ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0129.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, History Keywords: history; museology; Israeli culture; Holocaust; Israeli society
Online: 26 December 2016 (10:43:31 CET)
Tiny by physical size, the State of Israel retains some of the world’s most important cultural treasures, along with many other great cultural institutions. Archeological treasures have yielded much information as far as biblical history and have been well adapted to a Zionist narrative by both the Jewish press and international news organizations, such as the New York Times whose archives are replete with reports of Jewish history being dug up by the Jewish people. Once the State of Israel gained independence in 1948, the course was set for the development of historical museums whose discourse would reflect the most significant events in Jewish history, most especially the Holocaust and the state of constant warfare that continues to imbue the cultural consciousness of its citizens. In this paper we outline, through categorization, the various historical museums, which are currently operating. Furthermore, this article hopes to shed some light upon the cultural sensibilities conveyed through these institutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0008.v1
Online: 1 June 2018 (08:09:03 CEST)
The article examines church architecture in modern Russia. The historical processes of the development of church architecture are analyzed and systematized not only from the point of view of formal stylistic but also global significance. For this purpose, for the first time, a wide range of sources containing information on the sacred component of church art and on the monuments of temple architecture was studied. At the same time, many fragments of sources were first translated into English. The article uses historical and retrospective research methods that allowed to study the theoretical legacy of the modern period in the history of Russia and at the same time to generalize the place of Russian church architecture in the general context of European architectural development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0088.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, History Keywords: historical dataset; geocoding; localisation; geohistorical objects; database; GIS; collaborative; citizen science; crowd-sourced; digital humanities
Online: 8 April 2018 (09:13:10 CEST)
The latest developments in digital humanities have increasingly enabled the construction of large data sets which can easily be accessed and used. These data sets often contain indirect localisation information, such as historical addresses. Historical geocoding is the process of transforming the indirect localisation information to direct localisation that can be placed on a map, which enables spatial analysis and cross-referencing. Many efficient geocoders exist for current addresses, but they do not deal with temporal information and are usually based on a strict hierarchy (country, city, street, house number, etc.) that is hard, if not impossible, to use with historical data. Indeed, historical data are full of uncertainties (temporal, textual, positional accuracy, confidence in historical sources) that can not be ignored or entirely resolved. We propose an open source, open data, extensible solution for geocoding that is based on gazetteers composed of geohistorical objects extracted from historical topographical maps. Once the gazetteers are available, geocoding an historical address is a matter of finding the geohistorical object in the gazetteers that is the best match to the historical address searched by the user. The matching criteria are customisable and include several dimensions (fuzzy string, fuzzy temporal, level of detail, positional accuracy). As the goal is to facilitate historical work, we also propose web-based user interfaces that help geocode (one address or batch mode) and display over current or historical topographical maps, so that geocoding results can be checked and collaboratively edited. The system has been tested on the city of Paris, France, for the 19th and the 20th centuries. It shows high response rates and is fast enough to be used interactively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0249.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, History Keywords: Jesuits; French protectorate; female orders; Zi-ka-wei; Roman question
Online: 14 August 2018 (06:10:07 CEST)
In a global context, the story of the Jesuit compound in Shanghai, since its establishment by French Jesuits in 1847, reflected not only conflicts between rival powers in Europe but also the fight for their interests in the Eastern world. The Pope, who was stuck without legal status in the Vatican after 1861, was also seeking the chance to save the authority of the Church in the face of questions regarding the extent of his temporal power and the status of Rome in the context of Italian unification. As in the Reformation, a break-through in the east seemed to offer a solution for losses in Europe. However, the Jesuits to the East in the late 19th century were not only troops working and fighting on behalf of the Pope; their identities under the French Protectorate added complexity to an already complicated story involving not just the Church, but the course of world history.The female Catholic orders at the east bank of Zi-ka-wei compound became a unique window to approach the complexity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0420.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, History Keywords: European thought; psychology; education; health; Foucault; The Order of Things; framework; narrative research
Online: 27 January 2022 (12:32:18 CET)
In European thought, the relationship among the fields of psychology, education, and health is both complex and obscured. Foucault’s acclaimed work, The Order of Things, offers a framework to evaluate their interconnection by identifying three distinct periods of European thought since the 16th century with respect to the ordering of phenomena—Renaissance, Classical and Modern. Theoretically dense and often difficult to decipher, the book’s categorization of language, value and being has been understandably underused, yet it provides deep insights into what have come to be known as psychology, education and health and remains invaluable in understanding the origin, limits and consequences of these fields. How Foucault’s analysis can be interpreted concerning the development of these areas as to each of the three periods of European thought is investigated. An approach based on narrative research appraises the analysis offered in the book. The results, presented for the first time in table form, compare these three periods, demonstrating a continuing practical value to Foucault’s insights. With the aid of the framework revealed by these tables, the boundaries and relationship of psychology, education and health become clear and their limitations—plus potential solutions to them—can be identified to mitigate anticipated negative consequences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0502.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, History Keywords: Ellacuría; liberation theology; El Salvador; Catholicism; central America; philosophy; martyrdom; catholic education; Jesuits; UCA
Online: 26 July 2018 (04:23:28 CEST)
The life and work of Ignacio Ellacuría, S.J. is of radical vision, and revolutionary change. His dynamic life and works accompanied El Salvador and the Universidad Centroamericana through perhaps the most tumultuous years of the country’s history, yet there has been limited work done to examine his contributions. This paper shows how Ellacuría viewed the role of a Christian intellectual, and a Christian university within his philosophical and theological framework. I argue that Ignacio Ellacuría held, similarly to his soteriological views, that the intellectual must also be willing to sacrifice all for the sake of his/her work in a pattern of discipleship/martyrdom prefigured by his exemplars Christ and Socrates. It was this dedication to praxis and theory that western theology and philosophy had respectfully lost since their foundations which he sought to restore to a central role. In conclusion, the Christian intellectual and institution, according to Ellacuría, must use its voice and life in service of the people even to the point of martyrdom; he would argue, the implicit reason for Christian martyrdom and the crucifixion of Christ himself.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0081.v1
Online: 5 September 2018 (04:12:43 CEST)
The historical residential area of Kōm ad–Dikka in Alexandria has experienced subsequent morphological transformation since the ancient era until present. Each historical period had a physical impact on the city’s urban structure that in turn struggled to survive its successive one with its different urban conception. However, the sinuous streets of this area, which probably date back to the late Egyptian Medieval period, are characterized as the only surviving organic fabric intra–muros that was not altered during the Egyptian Modern period. This paper elaborately investigated the chronological history of the historical residential area since the ancient era until the mid—twentieth century. Based on in–depth investigation of historical maps and memoirs, it revealed the possible reasons behind its extant sinuous urban form and postulated reconstructions of its urban morphology through sequential phases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0027.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, History Keywords: Heraldry in Macedonia; Macedonian civic heraldry; Republic of Macedonia.
Online: 1 September 2021 (15:10:38 CEST)
Every country has some specific heraldry. In this paper, we will consider heraldry in the Republic of Macedonia, understood by the multitude of coats of arms, and armorial knowledge and art. The paper covers the period from independence until the name change (1991-2019). It covers the state coat of arms of the Republic of Macedonia especially the 2009 change. Special attention is given to the development of the municipal heraldry, including the legal system covering the subject. Also personal heraldry developed in 21 century is considered. The paper covers the development of heraldry and the heraldic thought in the given period, including the role of the Macedonian Heraldic Society and its journal Macedonian Herald in development of theoretic and practical heraldry, as well as its Register of arms and the Macedonian Civic Heraldic System.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0315.v1
Online: 23 March 2022 (11:05:00 CET)
This article analyzes the Franco-Spanish invasion of Vietnam from 1858 to 1860. Research is based on documents such as correspondence, reports, archives and diplomatic treaties as well as monographs from the time France intended to invade Vietnam through missionary activities until the end of the Franco-Spanish invasion. The article focuses on three basic issues that are the causes of the alliance, the evolution of the French and Spanish coalition invasion in Vietnam and its impact on stakeholders. The research results on the Franco-Spanish invasion of Vietnam indicated that the invasion carried out by this alliance was more special than that of the other French coalitions before. The invasion was based on an alliance without any commitment to the interests and responsibilities of the parties. The goals of France and Spain in this invasion were different. That led to conflict between France and Spain during the invasion and the fall of the alliance. France achieved its goal through an invasion that turned Vietnam into a colony, while Spain had barely achieved its desire to have commercial and missionary interests in the area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0407.v1
Online: 27 September 2022 (03:27:50 CEST)
A number of research projects and a rich literature have dealt with the theme of abandoned medieval villages in Sardinia since the end of the 60s of the last century. Some more or less precise catalogues and reviews of villages in limited territories have been published. Only recently, however, this subject is being addressed in an interdisciplinary manner, combining traditional historical research with the results of archaeological surveys and excavation campaigns, geo-archaeology, toponymy, paleoclimatology. This allows us to have a picture of the landscape and human settlement evolution with its historical changes, conditioned not only by institutional superstructures but also by human and natural traumatic events. Particular attention will be given to the sudden changes that occurred between the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. To carry out this survey, it is possible to use some very powerful IT tools which, through the aggregation, organization, correlation and management of information, allow the geo-localization of abandoned villages as proven by the documentary evidence. Thus, on this documentation, existing and acquired in the future, is founded the construction of the related information system. The most easy and suitable tools for this purpose are the CMSs (Content Management Systems) which, in association with GIS (Geographic Information Systems) engines, allow spatial and contextual analysis of the settlements, as they were inserted in their territory. This type of tools aggregates different peculiarities of the object of study, supporting a multidisciplinary reading on the argument. The computerized tools, integrated as a system, offer the possibility to implement it, feeding it and correcting it continuously, basing on new acquisitions. In this study, we will examine a historical areal, for which we have a sufficient number of sources available: Sarrabus, Colostrai and Quirra, adding to the geographical visual information, the temporal visual evolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0378.v1
Online: 21 November 2022 (06:45:03 CET)
During most of the lifespan of the Venetian republic, doges or presidents were elected for life. However, a long tenure was a rare event, which effectively resulted in term limits, as has already been deported by several authors. In this paper we examine these tenures and its evolution during the existence of the Venetian republic, trying to prove Smith et al. thesis, but also the event or events that effectively caused that limitation by design. Finally, we will discuss for the causes of this limitation and its effective consequences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0435.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, History Keywords: British Prisoners of War; Auschwitz; Holocaust; Jewish Survival Strategies in Nazi Camps; Allied Intelligence Operations in Nazi Camps
Online: 25 January 2023 (02:57:54 CET)
Between 1942 and 1945, Jewish inmates of a forced labour camp and later Auschwitz subcamp at Blechhammer (Blachownia Śląska, Upper Silesia) worked alongside British prisoners of war on the construction site of a giant synthetic fuel facility, the Oberschlesische Hydrierwerke. The paper examines the multifaceted forms of interaction between these two groups, who were situated at the opposite ends of a spectrum ranging from high survival rates to certain death. By reframing the Jewish inmates’ perceptions of the POWs, it seeks to shed new light on a controversial debate on the nature of the relationship between them and British prisoners. The paper argues that important aspects have been missing from this debate, as the Jewish inmates were not sufficiently represented and not viewed as active protagonists. The relations between Jews and British POWs were not one-sided, but rather interdependent in complex ways. Both groups used these contacts to gain strategic information on the war and jointly contributed to the Allied resistance effort. The barter with British POWs played a crucial role in the collective and individual survival strategies of Jewish inmates, whereas the British increasingly depended on the Jewish inmates to procure basic foods when German rations ceased to be allocated. An analysis of the effects of British aid giving showed that the actual impact on the physical survival of the emaciated inmates was negligible. However, these humanitarian gestures significantly boosted their mental strength and equally helped them to cope better with post-traumatic stress disorders after the war. Altogether, the British were encouraging symbols of resistance against the Nazi regime in the eyes of the inmates. Negative experiences were rarely corroborated and were often linked to poor English language skills or a stronger identification with other nationalities.