of presentation and in follow-up (21.5% and 20.9% respectively), and the onset of HF in 25% of the sample. The most frequent ventricular involvements were right (4 patients 16.7%) and biventricular (4 patients 16.7%); we found no statistical differences in any of the variables analysed. Conclusions: This variant is a pathogenic variant of gene PKP2 that has not previously been described and is not present in the control groups associated with ACM. It has incomplete penetrance, a highly variable phenotypic expressivity, and was identified in 8 families of our geographical area in Malaga (Andalusia, Spain), where we can establish a founder effect and describe the clinical and risk characteristics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0712.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: scaffold; cell therapy; tissue-engineered vascular graft; clinical translation of tissue-engineered vascular grafts
Online: 10 May 2023 (08:35:23 CEST)
Cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Although new therapies are actively being developed and used for cardiovascular pathologies, these attempts have not significantly decreased mortality rates. Regenerative medicine has made enormous progress and set promising approaches over the past half-century. However, since autologous (donor-derived) vascular grafts are lacking, an alternative prosthesis must be constructed for cardiovascular disease patients. In vascular tissue manufacturing and regenerative medicine, scientists seek to improve this significant clinical challenge using bio-fabrication techniques combining additive manufacturing, biomaterials science, and advanced cellular biology. In the last few decades, many improvements and changes in various approaches have helped develop bioengineered concepts that reflect native blood vessels’ structure and function. However, numerous challenges must be overcome to clinically translate the next generation of tissue-engineered vascular transplants. This review provides update on the cell sources, scaffold essential for cardiovascular tissue engineering, and tissue engineering approaches as prospective options for curative therapy for blood vessel disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0532.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: endothelium; leukotrienes; vascular inflammation; peripheral arterial disease
Online: 8 May 2023 (11:05:28 CEST)
Leukotrienes are proinflammatory mediators that participate in the process of atherogenesis and contribute to the development of symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. The aim was to evaluate the relationship between leukotriene E4 (LTE4) and B4 (LTB4) with parameters reflecting endothelial vascular function in patients with chronic lower limb ischemia. This prospective observational study enrolled 50 consecutive patients undergoing endovascular treatment due to chronic lower limb ischemia (Rutherford 3). All participants were followed-up for one year (after 1, 3, 6 and 12 months), with a sequential assessment of urinary LTE4 and LTB4, as well as measures of endothelial and vascular function: Flow-Mediated Dilatation (FMD), Intima-Media Thickness (IMT), corrected Augmentation Index (AI75), Shear Rate (SR), Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI), Toe-Brachial Index (TBI). There was a significant relationship between LTE4 and measures of vascular function: FMD (R2 = 0.69, P<0.001), IMT (R2=0.12, P<0.01), AI75 (R2=0.43, P<0.001), SR (R2=0.48, P<0.001). Similar findings were noted for LTB4: FMD (R2=0.47, p<0.001), IMT (R2=0.23, P<0.001), AI75 (R2=0.61, P<0.001) and SR (R2=0.33, P<0.001). Alterations in parameters were significantly related: ΔLTE4 vs ΔFMD(R2=0.63, P<0.001), ΔSR (R2=0.42, P<0.001) and ΔLTB4 vs AI75(R2=0.40, P<0.001), SR(R2=0. 29, P<0.001). We conclude, that increasing concentrations of LTE4 and LTB4 are associated with impairment of vascular and endothelial function, which may lead to worse endovascular treatment clinical outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0459.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: PAD; CLI; Stem cells therapy; endovascular device
Online: 8 May 2023 (05:38:31 CEST)
Atherosclerosis is a dynamic, chronic and progressive process that involves the vascular bed (coronary and peripheral). Risk factors are associated with the progression rate and with the evolution of atherosclerosis. There are traditional risk factors and non-traditional risk factors, all of them lead to endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction plays a key factor in atherosclerosis. It accompanies hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, hypertension, cigarette smoking – leading to the development of atherosclerosis. Endothelial dysfunction can be reversed by treating hyperlipidemia and other damaging processes, and the mechanism is believed to be associated with an increase in vascular endogenous NO. PAD is a devastating disease, leading to leg pain and amputation. Until now the optional treatments don’t cure or prevent the uneventful outcome, but may slow the downhill progression. We summarize the updated knowledge of the management of PAD and suggest a novel approach to treat patients with PAD, using stem cells technology and a special novel endovascular device that will deliver the cells continuously on the long run and may halt the progression of atherosclerosis or even cure PAD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0387.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: concurrent training; heart failure; left atrial dysfunction
Online: 6 May 2023 (07:51:04 CEST)
Left atrial dysfunction is associated with exercise intolerance and poor prognosis in heart failure (HF). The effects of exercise training on atrial function in patients with HF with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF) are unknown. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of a 12-weeks supervised concurrent, aerobic continuous plus resistance, exercise training (SCT) pro-gram on left atrial function of patients with HFmrEF. The study included 70 stable patients, who were randomly assigned into two groups: SCT with (three session/week) or a control (CON) group directed to follow contemporary exercise preventive guidelines at home. Before starting the training program and at 12-weeks, all patients performed: ergometric test, 6-minute walk test and echocardiography. At 12-weeks, exercise duration at ergometric test and distance walked at 6-minute walk test presented a significant greater increase in the SCT compared to control (be-tween-groups p 0.0001 and p 0.004 respectively). Peak atrial longitudinal strain and conduit strain presented an increase of 29% and 34% respectively in the SCT and were unchanged in the CON (between-groups p 0.008 and p 0.001 respectively). Peak atrial contraction strain increased of 21% in the SCT with no changes in the CON (between-groups p 0.002). Left ventricular global longi-tudinal strain increased significantly SCT compared to control (between-groups p 0.03). In con-clusions SCT improved left atrial and left ventricular function in HFmrEF
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0354.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: CCTA; cardiac CT; Coronary artery disease; CAD; Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography; Transcatheter aortic valve implantation; TAVI; Pacemaker; PMK; Percutaneous coronary intervention; PCI
Online: 5 May 2023 (10:42:41 CEST)
Introduction: The aim of our study was to assess the role of ECG-gated Coronary CT Angiography (CCTA) in the diagnosis, imaging follow-up, and treatment guidance in post-procedural/surgical interventions of the heart and thoracic aorta (PTCA, TAVI, PMK/ICD placement, CABGs).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0209.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: diagnosis; secondary prevention; complications; abdominal aortic aneurysm; carotid stenosis; lower extremity arterial disease; popliteal artery aneurysm; renal artery stenosis; subclavian artery stenosis
Online: 4 May 2023 (07:21:59 CEST)
Middle-aged adults can start to be affected by some arterial diseases, such as abdominal aortic or popliteal artery aneurysms, lower extremity arterial disease, internal carotid or renal artery or subclavian artery stenosis. These vasculopathies are often paucisymptomatic before manifesting themselves with dramatic complications. Therefore, early detection of peripheral artery disease (PAD) and aneurysmal disease is fundamental to reduce the risk of major adverse cardiovascular and limb events. Furthermore, PAD carries a high correlation with silent coronary artery disease (CAD). This study focuses on the most common PADs and aneurysmal diseases, in the attempt to summarize some key points which should selectively drive screen. Since it is evident how we are not in the human and economic possibilities to instrumentally screening wide populations, deep knowledge of semeiotics and careful anamnesis must play a central role in our daily activity as physician. The presence of some risk factors for atherosclerosis, or an already known history of CAD, can raise the clinical suspecion of PAD or aneurysmal disease after a careful clinical history and a deep physical examination. The clinical suspicion must then be confirmed by a first-level ultrasound investigation and, if so, adequate treatments can be adopted to prevent dreadful complications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0090.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: arterial vessel; bound drug; DamKöhler number; diffusivity; finite volume; free drug; internalized drug; stent; Pecklet number; poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid); porosity; scalar; species; tortuosity; transport
Online: 3 May 2023 (03:14:33 CEST)
Abstract: This paper outlines the methodology and results for a two species finite volume scalar computational drug transport model developed for simulating the mass transport of Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) ) from a half-embedded single strut implanted in a coronary arterial vessel wall. The mathematical drug transport model incorporates the convection-diffusion equation in scalar form (dimensionless) with a two species (free-drug and bound-drug) mass transport setup including reversible equilibrium reaction source terms for the free and bound-drug states to account for the pharmaco-kinetic reactions in the arterial wall. The relative reaction rates of the added source terms control the interconversion of drug between the free and bound-drug states. The model is solved by a 2-D finite-volume method for discretizing and solving the free and bound drug transport equations with anisotropic vascular drug diffusivities. This model is an improvement over our previously developed model using the finite-difference method. A dimensionless characteristic scaling pre-analysis was conducted a priori to evaluate the significance of implementing the reaction source terms in the transport equations. This paper reports the findings of an investigation of the interstitial flow profile into the arterial wall and the free and bound drug diffusion profiles with a parametric study of varying polymer drug concentration (low and high), tortuosity, porosity, and Peclet and DamKöhler numbers over the course of 400 hours (16.67 days). The results also reveal how a single species drug delivery model that neglects both a reversible binding reaction source term and the porosity and tortuosity of the arterial wall cannot accurately predict the distribution of both the free and bound drug.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0023.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: blood flow restricted training; vascular functions; angiogenesis; endothelium
Online: 1 May 2023 (10:39:55 CEST)
Blood flow-restricted training (BFR) is constantly growing in popularity. Despite growing evidence of the significant influence of BFR training on different body functions, its impact on the vascular system, especially the arteries, is controversial. Therefore, the objective of our study was to analyze how BFR exercise, compared to other types of exercise without restriction of blood flow or other active intervention, influences arterial functions and angiogenesis in adults. Studies comparing the effect of BFR versus non-BFR training on arterial parameters are divided into three categories. Endothelial function, angiogenesis, and other vasculature functions. The search was based on three databases (Cochrane Library, PubMed®, Embase). In this systematic review, 38 studies were included. Meta-analysis revealed a more significant improvement in flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) (p=0.002) and the production of the primary angiogenesis biomarker Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) (p=0.009) after training in BFR compared to nonBFR (p=0.002). Analysis of pulse wave velocity, ankle-brachial index, systolic blood pressure, or heart rate did not show a significant difference in changes between BFR and non-BFR training. Other parameters examined were not sufficiently provided to be included in the meta-analysis. The results obtained, present trends suggesting the significant impact of BFR training on endothelial functions and angiogenesis. Unfortunately, there is still a lack of multicenter randomized clinical trials, including many participants, that are necessary to confirm the advantage of BFR over non-BFR activity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1112.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: pulmonary stenosis; aortic stenosis; aortic coarctation; balloon valvuloplasty; balloon angioplasty; infundibular stenosis; right ventricular filling; aortic remodeling
Online: 28 April 2023 (04:48:14 CEST)
While investigating the outcomes of balloon dilatation procedures in patients with congenital obstructive lesions of the heart, several parallel observations have been made. The purpose of this review is to present these observations/phenomena/innovations related to balloon dilatation of pulmonary stenosis (PS), aortic stenosis (AS), and aortic coarctation (AC). In subjects who had balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty (BPV), development of infundibular obstruction, electrocardiographic (ECG) changes, changes in right ventricular filling, role of balloon/annulus ratios on the results of BPV, and double balloon vs. single balloon BPV will be reviewed. In patients who had balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV), causes of aortic insufficiency and trans-umbilical venous approach for BAV will be tackled. In children who had balloon angioplasty (BA) of AC, aortic remodeling and biophysical response after BA of AC will be discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1076.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Electrical Impedance Tomography; Motion Artifact Detection; Heart Rate; Cardiac Output; Hemodialysis; Source Consistency
Online: 27 April 2023 (10:54:52 CEST)
Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) can monitor the real-time hemodynamic state of a conscious and spontaneously breathing patient noninvasively. However, cardiac volume signal (CVS) extracted from EIT images has a small amplitude and is sensitive to motion artifacts (MAs). This study aimed to develop a new algorithm to reduce MAs from the CVS for more accurate heart rate (HR) and cardiac output (CO) monitoring in patients undergoing hemodialysis based on the source consistency between the electrocardiogram (ECG) and the CVS of heartbeats. Two signals were measured at different locations on the body through independent instruments and electrodes, but the frequency and phase were matched when no MAs. As the number of motions per hour (MI) increased over 30, the proposed algorithm had a correlation of 0.83 and a precision of 1.65 beats per minute (BPM) compared to the conventional statical algorithm of a correlation of 0.56 and a precision of 4.04 BPM. For CO monitoring, the precision and upper limit of the mean ∆CO were 3.41 and 2.82 liters per minute (LPM), respectively, compared to 4.05 and 3.82 LPM of the statistical algorithm. The developed algorithm could reduce MAs and improve HR/CO monitoring accuracy and reliability, particularly in high-motion environments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1019.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Staphylococcus Aureus Infection, Staphylococcus Aureus Immunity, Staphylococcus Aureus Cytotoxin, Biofilm resistance. Host innate immunity.
Online: 27 April 2023 (03:47:45 CEST)
Staphylococci sp. have become the primary pathogens implicated in infective endocarditis, especially within high-income nations. This along with the increasing burden of healthcare, aging populations and the protracted course the infections may take, contribute to a significant challenge for healthcare systems. A systematic review was conducted using relevant search criteria from PubMed, Ovid’s version of MEDLINE, and EMBASE, and data were tabulated from randomized controlled trials (RCT), observational cohort studies, meta-analysis, and basic research articles. The review was registered with the OSF register of systematic reviews and followed the PRISMA reporting guidelines. 35 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the final systematic review. The role of Staphylococcus aureus and its interaction with the protective shield and host protection functions was identified and highlighted in several studies. The interaction between infective endocarditis pathogens, vascular endothelium, and blood constituents was also explored giving rise to the potential use of antiplatelets as preventative and/or curative agents. Several factors allow Staphylococcus aureus infections to proliferate within the host with numerous promoting and perpetuating agents. The complex interaction with the hosts' innate immunity also potentiates its virulence. Ameliorating these molecular pathways may serve as a therapeutic avenue for the prevention and treatment of these infections in near future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0882.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: COVID-19; Necroptosis; NFAT; NO; TNF-α; NF-κB
Online: 25 April 2023 (04:06:34 CEST)
SARS-CoV-2 was detected in China in December 2019. Myocardial injury is a crucial presentation of COVID-19, based on the association of ACE-2 and SARS-CoV-2. Down-regulating ACE-2 decreases the cardioprotective effects of angiotensin, leading to a higher TNF-α activation. TNF-α causes the inflammatory response in the myocardial damage as an apoptotic inducer. Moreover, as an inducer of necroptosis, TNF-α binds to a part of TNF receptor 1, which involves receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) and causes cell death through RIP1 inhibition and NF-κB stimulation, which are also done through Tpl-2. Calcineurin controls the Tpl-2-driven NFAT stimulation. Bcl-2 or Bcl-XL entirely blocks these pathways. Bcl-2 overexpression reduces FasL expression with a mechanism based on Bcl-2 inhibiting the NFAT. Moreover, the Fas/FasL system activates apoptosis in various cells. Bcl-XL stimulates Fas-related cell death. Additionally, TNF-α, as a part of inflammatory cytokine storms, indirectly interacts with NFAT/Bcl-2 through Tpl-2/NF-κB. Diversely, TNF-α and IL-1ẞ, the basis of inflammatory cytokine storms in COVID-19, can stimulate generating NO. Also, IL-2 is highly up-regulated in COVID-19 patients and stimulates NO generation in patients. TNF-α can provoke the generation of superoxides in neutrophils. A well-determined mechanism is the intracellular production of NO via calcium-calmodulin-dependent NO synthase (NOS). NO enhances NFAT’s calcium-dependent activity. Also, Intra/extracellular calcium exchange activates calcineurin and its related molecule, NFAT. Nitration provokes RIP1 necroptosis cascade, with respiratory complex I. Nitrites converse protection against ischemia-reperfusion injuries in the myocardium. Regulating this intrinsic molecular pathway can prevent the necroptosis of cardiomyocytes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0772.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: renal resistive index, acute and chronic kidney disease, arterial stiffness, cardiovascular disease
Online: 23 April 2023 (04:46:54 CEST)
Initially, renal resistive index (RRI) was investigated to improve diagnosis in kidney diseases, but failed to meet this goal. Recently many papers highlighted the prognostic significance of RRI in chronic kidney disease, in the estimation of revascularization success of renal artery stenoses or the evolution of the graft and recipients in renal transplantation. Moreover, RRI gained importance in prediction of acute kidney injury in critically ill patients. Along with RRI study in renal pathology have been revealed correlations of this index with parameters of systemic circulation. The theoretical and experimental premises of this connection were reconsidered, and studies for analyzing the link between RRI and arterial stiffness, central and peripheral pressure or left ventricular flow were conducted with this purpose. A high amount of data is currently indicating that RRI is influenced more by pulse pressure and vascular compliance than by renal vascular resistance – assuming that RRI reflects the complex interplay between systemic circulation and renal microcirculation and should be considered as a marker of systemic cardiovascular risk beyond its prognostic relevance for kidney disease. In this review we will go through clinical research that revealed the implications of RRI in renal and cardiovascular disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0747.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Type A Acute Aortic dissection; ascending aorta replacement; aortic arch repair; total arch replacement procedure; cerebrovascular perfusion
Online: 23 April 2023 (03:37:12 CEST)
Type A acute aortic dissection are associated with significant morbidity and mortality with prompt referral imaging and management to tertiary referral centres needed urgently. Surgery is usually needed emergently but the choice of surgery often varies depending on the patient and presentation. Staff and center expertise also play a major role in determining the surgical strategy employed The aim of this study is to compare early and medium term outcomes of patient across 3 European referral centers. We also identified risk factors for poorer outcomes irrespective of surgical strategy employed. A retrospective study was conducted across 3 sites between January 2008 and December 2021. 601 patients were included within the study of which 30% were female and the median age was 64.4 years. The most common operation was ascending aorta replacement (n= 246, 40.9%). The aortic repair was extended proximally (i.e., root n= 105; 17,5%) and distally (i.e., arch n = 250; 41,6%). A more extensive approach, extending from the root to the arch, was employed in 24 patients (4.0%). Operative mortality occurred in 146 patients (24.3%), and the most common morbidity was stroke (75, 12.6%). An increased length of ICU admission was noted in the extensive surgery group who were younger and more frequently male No significant differences were noted in surgical mortality from patients managed with extensive surgery vs those managed conservatively. However, age, arterial lactate levels, “intubated/sedated” status on arrival, and “emergency or salvage” status at presentation were independent predictors of mortality both within the index hospitalization and also during follow-up. Overall survival was similar between the groups.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0738.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Heart failure; Sodium-glucose co-transporter; diabetes; cardiovascular outcomes.
Online: 23 April 2023 (03:13:59 CEST)
Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, originally used for diabetes mellitus, are gaining more popularity for other indications owing to their positive cardiovascular and renal effects. Initially, SGLT2 inhibitors were shown to reduce heart failure (HF) hospitalization and improve cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. Later, SGLT2 inhibitors were evaluated in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF) and had beneficial effects independent of the presence of diabetes. Recently, reduction in cardiovascular outcomes were also observed in patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF). SGLT2 inhibitors also reduced renal outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease. Overall, these drugs have an excellent safety profile with a negligible risk of genitourinary tract infections and ketoacidosis. In this review, we discuss the current data regarding SGLT2 inhibitors in special populations including acute myocardial infarction, acute HF, right ventricular (RV) failure, patients with left ventricular assist device (LVAD), and patients with type1 diabetes. We also discuss the potential mechanisms behind the cardiovascular benefits of these drugs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0704.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Hypertensive emergency; diagnosis; lactate dehydrogenase; high sensitivity cardiac troponin T; brain natriuretic peptide; area under the curve
Online: 21 April 2023 (09:35:58 CEST)
Keywords: Hypertensive emergency; diagnosis; lactate dehydrogenase; high sensitivity cardiac troponin T; brain natriuretic peptide; area under the curve.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0649.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: hypothermia; hypothermic circulatory arrest,; aortic surgery; aortic aneurysm
Online: 20 April 2023 (10:25:07 CEST)
Objectives: Treatment of aortic pathologies involving the distal ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending aorta remains a complex and challenging procedure. Appropriate management is important to achieve satisfactory outcome. Surgical management aims to reduce the time of circulatory arrest. The optimal level of hypothermia is still a matter of debate. The present meta-analysis shows the influence of different temperature levels on mortality and morbidity following aortic arch surgery. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of published data between January 2000 and March 2020 based on a literature research. 120 studies were included with a total of 32 323 patients divided into three different groups of systemic hypothermia (temperature group 1: ≥ 25 °C, temperature group 2: 25-20°C, temperature group 3: ≤ 20°C) were used for statistical analysis. Results: Early mortality was lowest in temperature group 1 compared to group 2 (OR = 1.42; 95% CI, 1.09-1.85; p=0.01) and group 3 (OR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.20–2.52; p=0.003). Perioperative stroke appeared to be less frequently in temperature group 1 versus group 2 (OR = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.20-1.82; p=0.0002) and group 3 (OR = 1.61; 95% CI, 1.19 - 2.18; p=0.002). Similar results are obtained concerning new renal insufficiency (group 1 versus group 2: OR = 1.20; 95% CI, 0.91-1.57, p=0.19; group 1 versus 3: OR = 0.94; 95% CI, 0.67 - 1.32, p=0.73) and re-exploration for bleeding (group 1 versus group 2: OR = 1.10; 95% CI, 0.80-1.53, p=0.55; group 1 versus group 3: OR = 1.92; 95% CI, 1.26 - 2.94, p=0,0025). Conclusions: We observed that moderate level of hypothermia during circulatory arrest reduced the incidence of early mortality. Most dreaded neurologic complications occurred less frequently in TG 1. In contrast there was no difference with regards with new onset of renal failure which is commonly accepted as a reliable marker of the quality of visceral organ protection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0535.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Fabry Disease, Myocarditis, globotriaosylceramide, inflammation, cardiac biopsy.
Online: 19 April 2023 (04:01:57 CEST)
Background: Fabry disease cardiomyopathy (FDCM) has manifested some resistance to enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) particularly in its advanced phase. Recently myocardial inflammation of autoimmune origin has been demonstrated in FDCM. Aims: Aim of the study is the assessment of circulating anti-globotriaosylceramide (GB3) antibody as biomarker of myocardial inflammation in FDCM. Its sensitivity was based on the evidence of overlapping myocarditis at left ventricular endomyocardial biopsy. Methods and Results: From January 1996 to December 2021, 85 patients received in our Department the histological diagnosis of FDCM and 48 (56.5%) of them had an overlapping myocardial inflammation with negative PCR for the common cardiotropic viruses, positive anti-heart and anti-myosin abs. The presence of anti-GB3 antibodies was evaluated with an Elisa assay (BioGeM scarl Medical Investigational Research, MIR - Ariano Irpino, Italy) in the FDCM patients and compared with controls of healthy individuals. Circulating levels of anti-GB3 autoantibodies were compared with the presence or absence of myocardial inflammation at histology and with the severity of FDCM. The assay results showed that 42 out of 48 FDCM subjects with myocarditis were positive for anti-Gb3 antibodies while 30 out of 37 FDCM patients without myocarditis had negative anti-GB3 antibodies, with a sensitivity of 87.5 % and a specificity of 83.5%. Conclusions: The present study suggests a potential positive role of antiGB3 antibodies as marker of overlapping cardiac inflammation in patients with FDCM.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0422.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: heart failure; kidney disease; multidisciplinary assessment; personalized treatment
Online: 17 April 2023 (07:27:32 CEST)
CKD in HF patients is very common condition, their dysfunction is closely linked and influence each other, so their management required multidisciplinary and personalized approaches. The diagnosis of HF and CDK relies on signs and symptoms. Several tools, such as blood-based biomarkers and echography help us to clarify and discriminate the main characteristics of these patients. Evidence in improving survival due to new drug-employment in HF, has increasingly challenged physicians to manage patients with multiple diseases, especially in patients with CKD. The difficulty is in the safe administration of these drugs in patients with HF and CKD. Knowing up to which values of creatinine or renal clearance any drug can be administered is fundamental. We wanted to summarize, on this sizable and complex topic, the experiences of various prior study to get clearer ideas and a more precise reference about the assessment and management of HF and CKD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0292.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: systolic blood pressure; diastolic blood pressure; serum leptin; body mass index; normal and overweight male students
Online: 13 April 2023 (03:41:43 CEST)
Precise association of serum leptin with body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP; both systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) is not well known for understanding their involvement in health and disease. Hence, the present study was planned to be conducted for investigating the association of BP, BMI and serum leptin levels in young normal weight (NW) and overweight (OW) male Saudi students. The NW (n: 198) and OW male subjects (n: 192) in the age range of 18-20 years were consulted. Blood pressure (BP) was measured with a mercury sphygmomanometer. Leptin Human ELISA Kits were employed for the determination of the serum leptin levels. The mean ± SD values of BMI (kg/m2), serum leptin (ng/ml), SBP (mmHg), and DBP (mmHg) all showed significant difference for young OW vs. NW male university students as: 27.52± 1.42 vs. 21.49± 2.03; 10.70± 4.67 vs. 4.68± 1.91; 121.37±2.59 vs.118.51±1.54 and 81.44±1.97 vs. 78.79±1.44 respectively. All associations (among BMI, leptin, SBP and DBP) showed positive linear and significant correlation except nonsignificant correlation of BMI and SBP for NW group. The present study in the young Saudi male students, presents significant variations for BP and serum leptin levels and significant positive linear association among serum leptin, BMI and BP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0114.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Dyslipidemia; atherogenic indexes; genetic associations
Online: 7 April 2023 (05:24:09 CEST)
Atherogenesis and dyslipidemia increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of death in developed countries. While blood lipid levels have been studied as disease predictors, their accuracy in predicting cardiovascular risk is limited due to its high interindividual and interpopulation variability. The lipid ratios: atherogenic index of plasma (AIP=log TG/HDL-C) and the Castelli risk index 2 (CI2=LDL-C/HDL-C) have been proposed as better predictors of cardiovascular risk, but the genetic variability associated to these ratios has not been investigated. This study aimed to identify genetic associations with these indexes. The study population (n=426) included males (40%) and females (60%) aged 18-52 years (mean 39 years), the Infinium GSA array was used for genotyping. Regression models were developed using R and PLINK. AIP was associated with variation on APOC3, KCND3, CYBA, CCDC141/TTN, and ARRB1 (p-value < 2.1E-6) the three former previously associated to blood lipids, while CI2 was associated with variants on DIPK2B, LIPC, and 10q21.3 rs11251177 (p-value 1.1E-7) the latter previously linked to coronary atherosclerosis and hypertension. KCND3 rs6703437 was associated with both indexes. This study is the first to characterize the potential link between genetic variation and atherogenic indexes, AIP and CI2, highlighting the relation between genetic variation and dyslipidemia predictors. These results also contribute to consolidating the genetics of blood lipid and lipid indexes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0028.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: excessive Internet gaming; heart rate variability; high frequency; impulsivity, young male adults
Online: 3 April 2023 (13:46:36 CEST)
Several studies have reported a relationship between autonomic dysfunction during tasks and Internet addiction. Changes within 24 h regarding heart rate variability (HRV) may be a more sensitive indicator than short term observations. We evaluated the influence of excessive Internet usage on HRV using a 24 h electrocardiogram (ECG) and examined acute changes during computer game tasks. A total 13 high school students and 22 young adults were recruited, and divided into excessive Internet user and non- excessive user groups based on Internet addiction test scores. The ECG was recorded continuously for 24 h by a wearable sensor and during two computer games (the Iowa gambling task and each participant’s preferred game) using a standard type ECG system. Multiple psychometric tests were also conducted. The excessive Internet user group exhibited clinically significant depressive symptoms, and higher self-reported scores for anxiety, impulsivity, autistic tendencies, and sleep problems than the non- excessive internet user group. There were weak differences within the 24 h high-frequency (HF) band power between two groups. During the Iowa gambling task, younger participants exhibited a reduced HF response, which may be related to weaker top- down self- regulatory mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0416.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Transcatheter mitral; valve-in-valve; valve-in-ring
Online: 23 March 2023 (13:45:06 CET)
Background: Redo mitral valve surgery is the standard of care for failed mitral bioprostheses or recurrence of mitral regurgitation after repair. Nonetheless, catheterbased valve-in-valve (ViV) or valve-in-ring (ViR)-procedures increasingly become viable alternatives in high risk subpopula-tions. Despite reported good initial results, only little is known about longer-term outcomes. The present series report long-term outcomes of transcatheter mitral ViV- and ViR-procedures. Methods: All consecutive patients (n=54) undergoing transcatheter mitral ViV- or ViR-procedures for failed bioprostheses or recurring regurgitation after mitral repair were retrospectively en-rolled in the time period between 2011 and 2021. The mean age was 76.5 ± 6.5 years, and 30 (55.6%) of the patients were male. The procedures were done using a commercially available balloon-expandable transcatheter heart valve. Clinical and echocardiographic follow-up data were obtained out of the hospital’s database and analyzed. Follow-up reached up to 9.9 years with a total of 164.3 patient-years. Results: A total 25 patients received a ViV- and 29 patients a ViR-procedure. Both groups were at high surgical risk with an STS-PROM of 5.9 ± 3.7 % in ViV- and 8.7 ± 9.0% in ViR-patients, respectively (p<0.01). The procedures itself were mainly unevent-ful with no intraoperative deaths and a low conversion rate (n=2/54; 3.7%). VARC-2 procedural success was low (ViV 20.0% and ViR 10.3%; p=0.45), which was either driven by high rates of transvalvular pressure gradients “>5mmHg” (ViV 92.0% and ViR 27.6%; p<0.01) or residual regurgitation “>trace” (ViV 28.0% and ViR 82.7%; p<0.01). ICU-stay was prolonged in both groups (ViV 3.8 ± 6.8 days and ViR 4.3 ± 6.3 days; p=0.96) with acceptable hospital stay (ViV 9.9 ± 5.9 days and ViR 13.5 ± 8.0 days; p=0.13). Despite 30-days mortality was acceptable (ViV 4.0% and ViR 6.9%; p=1.00), the mean posthospital survival time was disappointingly low (ViV 3.9 ± 2.6 years and ViR 2.3 ± 2.7 years; p<0.01). Overall survival I the entire group was 33.3%.Cardiac reasons for death were frequent in both groups (ViV 38.5% and ViR 52.2%). Cox-regression analysis identified ViR-procedures as a predictor of mortality (HR 2.36, CI 1.19 - 4.67, p=0.01). Conclusions: Despite acceptable immediate outcomes in this high-risk subpopulation, long-terms results are discouraging. Transvalvular pressure gradients as well as residual regurgitations remained drawbacks in this real-world population. The indication for catheterbased mitral ViV- or ViR-procedures thoughtfully must be made in consideration of conventional redo-surgery or conservative treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0390.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: aortic dissection outcome; weekend effect; aortic dissection risk factor
Online: 22 March 2023 (03:29:20 CET)
Aortic dissection (AD) is a critical heart condition with potentially severe outcomes. Our study aims to investigate the existence of a "weekend effect" in AD by examining the correlation between patient outcomes and the timing of their treatment during weekdays vs weekends. Specifically, we assessed prospectively the effects of the timing of treatment on patient outcomes for acute aortic dissection, both before surgical intervention and during hospitalization, as well as during the follow-up period. The mean age of the study population used here was 62.5 years with a high degree of variability. We recorded a rate of mortality before surgery of 8.65% for the weekend group and 15% for the weekday group, with no significant differences noted in the results of statistical tests. During hospitalization, mortality was found to be 50% (n=52) in the weekend group and 25% (n=5) in the weekday group, again with no significant differences observed in the results of the same statistical tests. Patient mortality after discharge was 9.61% (n=10) in the weekend group and 5% (n=1) in the weekday group. Our findings suggest that there is no significant difference in mortality rates between patients admitted to the hospital on weekends versus weekdays. Therefore, the period of the week when a patient presents to the hospital with aortic dissection appears to not affect their mortality outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0228.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: heart failure; ejection fraction; left ventricle; systolic dysfunction; diastolic dysfunction
Online: 13 March 2023 (10:15:43 CET)
Heart failure (HF) diagnosis, phenotyping, prognosis, and treatment decisions are all based on the left ventricular ejection fraction (EF). Heart failure with mid-range EF (HFmrEF) is a third EF category for heart failure with an EF between 40 and 49 percent. Comparatively, heart failure with preserved EF or reduced EF has been largely unexplored. 10–25% of patients with HF have HFmrEF. Although HFmrEF has an intermediate clinical profile, it is more similar to HF with reduced EF, particularly because these patients have a high incidence of ischaemic heart disease. Heart failure with preserved EF has a lower risk of cardiovascular events than heart failure with reduced EF, which is milder. HFmrEF and HF with preserved EF patients have a similar or higher risk of non-cardiovascular adverse events than patients with HF with reduced EF. There is still a great deal of mystery surrounding HFmrEF. The purpose of this review is to describe the major pathophysiology of HFmrEF and its similarities and differences with the other two types of EF. It is the purpose of this paper to present a comprehensive overview of the currently available evidence in support of the pathophysiology of patients with HFmrEF. Further investigation of the pathophysiology, treatment, and prognosis of this condition will be needed in the future in order to better understand it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0202.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Atrial fibrillation; Major bleeding events; Clinically-relevant non-major bleeding; Oral anticoagulants; Middle Eastern population; Prognosis
Online: 13 March 2023 (02:06:57 CET)
Background. Oral anticoagulants (OACs) reduce stroke and systemic embolism (SE) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) but increase the risk of major bleeding (MB). No study has addressed the incidence and outcomes of bleeding in AF patients in the Middle East (ME). The Jordan AF study evaluated clinical profiles and one-year outcomes of AF patients who sustained bleeding events. Methods. Patients in 29 hospitals and clinics (May 2019 - December 2020) were enrolled and followed up for one year. Demographics and one-year events were compared in patients with or without bleeding. Results. Of 2018 patients enrolled; 166 patients sustained MB or clinically relevant non-major (CRNM) bleeding (8.2 events per 100 patient-years), including 47 patients who had MB (2.3 events per 100 patient-years). Compared with 1852 (91.8%) patients who did not have bleeding, patients with MB were older and had a higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), heart failure, and malignancy, More patients with MB than those with no bleeding were using OACs (93.6% vs. 78.9%, p=0.02). Patients with MB had significantly higher one-year rates of stroke/SE (23.4% vs. 3.6%, p<0.0001) and all-cause mortality (31.9% vs 11.6%, p=0.001). Independent predictors of MB were stroke/SE (OR 10.8, 95% CI 5.3-21.9, p<0.0001), malignancy (3.4, 1.3-8.5, p=0.01), use of OACs (4.4, 1.3-14.7, p=0.02) and DM (1.9, 1.0-3.5, p=0.04). Conclusions. MB and CRNM bleeding occurred in (≈8%) of patients with AF at one year. Patients with MB (≈2%) had worse baseline clinical profiles and one-year prognosis compared with those who did not have bleeding. Keywords: Atrial fibrillation; Major bleeding events; Clinically-relevant non-major bleeding; Oral anticoagulants; Middle Eastern population; Prognosis. Clinical studies registration: the study is registered on clinicaltrials.gov (unique identifier number NCT03917992).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0119.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Antioxidant molecules; Cardiac health; Mechanism of heart failure; Cardiac activity
Online: 7 March 2023 (02:19:50 CET)
Although renal denervation (RDN) protects against hypertension, hypertrophy, and heart failure (HF), it is not clear whether RDN preserves ejection fraction (EF) during heart failure (HFpEF). To test this hypothesis, we simulated chronic congestive cardiopulmonary heart failure (CHF) by creating aorta-vena cava fistula (AVF) in C57BL/6J wild type (WT) mice. There are four ways to create experimental CHF: (1) myocardial infarction (MI) which is basically ligating coronary by instrumenting and injuring the heart; (2) trans-aortic constriction (TAC), although it mimics systematic hypertension but TAC again constricts aorta on top of the heart and exposes the heart; (3) acquired CHF such as by dietary factors, diabetes/salt diets etc. but it is multifactorial, and finally (4) AVF, which is the only one wherein AVF is created ~1cm below the kidney where the aorta and vena cava share the common middle-wall. By creating fistula, the red blood enters vena cava without an injury to the heart. This model mimics CHF such as during aging where with age the preload keeps increasing than the aging heart can pump out due to the weakened cardiac myocytes. This also involves the right ventricle to lung to left ventricle flow, thus creating congestion. The heart in AVF goes to transition from preserved to reduced EF (i.e., HFpEF to HFrEF). In fact, there are more models of volume overload, such as the pacing-induced and mitral valve regurgitation but these are also injurious models. Our lab is one of the original labs in creating and studying the AVF phenotype. The RDN was created by treating the cleaned bilateral renal artery. After 6 weeks, blood, heart, and renal samples were analyzed for exosome, cardiac regeneration markers and renal cortex proteinases. Cardiac function was analyzed by echocardiogram (ECHO). Fibrosis was analyzed with trichrome staining. The results suggested that there was robust increase in exosomes’ level in AVF blood, suggesting compensatory systemic response during AVF-CHF. During AVF there was no change in cardiac eNOS, Wnt1 and β-catenin, however; during RDN there was robust increase in eNOS, Wnt1 and β-catenin compared to the sham group. As expected in HFpEF there was perivascular fibrosis, hypertrophy and pEF. Interestingly, increased levels of eNOS suggested that despite fibrosis, the NO generation was higher that most likely contributed to pEF during HF. The RDN intervention revealed an increase in renal cortical caspase 8 and a decrease in caspase 9. Since caspase 8 is protective and caspase 9 is apoptotic, we suggest that RDN protects against renal stresses, and apoptosis. Our findings also suggest that RDN is cardioprotective during HFpEF via the preservation of eNOS and accompanied endocardial-endothelial function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0059.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: COVID-19; long COVID-19; paramagnetic contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging; MRI; CMR; myocarditis; electronic medical record; online survey; epidemiology; public health
Online: 3 March 2023 (06:30:04 CET)
The aim of study was to investigate epidemiology aspects of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during COVID-19 pandemic. The study comprised depersonalized residents of Tomsk and Tomsk Region (n = 1714). Invitations to take online survey were sent to 50,000 residents by target SMS with response rate of 1.2% (n = 727, Cohort 1). Cohort 2 comprised retrospective patients (n = 987) who underwent contrast-enhanced cardiac MRI (CMR) in 2019-2022. Referrals, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, gender, age, past COVID-19, MRI study protocols, and MRI data were analyzed. 29% of respondents in cohort 1 received MRI examination within past two years; 26% of respondents considered MRI the most informative imaging modality for detecting COVID-19 pneumonia; 12% of respondents reported MRI unavailable. Proportion of CMR among MRI studies increased during COVID-19 pandemic, and maximum incidence of cardiac diseases detected by MRI was in 2021. Incidence of myocardial fibrosis increased from ~67% in 2019 to ~84% in 2022. The rate of outpatient MRI studies significantly increased in 2020, but returned to pre-pandemic level in 2021. COVID-19 pandemic increased the need for MRI and CMR. Patients with history of COVID-19 had persistent and newly occurring symptoms of myocardial damage suggesting chronic cardiac involvement requiring continuous follow-up.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0024.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2 infection; pulmonary in situ thrombosis; embolism; immunothrombosis; inflammation; coagulopathy
Online: 1 March 2023 (11:37:10 CET)
COVID-19, the infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), is frequently associated with pulmonary thrombotic events, especially in hospitalised patients. Severe SARS-CoV-2 infection is characterized by a proinflammatory state and an associated disbalance in hemostasis. Immune pathology analysis supports the inflammatory nature of pulmonary arterial thrombi composed by white blood cells, especially neutrophils, CD3+ and CD20+ lymphocytes, fibrin, red blood cells and platelets. Immune cells, cytokines, chemokines and the complement system are key drivers of immunothrombosis, as they induce the damage of endothelial cells and initiate pro-inflammatory and pro-coagulant positive feedback loops. Neutrophil extracellular traps induced by COVID-19-associated “cytokine storm”, platelets, red blood cells, and coagulation pathways close the inflammation-endotheliopathy-thrombosis axis, contributing to SARS-CoV-2 associated pulmonary thrombotic events. The hypothesis of immunothrombosis is also supported by the minor role of venous thromboembolism, chest CT imaging data showing peripheral blood clots associated with inflammatory lesions and the high incidence of thrombotic events despite routine thromboprophylaxis. Understanding the complex mechanisms behind COVID-19-induced pulmonary thrombosis will lead to future combination therapies for hospitalised patients with severe disease, that would target the crossroads of inflammatory and coagulation pathways.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0509.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: bleomycin; ECMO; pulmonary fibrosis; pulmonary toxicity; veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; lung transplant
Online: 28 February 2023 (06:46:44 CET)
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be a life-saving intervention in cases of potentially reversible refractory respiratory failure. One such indication can be bleomycin-induced lung injury. However, in some cases, the injury can be so severe that it becomes irreversible and creates complex medical decisions regarding life support and the continuation of care when no additional therapeutic options are feasible, particularly in cases of patients who were young and fully functional prior to an acute illness. In cases of full pulmonary replacement with mechanical support and the degree of functionality that can be attained utilizing modalities such as ECMO can obscure the true severity of illness and make end-of-life decisions significantly harder for families and caregivers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0105.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: IABP; Impella; Cardiogenic shock; Ventricular elastance; Heart failure; Lumped parameter model; Software simulation; Cardiovascular modelling.
Online: 15 February 2023 (02:47:13 CET)
Cardiogenic shock (CS) is part of a clinical syndrome consisting of acute left ventricular failure causing severe hypotension leading to inadequate organ and tissue perfusion. The most com-monly used devices to support patients affected by CS are Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump (IABP), Impella 2.5 pump and Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation. The aim of this study is the com-parison between Impella and IABP using CARDIOSIM© software simulator of the cardiovascular system. The results of the simulations included baseline conditions from a virtual patient in CS followed by IABP assistance in synchronized mode with different driving and vacuum pressures. Subsequently, the same baseline conditions were supported by the Impella 2.5 with different ro-tational speeds. The percentage variation with respect to baseline conditions was calculated for hemodynamic and energetic variables during IABP and Impella assistance. Impella pump driven with a rotational speed of 50000 rpm increased the total flow by 4.36% with a reduction in left ventricular end diastolic volume (LVEDV) by ≅15% to ≅30%. A reduction in left ventricular end systolic volume (LVESV) by ≅10% to ≅18% (≅12% to ≅33%) was observed with IABP (Impella) as-sistance. Taking into account the limitations of a simulation setting, this study highlights that assistance with the Impella device leads to higher reduction in LVESV, LVEDV, left ventricular external work and left atrial pressure-volume loop area compared to IABP support.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0202.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Dyslipidemia; Atrial Fibrillation; Geriatrics; High Blood Pressure; Polymedication; Polypill
Online: 13 February 2023 (07:21:50 CET)
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular prevention is less effective than expected due to the concern about polymedication of professionals and the lack of adherence of patients. Polypills are presented as a possible solution, increasing therapeutic adherence in the medium or long term and improving therapeutic results compared to the administration of drugs separately: they increase effectiveness and Adherence of patients to primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention programs, without increasing the cost of the intervention. OBJECTIVES: Study #Trigeria: to specify the combined prevalence of Atrial Fibrillation, Dyslipidemia and Hypertension and analyze the pharmacological prescription for these pathologies and the possible indications and advantages that would have the prescription of a polypill for these risk factors.METHODS: Observational analytical study on the pathological history in elderly institutionalized in nursing homes and analysis of prescribed oral medication.RESULTS: 169 people analyzed (79.3% women) from 4 nursing homes; 8.9% had a history of Atrial Fibrillation, Dyslipidemia and Arterial Hypertension; these had a higher prevalence of heart disease (42.9%) and Cerebral Vascular Accident (35.7%). Polymedication was present in 88.5%, with an average of 6.94 oral drugs prescribed; among those with the three pathological antecedents, the average number of oral medications was 8.60. Only 26.7% of those with all three factors were prescribed drugs to control them.DISCUSSION: There are high rates of polymedication in the sample and low rates of prescription of antiplatelet agents in people with Atrial Fibrillation (26.5%); the low prescription of statins and antihypertensives of the ACE inhibitor or ARB-II groups may be due to good control with non-pharmacological measures or by the use of other groups of drugs . A polypill holding the drugs that control the three factors studied could increase the prescription rate while simplifying the administration schedule and reducing polymedication by 23.25% improving prescription, increasing adherence and control of risk factors without increasing pharmaceutical expenditure.CONCLUSIONS: There is a low rate of prescription of antiplatelet agents among people with atrial fibrillation. Combination methods (polypills) can increase the suitability of prescriptions in people with polypathology, improving prescribing, simplifying administration and increasing adherence to pharmacological treatments.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0177.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: variant effect maps; cardiac arrest; cardiovascular genetics
Online: 9 February 2023 (03:38:29 CET)
While genetic testing is becoming mainstream in the management of patients with potentially inherited cardiovascular disease, the prevalence of uncertain results severely limits its utility. One promising approach is to generate variant effect maps that report the function of all possible variants in a gene prospectively. The proactive clinical application of these maps is nascent, and it requires careful integration with current American College of Medical Genetics guidelines for variant interpretation. Here, we describe three pediatric cases of cardiac arrest or sudden cardiac death with variants of uncertain significance in calmodulin genes. We demonstrate the prospective clinical utility of a calmodulin variant effect map to inform variant interpretation, and therefore diagnosis and family care, in each case. This study was approved by the Stanford University and Vanderbilt University Medical Center IRBs. Consent was waived based on low risk of de-identified retrospective data collection per the IRB.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0107.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: flow mediated skin fluorescence; FMSF technique; NADH fluorescence; microcirculation; flowmo-tion; reactive hyperemia response; RHR; hypoxia sensitivity; HS; normoxia oscillatory index; NOI
Online: 7 February 2023 (02:14:48 CET)
Keywords: flow mediated skin fluorescence; FMSF technique; NADH fluorescence, microcirculation, flowmotion, reactive hyperemia response, RHR, hypoxia sensitivity, HS, normoxia oscillatory index, NOI
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0290.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: heart rate variability; signal analysis
Online: 6 February 2023 (04:45:25 CET)
Heart rate variability (HRV) is commonly intended as the variation in the heart rate (HR) and it is evaluated in the time and frequency domains with various well known methods. In the present paper, we first consider an abstract model in which the HR is the instantaneous frequency of an otherwise periodic signal such as the electrocardiogram (ECG). Thus the ECG is assumed as a frequency modulated signal, or carrier signal, where HRV or HRVt is a supposed time-domain signal which is frequency modulating the carrier ECG signal around its average frequency. Hence we describe an algorithm able to frequency demodulate the ECG signal to extract a continuous signal HRVt with possibly enough time resolution to analyse fast time-domain variations in the instantaneous HR. After exhaustive testing of the method on simulated frequency modulated sinusoidal signals, we have applied the procedure on actual ECG tracings. The purpose of the work is to eventually use the heart as a kind of biological sensor of the fast activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) to study the ANS ultra-short-term event-evoked responses. A few preliminary, not clinical, real examples are also given.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0471.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; cannula-associated arterial thrombosis; flow rate.
Online: 26 January 2023 (08:33:01 CET)
Introduction: Hemostatic dysfunction during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) due to blood-circuit interaction and the consequences of shear stress by flow rates lead to rapid activation of the coagulation cascade and thrombus formation in the ECMO system and blood vessels. In this study, we aimed to identify the incidence and risk factors for cannula-associated arterial thrombosis (CaAT) post-decannulation. Methods: A retrospective study of patients undergoing arterial cannula removal following ECMO. We evaluated the incidence of CaAT and compared clinical characteristics, pre-ECMO severity, and daily hemostasis parameters in patients with and without CaAT. Multivariate analysis revealed the risk factors for CaAT. Results: Forty-seven patients requiring venoarterial ECMO or hybrid methods were recruited to be screened for thrombosis. The median SOFA score was 11 (8-13). CaAT occurred in 29 patients (61.7%), with thrombosis in the superficial femoral artery accounting for 51.7%. Limb ischemia complications in the group with CaAT was 17.2%. In multivariate analysis, an ECMO flow rate of 100 mL/min was determined to be the independent factor for CaAT with an OR of 0.84 (95% CI, 0.73–0.95, p=0.008). Conclusion: In patients successfully weaned from ECMO, the incidence of CaAT was 61.7%. Our study found that a low-flow rate of ECMO was an independent risk factor for CaAT.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0460.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: COVID-19 mRNA vaccines; Myo-pericarditis and COVID-19 mRNA vaccines; Multisystem-Inflammatory-Syndrome and COVID-19 mRNA vaccines; arrhythmias and COVID-19 mRNA vaccines; Pathogenesis of myocarditis following COVID-19 mRNA vaccines; MIS-A; MIS-C; MIS-V; Myocarditis; COVID-19 mRNA vaccine Adverse Events.
Online: 26 January 2023 (02:50:29 CET)
Each injection of any known vaccine results in a strong expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This is the result of the innate immune system activation, without which no adaptive response to the injection of vaccines is possible. COVID-19 mRNA vaccines would not escape this rule. Unfortunately, the degree of inflammation produced by these vaccines is variable, probably depending on the genetic background and previous immune experiences, which through epigenetic modifications, could have made the innate immune system of each individual tolerant or reactive to subsequent immune stimulations.We hypothesize that we can move from a limited pro-inflammatory condition to conditions of increasing expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines that can culminate in multisystem hyperinflammatory syndromes following COVID-19 mRNA vaccines (MIS-V). We have graphically represented this idea in a hypothetical inflammatory pyramid (IP) and we have correlated the time factor to the degree of inflammation produced after the injection of vaccines. Furthermore, we have placed the clinical manifestations within this hypothetical IP, correlating them to the degree of inflammation produced. Surprisingly, excluding the possible presence of an early MIS-V, the time factor and the complexity of clinical manifestations are correlated to the increasing degree of inflammation: symptoms, heart disease and syndromes (MIS-V).
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0452.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: systemic lupus erythematosus; heart failure; myocarditis; pericarditis; speckle tracking echocardiography; transthoracic echocardiography; immunosuppressants; glucocorticoids; therapy; biomarkers
Online: 25 January 2023 (09:45:32 CET)
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) myocarditis is presumed to be rare but associated with ad-verse outcomes. If SLE diagnosis has not previously been established, its clinical presentation is often unspecific and difficult to recognize. Furthermore, there is a lack of data in the scientific literature regarding myocarditis and its treatment in systemic immune-mediated diseases, leading to its late recognition and undertreatment. We present the case of a young woman whose first lupus manifestations included acute perimyocarditis, among other symptoms and signs that provided clues to the diagnosis of SLE. Transthoracic and speckle tracking echocardiography were helpful in detecting early abnormalities in myocardial wall thickness and contractility while waiting for cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Since the patient presented with acute decompensated heart failure (HF), HF treatment was promptly started in parallel with immunosuppressive therapy, with a good response. In the treatment of myocarditis with heart failure, we were guided by the echocardiographic findings, biomarkers for myocardial injury N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and hs-troponin I, biomarkers for systemic inflammation erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP), and biomarkers for SLE disease activity (Complement C)3, C4, and anti-dsDNA levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0392.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Endothelial dysfunction; inflammation; pulmonary hypertension; diabetes; car-diovascular disease; endothelium-derived relaxing factor
Online: 23 January 2023 (02:23:26 CET)
Endothelial integrity plays a major role in homeostasis and is responsive to the numerous endogenous factors released. While its functional role in vascular tone is well described, its role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease is of interest as a potential therapeutic target. We performed a systematic review to provide an overview of new therapeutic and diagnostic targets for the treatment of coronary artery disease related to endothelial dysfunction. Databases of PubMed, Ovid’s version of MEDLINE, and EMBASE were interrogated with appropriate search terms. 28 studies met inclusion criteria and were included in the final systematic review. We identified inflammation, pulmonary hypertension, diabetes mellitus and Fabry disease as pathophysiological mechanisms and explored the therapeutic options related to these conditions including medications such as Canakinumab. Endothelial dysfunction has a key role in several different pathophysiological processes which can be targeted for therapeutic options. Ongoing research should be targeted at making the transition to clinical practice. Further research is also needed on understanding the amelioration of endothelial dysfunction with the use of cardiovascular medications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0276.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: FFR; Blood Flow Simulation; SimVascular; coronal stenosis; cCTA
Online: 16 January 2023 (08:29:37 CET)
A novel physiologically based algorithm (PBA) for fast CFD computation of Flow Fractional Reserve (FFR) in Coronary Artery Trees (CATs) is proposed and developed, which, unlike traditional methods, is based on the extension of the Murray’s law for blood vessels at the outlets and extra inlet conditions prescribed alternatively and iteratively. The PBA is then implemented in both SimVascular and Ansys CFD for testing and validation. For validation purpose, 3D models of CATs are built by using their CT images and computational meshes generated for mesh convergence study. Results obtained are then compared with Invasive Coronary Angiographic (ICA) data for validation and evaluation of its accuracy and computational efficiency. It is found that discrepancies between experimental and calculated values of pressure and flow rate at the inlet were less than 0.1% at the end of the 10th round of iteration or less. Further validation shows that the difference between estimated and experimental FFR agree with each other with a maximum difference of 1.62% after convergence is achieved. The PBA is found to be a robust patient-specific and physiologically sound method that can be a good alternative to the existing Lumped Parameter Model (LPM) which is based on empirical scaling correlations using limited population-averaged data and requires nonlinear iterative computation for convergence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0116.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: cost-effectiveness evaluation; heart failure; telemonitoring; pulmonary artery pressure; hemodynamic monitoring
Online: 6 January 2023 (04:41:21 CET)
Background: Real-time remote monitoring of pulmonary artery pressures has previously shown to reduce heart failure (HF) related hospitalisations and to improve quality of life of selected HF patients. The value of CardioMEMS in Southern Europe, where healthcare costs are significantly lower, remains uncertain. Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the CardioMEMS HF system in the Spanish healthcare setting. Methodology: This single-centre study included 35 HF patients with a CardioMEMS device (treatment group) and compared them with similar patients receiving standard HF treatment (control group). The Propensity Score Matching method was used and the comparators were found using the variables age, sex, New York Heart Association class, left ventricular ejection fraction, and diabetes mellitus. Cost-effectiveness was measured as the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year gained. Results: The CardioMEMS HF system outperformed usual management with a net monetary value difference of 2,731€ per patient at 1 year. The incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year gained was 15,896€. Results were consistent in the sensitivity analyses performed. Conclusion: This analysis suggests that remote monitoring of pulmonary artery pressure with CardioMEMS HF system is a cost-effective strategy in the Spanish healthcare setting.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0091.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement,; endocarditis; prosthetic valve endocarditis
Online: 5 January 2023 (02:35:38 CET)
Although initially conceived for high-risk patients who are ineligible for surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR), transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is now recommended in a wider spectrum of indications including young patients. However, as for SAVR, TAVR is also associated with a risk of infectious complications, namely prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE). As the number of performed TAVR procedure increases, and despite the low incidence of PVE post TAVR, clinicians should be familiar with the associated risk factors and the clinical presentation. Whereas the diagnosis of native valve endocarditis can be straightforward applying the modified Duke criteria, the diagnosis of PVE is more challenging given its atypical symptoms, lower sensitivity of the criteria, and low diagnostic yield of conventional echocardiography. Delay in proper management can be associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Therefore, clinicians should have a high index of suspicion and initiate proper work-up according to the severity of illness, the underlying host, and the local epidemiology of the causative organisms. The most common causative pathogens are Gram-positive bacteria such as S. aureus, coagulase negative staphylococci, Enterococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp. (particularly the viridans group) and, less likely Gram-negative and fungal pathogens. The high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance complicates the choice of therapy. There remain controversies regarding the optimal management strategies including indications for surgical interventions. Surgical assessment is recommended early in the course of illness and surgical intervention should be considered in selected patients. As in other PVE, duration of therapy depends on the isolated pathogen, the host, and the clinical response. Since TAVR is a relatively new procedure, the outcome of TAVR-PVE is yet to be fully understood.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0054.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI); subclinical CI-AKI; NGAL; contrast media; coro-nary angiography
Online: 4 January 2023 (03:24:18 CET)
Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is a serious complication after angiographic examinations in cardiology. Diagnosis may be delayed based on standard serum creatinine, and subclinical forms of kidney damage may not be detected at all. In our study we investigate the clinical use in these directions of a “damage” type biomarker - Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL). Among patients with a high-risk profile undergoing scheduled coronary angiography and/or angioplasty, plasmsa NGAL was determined at baseline, at 4 and 24 hours after contrast administration. In the CI-AKI group, NGAL increased significantly at the 4th hour (132.33±72.83 ng/ml versus 111.48±65.06 ng/ml, p=0.006) and at the 24th hour (212 .93±276.61 ng/ml, p=0.008). In patients with subclinical CI-AKI, NGAL also increased significantly at the 4th hour (128.18±99 ng/ml, p=0.002) and reached levels close to those in patients with CI-AKI. Unlike new biomarker, however, serum creatinine did not change significantly in this group. The diagnostic power of NGAL is extremely good - AUC 0.847 (95% CI: 0.677-1.000; p=0.001) in CI-AKI and AUC 0.731 (95% CI: 0.539 – 0.924; p=0.024) in subclinical CI-AKI. NGAL may be a reliable biomarker for early diagnosis of clinical and subclinical forms of renal injury after contrast angiographic studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0045.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Infective Endocarditis, Staphylococcus Aureus Infection, Staphylococcus Aureus Immunity, Staphylococcus Aureus Cytotoxin, Biofilm resistance.
Online: 4 January 2023 (02:43:20 CET)
Staphylococci sp. have become the primary pathogens implicated in infective endocarditis, especially within high-income nations. Coupled with the increasing burden of healthcare with aging populations and the protracted course the infections may take, these infections contribute to a significant challenge for healthcare. A systematic review was conducted using relevant search criteria from PubMed, Ovid’s version of MEDLINE, and EMBASE, and data were tabulated from randomized controlled trials (RCT), observational cohort studies, meta-analysis, and basic research articles. The review was registered with the OSF register of systematic reviews and followed the PRISMA reporting guidelines. 35 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the final systematic review. The role of Staphylococcus aureus and its interaction with the protective shield and host protection functions is identified and highlighted in several studies. The interaction between infective endocarditis pathogens, vascular endothelium, and blood constituents is also explored giving rise to the potential use of antiplatelets as preventative and/or curative agents. Several factors allow Staphylococcus aureus infections to proliferate within the host with numerous promoting and perpetuating agents. The complex interaction with the hosts' innate immunity also potentiates its virulence. Ameliorating these molecular pathways may serve as a therapeutic avenue for the prevention and treatment of these infections in the near future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0014.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: pulmonary hypertension; proteomic analysis; metabolomic analysis
Online: 3 January 2023 (07:53:10 CET)
Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) causes a rare type of Pulmonary Hypertension (PH), by impacting the flow and pressure within the pulmonary vasculature resulting in endothelial dysfunction and metabolic changes. A prudent line of treatment in this type of PH would be targeted therapy in order to relieve the pressure and reverse the flow related changes. We used a swine model in order to mimic PH post PVS using pulmonary vein banding (PVB) of the lower lobes for 12 weeks to mimic the hemodynamic profile associated with PH and investigate the molecular alterations that provide an impetus for development of PH. Our current study aimed to employ unbiased proteomic and metabolomic analyses on both the upper and lower lobes of the swine lung to identify the regions with metabolic alterations. We detected changes in the upper lobes for the PVB animals mainly pertaining to fatty acid metabolism, ROS signaling and extracellular matrix remodeling, and small albeit significant changes in the lower lobes for purine metabolism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0010.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: point-of-care ultrasound; Doppler ultrasound; VExUS; venous excess ultrasonography; acute heart failure; portal vein; hepatic vein; intrarenal vein; inferior vena cava
Online: 3 January 2023 (07:33:46 CET)
Mortality and readmission rates for decompensated acute heart failure (AHF) is overall increasing and risk stratification might be challenging. We sought to evaluate the prognostic role of systemic venous ultraso-nography in patients hospitalized for AHF. We prospectively recruited 74 AHF patients with a NT-proBNP level above 500 pg/mL. Then, a multiorgan ultrasound assessment (lung, inferior vena cava, Doppler of hepatic, portal, intrarenal and femoral veins) were performed at admission, discharge, and follow-up (for 90 days). An intrarenal monophasic pattern (AUC 0.923, Sn 90%, Sp 81%, PPV 43%, NPV 98%), a portal pulsatility >50% (AUC 0.749, Sn 80%, Sp 69%, PPV 30%, NPV 96%) and a VExUS score of 3 (AUC 0.885, sensitivity 80%, specificity 75%, PPV 33%, NPV 96%) predicted death during hospitalization. An IVC above 2 cm (AUC 0.758, Sn 93.l% and Sp 58.3) and the presence of an intrarenal monophasic pattern (AUC 0. 834, sensitivity 0.917, specificity 67.4%) in the follow-up visit predicted AHF related readmission. Addi-tional scans during hospitalization or calculate a VExUS score probably adds unnecessary complexity to the assessment of AHF patients. In conclusion, VExUS score does not contribute to guide therapy or the predic-tion of complications, compared to the presence of an inferior vena cava greater than 2 cm, a venous mo-nophasic intrarenal pattern or a pulsatility > 50% of the portal vein in AHF patients. Early and multidisci-plinary follow-up visit remains necessary to improve prognosis of this highly prevalent disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0217.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: estimated cardiorespiratory fitness; physical activity; prediabetes; diabetes; abnormal blood glucose; electronic health records; epidemiology; prevention; primary care
Online: 13 December 2022 (02:15:06 CET)
Background. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a predictor of chronic disease that is impractical to routinely measure in primary care settings. We used a new estimated cardiorespiratory fitness (eCRF) algorithm that uses information routinely documented in electronic health care records to predict abnormal blood glucose incidence. Methods: Participants were adults (17.8% female) 20-81 years old at baseline from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study between 1979 and 2006. eCRF was based on sex, age, body mass index, resting heart rate, resting blood pressure, and smoking status. CRF was measured by maximal treadmill testing. Cox proportional hazards regression models were established using eCRF and CRF as independent variables predicting the abnormal blood glucose incidence while adjusting for covariates. Results: Of 8,602 participants at risk at baseline, 3,580 (41.6%) developed abnormal blood glucose during an average of 4.9 years follow-up. The average eCRF of 12.03 ± 1.75 METs was equivalent to the CRF of 12.15 ± 2.40 METs within the 10% equivalence limit. In fully adjusted models, the estimated risks were the same (HRs = 0.96), eCRF (95% CIs = 0.93−0.99), and CRF (95% CI of 0.94−0.98). Each 1-MET increase was associated with a 4% reduced risk. Conclusion: Higher eCRF is associated with a lower risk of abnormal glucose. eCRF can be a vital sign used for research and prevention.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0128.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: infective endocartidis; methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; mitral valve
Online: 7 December 2022 (10:47:17 CET)
Infective endocarditis (IE) is a life-threatening condition caused by infection within the endocardium of the heart, and commonly involves the valves. The subsequent cascading inflammation leads to the appearance of a highly friable thrombus that is large enough to become lodged within the heart chambers. As a result, fever, fatigue, heart murmurs, and embolization phenomena may be seen in patients with IE. Embolization results in the seeding of bacteria, and obstruction of circulation, causing cell ischemia. Of concern, bacteria with the potential to gain pan-drug resistance, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), are increasingly being identified as the causative agent of IE in hospitals and among intravenous drug abusers. We retrospectively reviewed de-identified clinical data to summarize the clinical course of a patient with MRSA isolated using an automated blood culture system. At the time of presentation, the patient showed a poor consciousness level, and the calculated Glasgow scale was 10/15. A high-grade fever with circulatory shock indicated an occult infection, and a systolic murmur was observed with peripheral signs of embolization. This case demonstrated the emerging threat of antimicrobial resistance in the community, and revealed clinical findings of IE that may be helpful to clinicians for the early recognition of the disease. The management of such cases requires a multi-specialty approach, which is not widely available in small island developing states like the Maldives.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0030.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Blood Pressure; Cardiovascular Disorder; Hypertension; Hypotension; Hypoxia; Baroreflex; Hemorrhagic Shock; Hypovolemic Shock; Vasopressure; Resuscitation; Centhaquine (Lyfaquin); Sympathetic System; Parasympathetic System; Adrenoreceptors
Online: 2 December 2022 (02:00:06 CET)
The pressure exerted on the heart and blood vessels because of blood flow is considered as an important parameter for the cardiovascular function. It determines sufficient blood perfusion as well as transportation of nutrition, oxygen and other essential factors to every organ. Pressure in the primary arteries located near the heart and the brain, known as central blood pressure (CBP), while in peripheral arteries, known as peripheral blood pressure (PBP). Normally, CBP and PBP are correlated; however, cardiovascular disorders interfere their regulation and affect the blood flow in vital organs and accessory organs, differently. Therefore, understanding each of them in normal and disease conditions is essential for managing various cardiovascular disorders and increasing their treatment outcomes. In this review, we have described the control systems (neural, hormonal, osmotic and cellular) of the blood pressure and its regulation in hypovolemic shock using centhaquine (Lyfaquin®) as a resuscitative agent.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0551.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: biomarkers; Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction; Metabolomic; microRNA
Online: 29 November 2022 (11:58:09 CET)
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) remains a poorly characterized syndrome with many dark aspects related to different patients profile, various associated risk factors and wide aetiologies. It comprises several pathophysiological pathways related to endothelial dysfunction, myocardial fibrosis, extracellular matrix deposition and high inflammatory response. Up to now, it has been described only for clinical appearance and most common associated risk factors without an effective characterization of biological processes responsible for cardiovascular deteriorations. Recent advances in laboratory and metabolomic researches showed that HFpEF appears strictly related to specific cells and molecular mechanisms dysregulation. Some biomarkers are capable to early identify these processes adding new insights into diagnosis and risk stratification. Additionally recent advances on intermediate metabolites reflecting provide relevant information on intrinsic cellular and energetic substrate alterations. The systematic combination of clinical imaging and laboratory data may lead to a precision medicine approach providing prognostic and therapeutic advantages. Current review reports traditional and emerging biomarkers recently investigated in HFpEF setting, and it purpose a new diagnostic approach based on integrative information achieved from risk factors burden, hemodynamic dysfunction and biomarkers signature partnership.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0452.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Contrast bath. Edema, Elevation of feet 30 ° , Congestive heart failure
Online: 24 November 2022 (06:09:59 CET)
Background: Congestive heart failure is the inability to pump blood throughout the body which causes the walls to be unable to pump adequately. Purpose: This study aimed to ascertain the effect of a contrast bath with a 30 º elevation on the reduction of edema in congestive heart failure patients at Ulin General Hospital, Banjarmasin. Methods: The design of this study was quasi-experimental with an unequal control group design. The population is patients with congestive heart failure, and the sample used is successive sampling. 34 respondents were divided into two groups, 17 respondents in the intervention group and 17 in the control group. Results: The Mann-Whitney result value P = 0.027 (P < 0.05) represented a significant reduction in Bath contrast edema with 30º feet elevation in the intervention group and control group patients with congestive heart failure. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it is expected to be able to apply contrast showers with an elevation of 30 º in nursing services to reduce the degree of edema in congestive heart failure patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0361.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Heart Rate Variability; Inflammatory markers; Long-term Covid-19; Autonomic nervous system.
Online: 21 November 2022 (01:21:37 CET)
Background: Heart rate variability is a non-invasive, measurable, and established autonomic nervous system test. Long-term COVID-19 sequelae are unclear; however, acute symptoms have been studied. Objectives: To determine autonomic cardiac differences between long COVID-19 patients and heathy controls and evaluate associations among symptoms, comorbidities, and laboratory findings. Methods: This single-center study included long COVID-19 patients and healthy controls. The heart rate variability (HRV), a quantitative marker of autonomic activity, was monitored for 24 h using an ambulatory electrocardiogram system. HRV indices were compared between case and control groups. Symptom frequency and inflammatory markers were evaluated. The significance level of 5% (p-value 0.05) was adopted. Results: A total of 47 long COVID-19 patients were compared to 42 healthy controls. Patients averaged 43.8 (SD14.8) years old, and 60.3% were female. In total, 52.5% of patients had moderate illness. Post-exercise dyspnea was most common (71.6%), and 53.2% lacked comorbidities. COVID-19 patients had 4 times more dyslipidemia. CNP, D-dimer, and CRP levels were elevated (p-values of 0.0098, 0.0023, and 0.0015, respectively). The control group had greater SDNN24 and SDANNI (OR = 0.98 (0.97 to 0.99; p = 0.01)). Increased low-frequency (LF) indices in COVID-19 patients (OR = 1.002 (1.0001 to 1.004; p = 0.030)) and high-frequency (HF) indices in the control group (OR = 0.987 (0.98 to 0.995; p = 0.001)) were also associated. Conclusions: Patients with long COVID-19 had lower HF values than healthy individuals. These variations are associated with increased parasympathetic activity, which may be related to long COVID-19 symptoms and inflammatory laboratory findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0003.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: aortic diseases; serum creatinine; acute kidney injury; cardiac surgery; in-hospital mortality; cross-clamp time
Online: 14 November 2022 (01:12:17 CET)
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a complication that can occur after cardiac surgery and requires ongoing research in light of the exponential expansion of technological advancements and knowledge in medicine. In this study, we aim to evaluate the outcomes of treated electives of emergency aortic disease with high serum creatinine levels (SCr). Methods: The cohort includes 183 patients, all of whom have an aortic disease and whose SCr levels were checked upon admission on the first day in the intensive care unit (ICU) and upon discharge from the hospital. We examined the correlation of SCr levels with in-hospital mortality and immediate mortality at least six months after discharge as well as with cross-clamp time and bypass time.Results: A high SCr level upon admission is a significant predictive factor of n-hospital mortality (p = 0.001) but not immediate mortality (p = 0.409). A statistically significant correlation was also observed between elevated SCr level on the first day of ICU and aortic disease (p = 0.041) but not immediate mortality (p = 0.119). We observed a significant correlation between aortic disease and in-hospital mortality (p < 0.001), but no correlation was found between high SCr level on the first day of ICU and immediate mortality (p = 0.119). The cross-clamp time is statistically significant correlated with elevated SCr level (p = 0.013) and in-hospital mortality (p = 0.001) but not immediate mortality (p = 0.847). Furthermore, the bypass time is negatively correlated with a high SCr level on the first day of ICU (p = 0.090), in-hospital mortality (p = 0.410), and immediate mortality (p = 0.625). We also found that aortic disease is not correlated with elevated creatinine levels at ICU discharge (p = 0.152) or long-term mortality (p = 0.106). Conclusions: Although this study only included a small portion of the elaborate aspects of surgical and medical management developed around cardiac patients who received invasive treatment, the conclusions reached are nevertheless clearly relevant, as evidenced by the significantly correlations uncovered. In order to manage AKI after AAS and improve the outcome, the SCr level could be used as a marker for renoprotective strategy. Moving forward, these results serve as a first step in motivating us to expand the range of our research, collect newly relevant data, and use it to benefit patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0487.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Immunology; innate immunity; immunogenetics; noncoding genome; tRNA biology; evolutionary genetics (list 3-10 specific to the article yet reasonably common within the subject discipline)
Online: 1 November 2022 (09:55:10 CET)
During the past few years unexpected developments have driven studies in the field of clinical immunology. One driver of immense impact was the outbreak of a pandemic caused by the novel virus SARS-CoV-2. Excellent recent reviews address diverse aspects of immunological re-search into cardiovascular diseases. Here, we specifically focus on selected studies taking ad-vantage of advanced state-of-the-art molecular genetic methods ranging from genome-wide epi/transcriptome mapping and variant scanning to optogenetics and chemogenetics. First, we discuss emerging clinical relevance of advanced diagnostics for cardiovascular diseases - includ-ing those associated with COVID-19 - with a focus on the role of inflammation in cardiomyopa-thies and arrhythmias. Second, we consider newly identified immunological interactions at or-gan and systems level which affect cardiovascular pathogenesis. Thus, studies into immune in-fluences arising from the intestinal system are moving towards therapeutic exploitation. Fur-ther, powerful new research tools have enabled novel insight into brain – immune system inter-actions at unprecedented resolution. This latter line of investigation emphasizes the strength of influence of emotional stress - acting through defined brain regions - upon viral and cardiovas-cular disorders. Several challenges need to be overcome before the full impact of these far-reaching new findings will hit the clinical arena.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0404.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Polypill; Cardiovascular Risk; Primary Prevention; Secondary Prevention; Adherence; Cost-effectivity
Online: 31 October 2022 (09:27:48 CET)
Primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention is less effective than expected due to the concern about polymedication by professionals and the lack of patient adherence to medications prescribed in the medium and long term. Polypills have been presented as a possible solution. A comprehensive bibliographic review is presented about polypills as mechanisms for facilitating adherence and a proposed guide for the use of polypills for the prevention of cardiovascular risk. 41 articles were included, showing options for the polypill as a method of primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention.The polypill increases therapeutic adherence in the medium and long term, also increasing the therapeutic results compared to the administration of the various drugs separately. Based on the evidence, a flow diagram is proposed for the prescription of a polypill.Polypills increase the effectiveness and adherence of patients to primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention programs, without increasing the cost of the intervention. The use of a polypill in cardiovascular prevention can be effective as a prescription tool.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Fabry disease; Cardiac magnetic Resonance; T1 mapping; Late gadolinium enhancement; Feature tracking.
Online: 14 October 2022 (03:25:53 CEST)
Fabry disease (FD) is a X-linked inheritable storage disease caused by deficiency of al-pha-galactosidase causing lysosomal overload of sphingolipids. FD cardiomyopathy is character-ized by left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and should be considered in differential diagnosis with all the other causes of LV hypertrophy. An early diagnosis of FD is very important because the enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) may change the fate of patients by blocking both cardiac and systemic involvement and improving prognosis. Diagnosis may be relatively easy in young patients with the typical signs ans symptoms of FD, but in male patients with late onset of disease and in females, diagnosis may be very challenging. Morphological and functional aspects are not specific for FD, which cannot be diagnosed or excluded by echocardiography. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) with tissue characterization capability, is the preferred technique for the differential diagnosis of LV hypertrophy. The finding of decreased myocardial T1 value in LV hypertrophy is very specific for FD. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) is found in late stage of disease but it is useful to predict the cardiac response to ERT and to stratify the prognosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0180.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: C-reactive protein; STEMI; AMI; CRP apheresis; CMR; MRI; infarct size; inflammation; inflammatory mediators; ischaemia; hypoxia; phagocytosis
Online: 12 October 2022 (13:41:12 CEST)
In the multicenter, non-randomized, exploratory C-reactive protein (CRP) Apheresis in Myocardial Infarction (CAMI-1) study, CRP apheresis after ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) significantly decreased blood CRP concentrations in humans. Cardiac damage was assessed by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR1) 3-9 d after onset of STEMI symptoms and quantified by myocardial infarct size (IS; %), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF; %), circumferential strain (CS) and longitudinal strain (LS) Compared with the control group (n=34), cardiac damage was significantly lower in the apheresis group (n=32). These findings suggested improved wound healing due to CRP apheresis already within few days after the STEMI event. In the current supplementary data analysis of CAMI-1, we have tested by a follow-up CMR (CMR2) after an average of 88 (65-177) d whether the effect of CRP apheresis is clinically maintained. After this time period wound healing in STEMI is considered complete. Whereas patients with low CRP production and a CRP gradient cut off of <0.6 mg/L/h in the hours after STEMI (9 of 32 patients in the CRP apheresis group) did not significantly benefit from CRP apheresis in CMR2, patients with high CRP production and a CRP gradient cut off of >0.6 mg/L/h (23 of 32 patients in the CRP apheresis group) showed significant treatment benefit. In the latter patients, CMR2 revealed a lower IS (-5.4%; p=0.05), a better LVEF (+6.4%; p=0.03), and an improved CS (-6.1%; p=0.005). No significant improvement, however, was observed for LS (-2.9%; p=0.1). These data suggest a sustained positive effect of CRP apheresis on the heart physiology in STEMI patients with high CRP production well beyond the period of its application. The data demonstrate the sustainability of the CRP removal from plasma which is associated with less scar tissue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0100.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: screening after pulmonary embolism; chronic thromboembolic pulmonary disease; chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension; diagnostic work-up of post-pulmonary syndrome
Online: 9 October 2022 (02:09:20 CEST)
Background: The annual mortality of patients with untreated chronic thromboembolism pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is approximately 50% unless a timely diagnosis is followed by adequate treatment. In pulmonary embolism (PE) survivors with functional limitation the diagnostic work-up starts with echocardiography. It is followed by lung scintigraphy and right heart catheterization. However, noninvasive test providing diagnostic clues to CTEPH, or ascertain this diagnosis as very unlikely, would be extremely useful since the majority of post PE functional limitations is caused by deconditioning. Methods: Patients after acute PE underwent a structured clinical evaluation with electrocardiogram, routine laboratory tests including NT-proBNP and echocardiography. The aim of study was to verify whether the parameters from echocardiographic or perhaps electrocardiographic examination and NT-proBNP concentration best determine the risk of CTEPH. Results: A total (n = 261, male n = 123) patients after PE were included into the study, in group of 155 patients (59.4%) with reported functional impairment 13 patients (8.4%) had CTEPH and 7 PE survivors had chronic thromboembolic pulmonary disease (CTEPD) (4,5%). Echo parameters differed significantly between CTEPH/CTEPD cases and other symptomatic PE survivors. Patients with CTEPH/CTEPD had also higher level of NT-proBNP (p = 0.022) but concentration of NT-proBNP above 125 pg/ml did not differentiate patients with CTEPH/CTEPD (p>0.05). Additionally, proportion of patients with right bundle brunch block registered in ECG was higher in group with CTEPH/CTED (23.5% vs. 5.8%, p = 0.034) but there were no differences between other ECG characteristics of right ventricle overload. Conclusion: Screening for CTEPH/CTEPD should be performed in patients with reduced exercise tolerance compared to pre PE period, It is not effective in asymptomatic PE survivors. Patients with CTEPH/CTED had predominantly abnormalities indicatingchronic thromboembolism in the echocardiographic assessment. NT-proBNP and electrocardiographic characteristics of right ventricle overload proved to be insufficient in predicting CTEPH/CTEPD development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0417.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Recreational substance abuse; drug abuse; marijuana; amphetamine; acute ischemic stroke; risk factors; young adult; NIS; Stroke; Sudden Cardiac Death
Online: 27 September 2022 (09:41:00 CEST)
Background: Substance use continues to be on the rise in the United States and has been linked to new onset cardiovascular (CVDs) and cerebrovascular disorders (CeVDs) leading to hospitalizations. We aimed to study the association of different subtypes of substance use disorders (SUDs) among hospitalized patients, with the different subtypes of CVDs and CeVDs, using the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) Database. Additionally, we aimed to assess the odds of hospitalizations with new onset CVDs and CeVDs among patients with different types of SUDs. Methods: A retrospective study of the NIS database (2016-2017) using the ICD-10-CM codes was performed. The hospitalizations with a secondary diagnosis of SUDs were identified. Weighted univariate analysis using the chi-square test and multivariate survey logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate for the incidence, prevalence, and odds of association between vascular events and SUDs. Results: There were a total of 58,259,589 hospitalizations, out of which 21.42% had SUDs. Out of all the hospitalized patients between the age 18-50, more patients had SUDs than not (31.83%, p< 0.0001). This difference existed for all the different subtypes of SUDs including alcohol related disorder (42.61%), amphetamine dependence (76.17% vs 31.83%), cannabis related disorder (75.17%), cocaine related disorders (57.87%), hallucinogen related disorder (82.91%), inhalant related disorders (67.25%), opioid related disorders (52.86%), and nicotine dependence (35.72%). We found a significant association of acute ischemic stroke with amphetamine dependence (OR 1.23, 95%CI 1.14-1.33), cocaine related disorders (1.17, 1.12-1.23) and nicotine dependence (1.42, 1.40-1.43). Similarly, the association of intracerebral hemorrhage was higher with amphetamine dependence (2.58, 2.26-2.93), and cocaine related disorders (1.62, 1.46-1.79). The association of subarachnoid hemorrhage was noted to be higher with amphetamine dependence (1.82, 1.48-2.24) and nicotine dependence (1.47, 1.39-1.55). In terms of association of cardiovascular disorders with SUDs,the patients with myocardial infarction had higher odds of nicotine dependence (1.85, 1.83-1.87) than not, Similarly, the patients with angina pectoris were noted to have a higher association with cocaine related disorders (2.21, 1.86-2.62), and those with atrial fibrillation had a higher association alcohol related disorders (1.14, 1.11-1.17). Conclusion: Our study demonstrates the variability of CVD and CeVD in patients hospitalized for SUD. Findings from our study may help promote increased awareness and early management of these events. Further studies are needed to evaluate specific effects of frequency and dose on the incidence and prevalence of CVD and CeVD in patients with SUD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0361.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Ed/Ea; Fine-Gray model; HFpEF; LAVI; sex
Online: 23 September 2022 (08:09:57 CEST)
Objective: We aimed to clarify the differences in the association between re-admission for heart failure (HF) and left atrial (LA) overload indices by sex in heart failure and a preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Methods: We analysed 898 HFpEF patients hospitalized for acute decompensated HF. Blood tests and transthoracic echocardiography were performed before discharge. The primary endpoint was re-admission for HF during the first year. Results: The ratio of diastolic elastance to arterial elastance (p=0.014), a relative index of LA pressure overload, in men and LA volume index (LAVI, p=0.020) in women were significant for re-admission for HF during the first year in the multivariable Fine-Gray analysis. Stroke volume (SV)/LA volume (LAV), another index for LAV overload, was not a significant prognostic factor of re-admission for HF during this time. Conclusion: LA overload was an important prognostic factor for HF re-readmission during the first year after enrolment in patients with HFpEF, but the indices relating to LA overload differed by sex.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0093.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Polypharmacy management, COVID -19, Gender medicine, economic perspective
Online: 7 September 2022 (02:29:58 CEST)
Background: Covid-19 patients with any pre-existing cardio-vascular disease (CVD) are at highest risk for viral infection and for developing of severe disease. Pathophysiological mechanism is characterized by the viral link to Angioten-sin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the involvement of the endothelial system with the release of cytokines and direct damage on myocardium, micro throm-bosis, and alterations of oxygen diffusion. Aim of the study is to analyze clinical course, treatment and outcome in patients (gender stratified) with pre-existing CVD. Methods: Out of the 1299 (700 M/599 F) patients admitted to Internal Medicine COVID Unit of “Castelli Hospital”, Lazio, Italy, from 01/01/2021 to 31/12/2021, 278 patients (167 M/111 F), mean age 76 (76 M/ 75 F) had previous CVD. Demographic characteristics, length of the stay (LOS) and oxygen therapy were evaluated. Results: Most common CVD pathologies were Hearth Failure (HF): 131 (72 M/59 F), Atrial Fibrillation (AF): 45 (25 M/20 F), Myocardial Infarction (MI): 26 (19 M/7 F) and associations among them. 100% of CVD COVID patients under-went Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV) and were treated with more than 5 drugs. HF was linked with increased LOS (23 days) compared to AF (21 days), MI (18 days) and no CVD (16 days). Overall mean LOS was 16,5 days. 21,4% of total pa-tients had CVD. Conclusions: Timely identification and evaluation of patients with pre-existing CVD are fundamental for adequate treatment based on gender, severity and state of illness and for risk reduction. Keywords: polypharmacy, gender medicine; COVID 19; Sars CoV 2; cardiovas-cular disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0529.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Myofibroblast; Atorvastatin; Olmesartan; Resveratrol; Valvular Interstitial Cell
Online: 31 August 2022 (02:55:06 CEST)
Introduction. Recent studies revealed that differentiation of valvular interstitial cell into myoﬁbroblasts played an important role in pathological valve remodeling in rheumatic valvular disease. Objective. To investigate effects of atorvastatin, olmesartan, and resveratrol on Transforming Growth Factor β1-induced fibrosis. Methods. Valvular interstitial cell was isolated from 12-weeks male New Zealand rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Culture cells was divided into 4 groups, control group, group I (0.5 mg/mL Atorvastatin), group II (100 nmol/L Olmesartan), group III (50 μM/L Resveratrol) and group IV (combinations). All group were exposed to 100 nM Transforming Growth Factor β1 for 24 hours. Results. Immunochemical staining demonstrated that cells were completely differentiated into myofibroblasts with mean expression of α-smooth muscle actin 24522.64±4566.994. Atorvastatin, olmesartan, resveratrol, and its combination significantly reduced α-smooth muscle actin expression (6823±1735.3, 6942.7±2455.9, 14176.2±3343.3, 5051.8±1612.2 respectively (p<0.001). Conclusion. Our data showed atorvastatin, olmesartan, resveratrol, and its combination significantly reduce Transforming Growth Factor β1-induced valvular fibrosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0342.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Citrus flavonoids; naringin; naringenin; pectin; byproducts; anti-ischemic myocardial protection; hydrodynamic cavitation
Online: 18 August 2022 (10:54:33 CEST)
Citrus flavonoids are well-known for beneficial effects at the cardiovascular and cardio-metabolic level, but often the encouraging in vitro results are not confirmed by in vivo approaches; also clinical trials are inconsistent. The limited bioavailability of them can be, at least in part, the reason of these discrepancies. Therefore many efforts were performed towards the improvement of their bioavailability. Hydrodynamic cavitation methods were successfully applied to the extraction of byproducts of the Citrus fruits industry, showing high process yields and affording stable phytocomplexes, known as IntegroPectin, endowed with great amounts of bioactive compounds and high water solubility. Cardioprotective effects of grapefruit IntegroPectin were evaluated by an ex vivo ischemia/reperfusion protocol. A further pharmacological characterization was carried out to assess the involvement of mitochondrial potassium channels. Grapefruit IntegroPectin, where naringin represented 98% of flavonoids, showed anti-ischemic cardioprotective activity, better than pure naringenin (the bioactive aglycone of naringin). On cardiac isolated mitochondria, this extract confirmed that naringenin/naringin were involved in the activation of mitochondrial potassium channels. The hydrodynamic cavitation-based extraction confirmed a valuable opportunity for the exploitation of Citrus fruits waste, with the end product presenting high levels of Citrus flavonoids and an improved bioaccessibility that enhances its nutraceutical and economic value.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0295.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: coronary; atherosclerosis; cardiac CT; geometry
Online: 17 August 2022 (03:24:46 CEST)
Coronary artery disease (CAD) represents a modern pandemic associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The multi-faceted pathogenesis of this entity has long been investigated, highlighting the contribution of systemic factors such as hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Nevertheless, recent research has drawn light to the importance of geometrical features of coronary vasculature on the complexity and vulnerability of coronary atherosclerosis. Various parameters have been investigated so far, including vessel-length, cross-sectional area, curvature, and tortuosity, using primarily invasive angiography and recently non-invasive cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA). It is clear that there is correlation between geometrical parameters and both the haemodynamic alterations augmenting the atherosclerosis-prone environment and the extent of plaque burden. The purpose of this review is to discuss the currently available literature regarding this issue and propose a potential non-invasive imaging biomarker, the geometric risk score, which could be of importance to allow early detection of individuals at increased risk of developing CAD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0205.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Cholesterol efflux; flavonoids; HDL; quercetin; reverse cholesterol transport
Online: 11 August 2022 (03:33:47 CEST)
One of the mechanisms used in the management and cure of atherosclerosis is reverse cholesterol transfer (RCT), which plays a vital role in the export of cholesterol from peripheral cells. Cholesterol efflux from macrophages in the subintima of the vessel wall is a critical part of RCT. ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) are involved in the transfer of cholesterol from arterial macrophages to extracellular high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL). The HDL then transports esterified cholesterol to the liver for elimination. An important factor in the reverse cholesterol transport and excretion of extracellular cholesterol is HDL. Atherogenesis can be prevented by altering the processes of RCT and cholesterol efflux, and this might lead to novel treatment options for cardiovascular disease. Research of novel modifying variables for RCT and cholesterol efflux is necessary. A better understanding of RCT's molecular processes has been gained via research, allowing for the creation of new treatments that make use of RCT's potential for pharmacological improvement. The purpose of this review is to provoke discussion on the potential impact of selected flavonoids on cholesterol efflux on the progression of atherosclerosis (Fig. 1.).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0151.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine; COVID-19 vaccine; cardiovascular effects; myocarditis; adolescents; Thailand
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:40:23 CEST)
This study focuses on cardiovascular effects, particularly myocarditis and pericarditis events, after BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine injection in Thai adolescents. This prospective cohort study enrolled students from two schools aged 13–18 years who received the second dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. Data including demographics, symptoms, vital signs, ECG, echocardiography and cardiac enzymes were collected at baseline, Day 3, Day 7, and Day 14 (optional) using case record forms.We enrolled 314 participants; of these, 13 participants were lost to follow up, leaving 301 participants for analysis. The most common cardiovascular effects were tachycardia (7.64%), shortness of breath (6.64%), palpitation (4.32%), chest pain (4.32%), and hypertension (3.99%). Seven participants (2.33%) exhibited at least one elevated cardiac biomarker or positive lab assessments. Cardiovascular effects were found in 29.24% of patients, ranging from tachycardia, palpitation, and myopericarditis. Myopericarditis was confirmed in one patient after vaccination. Two patients had suspected pericarditis and four patients had suspected subclinical myocarditis. Conclusion: Cardiovascular effects in adolescents after BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination included tachycardia, palpitation, and myocarditis. The clinical presentation of myopericarditis after vaccination was usually mild, with all cases fully recovering within 14 days. Hence, adolescents receiving mRNA vaccines should be monitored for side effects. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT05288231
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0070.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: adipocyte-derived mesenchymal stem cells; cardiomyocyte-like cells; platelet rich fibrin; growth factor; stem cell therapy
Online: 3 August 2022 (03:31:51 CEST)
Background: There is several challenges to solve irreversible loss of cardiomyocytes due to myocardial infarction. Cell therapy is believed as an ideal treatment for cardiac regeneration in the infarct area. Obtaining adipose-derived stem cells increases seems to be promising, however it is limited by the capacity to differentiate. Stimulation by injectable platelet-rich fibrin appears to have the beneficial effects to accelerate cardiomyocyte-like cells differentiation. Objective: To analyse the benefit of injectable platelet-rich fibrin to accelerate differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells into cardiomyocyte-like cells. Methods: This study is a true experimental randomized post-test design study. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from adipose tissues and cultured until 4 passages. The characteristics of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells were measured by the expression of CD 34-, CD 45-, and CD 105+ using flowcytometry. The samples were divided into 3 groups, i.e. negative control (α-MEM), positive control (differentiation medium) and treatment group (platelet-rich fibrin). The assessment of GATA-4 marker expression was conducted using flowcytometry on the fifth day and troponin was conducted using immunocytochemistry on the tenth day to determine the differentiation to cardiomyocyte. Data analysis was conducted using T-test and One-Way ANOVA on normally distributed data determined through Shapiro-Wilk test. Results: Flowcytometry on GATA-4 expression revealed significant difference on addition of platelet-rich fibrin compared with negative and positive controls (68.20 ± 6.82 vs 58.15 ± 1.23; p<0.05; 68.20 ± 6.82 vs 52.96 ± 2.02; p<0.05). This was supported by the results of immunocytochemistry on troponin expression which revealed significant difference between platelet-rich fibrin group compared with negative and positive controls (50.66 ± 7.2 vs 10.73 ± 2.39; p<0.05; 50.66 ± 7.2 vs 26.00 ± 0.4; p<0.05). Conclusion: Injectable platelet-rich fibrin has beneficial effect to accelerate differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells into cardiomyocyte-like cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0030.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: ascending aorta aneurysm; bicuspid aorta valve; tricuspid aorta valve; ERG transcriptional factor pathway; TGF-β-SMAD, Notch, and NO pathways modulation.
Online: 2 August 2022 (03:43:22 CEST)
Abstract: The pathobiology of ascending aorta aneurysms (AAA) onset and progression is not well understood and only partially characterized. AAA are also complicated in case of bicuspid aorta valve (BAV) anatomy. There is emerging evidence about the crucial role of endothelium-related pathways, which show in AAA an altered expression and function. Here, we examined the involvement of ERG-related pathways in the differential progression of disease in aortic tissues from patients having a BAV or tricuspid aorta valve (TAV) with or without AAA. Our findings identified ERG as a novel endothelial-specific regulator of TGF-β-SMAD, Notch, and NO pathways, by modulating a differential fibrotic or calcified AAA progression in BAV and TAV aortas. We provided evidence that calcification is correlated to different ERG expression (as gene and protein), which appears to be under control of Notch signaling. The latter, when increased, associated with an early calcification in aortas with BAV valve and aneurysmatic, was demonstrated to favor the progression versus severe complications, i.e., dissection or rupture. In TAV aneurysmatic aortas, ERG appeared to modulate fibrosis. Therefore, we proposed that ERG may represent a sensitive tissue biomarker to monitor AAA progression and a target to develop therapeutic strategies and influence surgical procedures.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0027.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: acute pulmonary embolism; dilemmas; therapeutic treatment; recommendations; clinical application
Online: 2 August 2022 (03:12:56 CEST)
Pulmonary thromboembolism is a very common cardiovascular disease, with a still high mortality rate. Despite the clear guidelines, this disease still represents a great challenge both in diagnosis and treatment. Heterogeneous clinical picture, often without pathognomonic signs and symptoms, represents a huge differential diagnostic problem even for experienced doctors. The decision on the therapeutic regimen also represents a major dilemma in the group of patients who are hemodynamically stable at initial presentation and have signs of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction proven by echocardiography and positive biomarker values (pulmonary embolism of intermediate-high risk). Studies have shown conflicting results about the benefit of using fibrinolytic therapy in this group of patients until hemodynamic decompensation, due to the risk of major bleeding. The latest recommendations give preference to new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) compared to vitamin K antagonists (VKA), except for certain categories of patients (patients with antiphospholipid syndrome, mechanical valves, pregnancy). When using oral anticoagulant therapy, special attention should be paid to drug-drug interactions, which can lead to many complications, even to the death of the patient. Special population groups such as pregnant women, obese patients, patients with antiphospholipid syndrome and cancer represent a great therapeutic challenge in the application of anticoagulant therapy. In these patients, not only the effectiveness of the drugs must be taken into account, but great attention must be paid to their safety and possible side effects, which is why a multidisciplinary approach is emphasized in order to provide the best therapeutic option.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0325.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: autonomic failure; lean test; active stand; long covid; Post-COVID-19 condition
Online: 28 July 2022 (03:42:35 CEST)
Autonomic dysfunction is an increasingly recognised complication in chronic neurological conditions such as Parkinson’s disease , and other medical conditions, including diabetes mellitus, chronic fatigue syndrome, postural tachycardia syndrome with and without Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, fibromyalgia and recently Long Covid. Despite laboratory-based tests to evaluate normal and abnormal autonomic function, there are no home-based tests to record neuro-cardiovascular autonomic responses to common stimuli in daily life that are dependent on the normal functioning of the autonomic nervous system. We have developed an adapted blood pressure/heart Autonomic Profile (aAP) that can be used by an individual independently and repeatedly in a domiciliary setting to determine the physiological and symptomatic response to standing, food, and physical and mental (cognitive, emotional) activities. The aAP aids separating autonomic failure (often irreversible) from autonomic dysfunction. This helps the individual and attending healthcare professional understand the relationship between symptoms and common triggers in daily life and informs on self-management in debilitating conditions such as the postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS) and Long Covid.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0424.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Traumatic cardiac arrest; gastrothorax; diaphragmatic rupture; diaphragmatic hernia; localized tamponade
Online: 27 July 2022 (15:03:27 CEST)
Traumatic cardiac arrest has a high mortality. We report the case of a 65 years old women who presented a cardiac arrest following traffic accident. Examinations concluded to a tension gastro thorax with a delayed diagnosis. Naso gastric tube insertion was for many authors a temporary care while waiting for surgery. We report on the diagnostic difficulties found in the literature and a recent review of published cases.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0381.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Caspofungin; Candidemia; Cardiotoxicity; Troponin
Online: 26 July 2022 (03:43:51 CEST)
Echinocandins selectively inhibit fungal cell wall synthesis and, therefore, have few side effects. However, there are reports of hemodynamic and cardiac complications. We conducted this study to investigate the effects of caspofungin both on the noninvasive echocardiographic indices of myocardial function and on myocardial injury based on serum high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) levels. This study was conducted on patients treated for candidemia. The hs-cTnI level and echocardiographic parameters were measured before and 1 hour after the infusion of the induction dose of caspofungin. Data were compared between central and peripheral venous drug administration routes. Fifteen patients were enrolled in the study. There were no significant differences in the echocardiographic parameters between the baseline and post-treatment period. The mean hs-cTnI level exhibited a significant rise following drug administration (0.24 ± 0.2 vs 0.32 ± 0.3; P = 0.006). There was also a significant difference concerning the hs-cTnI level between central and peripheral venous drug administration routes (P = 0.034). Due to differences in the hs-cTnI level, it appears that the administration of caspofungin may be associated with myocardial injury. Our findings also showed a higher possibility of cardiotoxicity via the central venous administration route.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0164.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: ST-elevation myocardial infarction; Covid-19 pandemic; time delay; primary percutaneous cor-onary intervention; heart failure; mortality
Online: 12 July 2022 (03:33:22 CEST)
Covid-19 pandemic affected outcome in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients in majority of countries. We aimed to assess retrospectively admissions, treatments, complications and mortality of STEMI patients in the northeast of Slovenia in the first (March-May 2020) and the second wave (October-December 2020) of Covid-19 pandemic and compare them with the data from 2019 (March-October). Comparing 2019 and both waves of Covid-19 pandemic we observed nonsignificant differences in the number of STEMI admissions, in baseline characteristics, in the use of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), either within the first 3 (40.5%* vs 30.2% vs 25%*, *p = 0.074) and 6 hours, nonsignificant differences in TIMI III flow after primary PCI and in hospital complications, except for significant increase in hospital heart failure (23.3% vs 42%, p = 0.015) and mitral regurgitation in the second wave (10% vs 26.9%, p = 0.008) of the pandemic with nonsignificant increase in hospital mortality (8.9% vs 9.4% vs 13.6%) in both waves of the pandemic. We conclude, that with increased severity of Covid-19 pandemic in the second wave there was a longer delay to primary PCI in STEMI patients, resulting in significantly increased hospital heart failure and nonsignificantly increased hospital mortality
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0126.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Infective Endocarditis; Staphylococcus Aureus; Biofilm; Immune response; Fibronectin
Online: 7 July 2022 (10:00:18 CEST)
Infective endocarditis remains an illness that carries a significant burden to healthcare resources. In recent times, there has been a shift from Streptococcus sp to Staphylococcus sp as the primary organism of interest. This has significant consequences given the virulence of Staphylococcus and its propensity to form a biofilm, rendering non-surgical therapy ineffective. In addition, antibiotic resistance has affected treatment of this organism. The cohorts at most risk for Staphylococcal endocarditis are the elderly patients with multiple comorbidities. The innovation of transcatheter technologies alongside other cardiac interventions such as implantable devices have contributed to the increased risk attributable to this cohort. We examine the role of the heart team for diagnosis and treatment of this condition. In addition, we examine the determinants of virulence of Staphylococcus aureus, the interaction with hosts immunity and the discovery and emergence of a potential vaccine. We also examine the potential role of prophylactic antibiotics during dental procedures. With increasing rates of transcatheter device implantations, there is a projected increment of endocarditis especially in this high-risk group. A high index of suspicion is needed alongside early initiation of therapy and referral to the heart time to improve outcomes.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: telehealth; remote assessment; cardiology; cardiovascular diseases; COVID-19
Online: 7 July 2022 (08:11:31 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the vitalness of telehealth in our medical world, where considering a restructuring of healthcare services has become paramount. In fact, telemedicine has recently earned a valuable place in many specialties; and its implications in cardiology and cardiovascular medicine were among the leading interests. In this letter, we gathered previous evidence supporting the merit of telemedicine in the fields of cardiology and cardiovascular medicine—medical branches in which patients require meticulous care and continuous monitoring—as well as protrusions of concerns about the uncertainty regarding the efficacy of telemedicine’s future implications and technologies. In sum, in the context of this still on-going pandemic, medical institutions must strive to improve telehealth technologies and implement solid future research directions in this growing field—to be able to persevere in meeting the needs of the patients. As long as no conclusive evidence exists regarding the fields where telemedicine is most worthwhile, healthcare systems will always keep the dread of wasting resources on developing ineffective programs. We conclude that telemedicine has been attributed a considerable attention in managing cardiac and cardiovascular conditions; nevertheless, further studies with solid designs are still needed to confirm its validity and utility in those specialties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0067.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: restenosis; foam cells; NLRP3 inflammasome; MAPK signaling pathway
Online: 5 July 2022 (08:15:38 CEST)
The accumulation of foam cells in arterial intima and the accompanied chronic inflammation are considered major causes of neoatherosclerosis and restenosis. However, both the underlying mechanism and effective treatment for the disease are yet to be uncovered. In this study, we combined transcriptome profiling of restenosis artery tissue and bioinformatic analysis to reveal that NLRP3 inflammasome is markedly upregulated in restenosis and that several restenosis re-lated DEGs are also targets of mulberry extract, a natural dietary supplement used in traditional Chinese medicine to improve liver vitality. Further pathway enrichment analysis identified MAPK signaling pathway to be involved in the inflammatory response of foam cells. Consistently, immunofluorescence microscopy shows co-localization of NLRP3 with CD68+ macrophages. We then evaluated the efficacy of mulberry extract in inhibiting both the formation of foam cells and their inflammatory response. We demonstrated that mulberry extract suppresses the formation of ox-LDL induced foam cells, possibly by upregulating the cholesterol efflux genes ABCA1 and ABCG1 to inhibit intracellular lipid accumulation. In addition, mulberry extract dampens NLRP3 inflammasome activation by stressing the MAPK signaling pathway. Collectively, our mecha-nistic and functional studies unveil the therapeutic value of mulberry extract in neoatherosclerosis and restenosis treatment by regulating lipid metabolism and inflammatory response of foam cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0299.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: cardiovascular risk; lipids; NMR spectroscopy; pulse wave velocity; retinal vessel diameters
Online: 22 June 2022 (03:37:53 CEST)
Lipoproteins are important cardiovascular (CV) risk biomarkers. This study aimed to investigate the associations of lipoprotein subclasses with micro- and macrovascular biomarkers to better understand how these subclasses relate to atherosclerotic CV diseases. One hundred fifty-eight serum samples from the EXAMIN AGE study, consisting of healthy individuals and CV risk patients, were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to quantify lipoprotein subclasses. Microvascular health was quantified by measuring retinal arteriolar and venular diameters. Macrovascular health was quantified by measuring carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). Nineteen lipoprotein subclasses showed statistically significant associations with retinal vessel diameters and nine with PWV. These lipoprotein subclasses together explained up to 26% of variation (R2=0.26, F(29,121)=2.80, p<0.001) in micro- and 12% (R2=0.12, F(29,124)=1.70, p=0.025) of variation in macrovascular health. High-density (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) as well as triglycerides together explained up to 13% (R2=0.13, F(3,143)=8.42, p<0.001) of micro and 8% (R2=0.08, F(3,145)=5.46, p=0.001) of macrovascular variation. Lipoprotein subclasses seem to reflect micro- and macrovascular end organ damage more precisely as compared to only measuring HDL-C, LDL-C and triglycerides. Further studies are needed to analyse how the additional quantification of lipoprotein subclasses can improve CV risk stratification and CV disease prediction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0189.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: cardiovascular diseases; Mexico COVID-19; Mexico metropolitan area
Online: 14 June 2022 (03:11:35 CEST)
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD´s) continue as the primary cause of death worldwide. During the past couple of years, and with the surge of the COVID-19 pandemic, deaths linked to CVD´s were -slightly overshadowed by those deaths related to COVID-19, albeit during the highest peaks of the pandemic. The present study derived form understanding the correlation between both diseases, from the standpoint of patients already diagnosed with CVD´s (n = 41883) and what comorbidities had the highest influence on overall patient death (n = 3637). Obesity, hypertension, and diabetes are all linked to worsening the outcome of COVID-19 positive patients, hence they were considered when looking at the overview of all CVD positive patients. Our finding showed that 1697 deaths were related to diabetes (p < 0.001), 987 deaths were related to obesity (p < 0.001), and lastly 2499 deaths were attributed to hypertension (p < 0.001) individually. Using logistic regression modeling, we found diabetes (OR: 1.744, p < 0.001) and hypertension (OR: 2.179, p < 0.001) had a high impact on patient deaths. Hence, having a CVD diagnosis, with hypertension and/or diabetes seems to increase the likely-hood of complication leading to death in COVID-19 positive patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0346.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: β-adrenoceptor; diabetes; empagliflozin; heart; pressure-volume loop analysis
Online: 25 May 2022 (09:59:26 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus leads to cardiovascular complications including impaired cardiac β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) function. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, such as empagliflozin (EMPA) improve outcomes in heart failure patients and animal models thereof. Therefore, we have investigated the effects of EMPA on in vivo cardiac function (pressure-volume loop analysis) and β-AR-mediated contractile responses (papillary strips) in streptozotocin (STZ; 40 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced diabes in male Sprague Dawley rats (control, EMPA-treated control, diabetic, EMPA-treated diabetic) in a design reflecting late-onset treatment. 13-16 weeks after STZ injection treatment with a low dose of EMPA (10 mg/kg/day, daily oral gavage) or vehicle was administered for another 8 weeks. EMPA did not change cardiac function in control rats. Diabetic rats had a reduced heart rate, cardiac output, stroke work, rate of contration and rate of relaxation and increased isovolumic relaxation, whereas in vitro responses were not markedly attenuated. Treatment with EMPA showed a trend for improvement of some but not all parameters. Our results indicate that low dose EMPA treatment had limited effects on cardiac impairment despite reducing blood glucose when initiated after diabetes is manifest. Future studies with a higher dose and greater sample sizes could help to clarify the possible benefits of EMPA on the diabetic heart.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0329.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Apple Watch; wearable sensor; pulse rate; arrhythmia; atrial fibrillation; case report
Online: 24 May 2022 (09:49:08 CEST)
Consumer rhythm-monitoring devices, such as the Apple Watch, are becoming more readily available. Irregular pulses can be detected using an optical sensor built into the wearable device. The Apple Watch (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA, USA) is a class II medical device with pulse rate and electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring capabilities. Here we report a case in which an arrhythmia that was conventionally perceived but undiagnosed was identified as atrial fibrillation by self-acquisition of ECG data using an Apple Watch.