ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0017.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: financial performance; flexible employment; labour productivity; teleworking; workplace employment relations survey
Online: 4 January 2017 (10:00:05 CET)
There is an increasing concern on the quality of jobs and productivity witnessed in the flexible employment arrangements. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between various employment arrangements and the workplace performance. Home-based working-teleworking, flexible timing and compressed hours are the main employment types examined using the Workplace Employee Relations Survey (WERS) in years 2004 and 2011. The workplace performance is measured by two outcomes- the financial performance and labour productivity. First, the determinants of those flexible employment types are explored. Second, the ordinary least squares (OLS) method is followed. Third, an instrumental variable (IV) approach is applied to account for plausible endogeneity and to estimate the causal effects. The findings reveal a significant and positive relationship between these types of flexible employment arrangements and the workplace performance. Education, age, wage, quality of relations between managers-employees, years of experience, the area of the market the workplace is operated and the competition are significant factors and are positively associated with the propensity of the flexible employment arrangements implementation. This can have various profound policy implications for employees, employers and the society overall, including family-work balance, coping with family demands, improving the firm performance, reducing traffic congestion and stress among others. It is the first study that explores the relationship between flexible employment types and workplace performance using an IV approach. This allows us to estimate the causal effects of flexible employment types and the possible associated social implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0007.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: Bayesian networks; directed acyclic graphs; employee loyalty; employment arrangements; flexi-time; job satisfaction; teleworking; workplace employment relations survey
Online: 7 July 2016 (12:12:14 CEST)
This study explores the relationship between job satisfaction, employee loyalty and two types of flexible employment arrangements; teleworking and flexi-time. The analysis relies on data derived by the Workplace Employee Relations Survey (WERS) in 2004 and 2011. A propensity score matching and least squares regressions are applied. Furthermore, Bayesian Networks (BN) and Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs) are employed in order to confirm the causality between employment types explored and the outcomes of interest. Finally, an instrumental variables (IV) approach based on the BN framework is proposed and applied in this study. The results support that there is a positive causal effect from these employment arrangements on job satisfaction and employee loyalty.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0391.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: occupational health; leadership; mental health; workplace climate; worksite
Online: 29 June 2022 (03:27:08 CEST)
Objectives: This study validated the Japanese version of O’Donovan et al.’s (2020) composite measure of psychological safety scale and examined the associations of psychological safety with mental health and job-related outcomes. Methods: Online surveys were administered twice to Japanese employees with teams of more than three members. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability was tested using Cronbach’s α and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Structural validity was examined using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Convergent validity was tested. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between psychological safety and psychological distress, work engagement, job performance, and job satisfaction. Results: Two hundred healthcare workers and 200 non-healthcare workers were analyzed. The Cronbach’s alpha of the total score was 0.92 - 0.96 and ICC was 0.88 - 0.92. CFA demonstrated poor fit, and EFA yielded a two-factor structure, suggesting one factor combined with peers and team. The scale showed good convergent validity. The total score of the scale showed significant associations with all outcomes in adjusted model in all workers. Conclusions: The Japanese version of the measure of the psychological safety scale presented good reliability and validity. Psychological safety is important for employees’ mental health and performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0338.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: pharmacy practice; infection control; sanitation; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; pharmacists; public health; workplace safety
Online: 21 May 2020 (08:37:52 CEST)
Background: Australia received its first case of coronavirus on 25 January 2020. Since then the demands of COVID-19 has presented unparalleled levels of strain on the public healthcare systems in the country. In this time of crisis, pharmacists and community pharmacy staff have modified work strategies according to the rapidly changing environment. With a delayed dissemination of resources and guidelines, pharmacist and pharmacies are practicing innovative infection control methods across Australia to protect their staff, patients and the community. This article seeks to explore the current activities undertaken by pharmacists in various community pharmacy settings across Australia in relation to the safety of the workplace environments for staff and patients. Information collected can help inform future decisions in pandemic preparation for pharmacies in response to similar health crisis now and in the future. Methods: An online cross-sectional survey study was conducted in Australia during the COVID-19 outbreak from 1st to 30th April 2020. The questionnaire addressed community pharmacist’s awareness and response to infection and sanitation control. Results: A total of 137 pharmacists took part in the survey, with almost half (45.26%) belonging to the age group of 25 to 34 years. Community pharmacy formed the bulk (89.05%) of the respondent’s primary place of practice. There was a good uptake of safety measures by pharmacists and their pharmacies to protect staff and patients. However the task of reassigning high health risk staff was not heavily practiced (34.31%). Regular cleaning took place in the pharmacy, but the use of gloves while cleaning was not practiced in 48.18% of respondents. In addition, only 46.72% of respondents reported observing script baskets being cleaned and disinfected. About one-third (37.96%) of pharmacists were aware of the two-step cleaning and disinfecting process, but only 18.98% of pharmacists reported observing or performing this sanitation procedure. More than half of surveyed pharmacists reported having difficulty keeping up with infection control changes and pharmacy practice guidelines during the pandemic. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the majority of pharmacists are not fully aware of the infection control measures needed in a community pharmacy setting. The influx of coronavirus updates has made it difficult for pharmacists to implement accurate procedures on some aspects of workplace hygiene, which may have led to some gaps in infection control measures. Pharmacists must aim to uphold their public health ambassador role and aim to keep up-to-date with professional guidance to provide the necessary infection control measures to ensure staff, patient and public health safety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1525.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: workplace well-being; seniority; workplace bullying; employee performance
Online: 22 September 2023 (09:12:48 CEST)
The relationship between workplace well-being, seniority, workplace bullying, and employee performance was explored in the context of the Mangkutana district office. Data was collected through direct surveys and questionnaires distributed to respondents. The impact of these variables on employee performance was assessed using multiple linear regression analysis. The results unveiled significant insights. Firstly, a positive correlation was observed between favorable workplace well-being factors and employee performance. Feeling valued, supported, and satisfied in the work environment was linked to higher motivation and productivity. Interestingly, seniority exhibited an unexpected negative impact on employee performance. Longer-tenured employees might face complacency or adaptability challenges, leading to decreased performance. Furthermore, the research emphasized the detrimental impacts of workplace bullying on employee performance. Instances of bullying led to the emergence of stress, anxiety, and decreased job satisfaction, collectively leading to a decline in overall performance and well-being. In summation, this study accentuates the significance of fostering a positive work environment that places a premium on employee well-being and concurrently deals with matters related to seniority and workplace bullying. By recognizing and mitigating these factors, organizations can enhance employee performance, productivity, and job satisfaction, fostering a healthier and more successful work environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1029.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Workplace mental health; Workplace bullying; Depression; Gender difference
Online: 15 September 2023 (08:28:38 CEST)
Workplace bullying is a prevalent issue with a significant impact on employees’ mental health. This study aimed to explore the relationship between workplace bullying and the prevalence of depression with a particular focus on the role of gender. A total of 12,344 Korean employees aged 19–65 years were included in the study. They completed questionnaires including the Korean version of the Occupational Stress Scale, the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). A score of 16 or higher in CES-D indicated depression. The association between workplace bullying and depression was analyzed using logistic regression analyses. The average CES-D scores were higher for both male and female employees who experienced bullying than for those who did not (p < 0.001). The association between the experience of workplace bullying and the prevalence of depression was statistically significant for both genders, with a stronger correlation observed among male employees (p for interaction <0.001). Organizations are urged to address workplace bullying, particularly for male employees, through the implementation of anti-bullying strategies and policies, as well as the provision of mental health resources and support.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0568.v1
Online: 10 October 2023 (12:27:01 CEST)
The average working person can spend between 35-60 hours a week in the workplace, making it an influential place for mental well-being while also being a place for socio-economic contribution. Workplace incivility can diminish positive mental health outcomes and negatively impact work engagement through increased social anxiety. To investigate this, 118 working adults aged between 19 to 67 years old in Singapore were recruited for a survey comprising of demographics questions, the Workplace Incivility Scale, Brief DSM-5 Social Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale-9 over the period of November 2022 to April 2023. Correlational, regression and mediation analysis showed workplace incivility scale scores to significantly pre-dict social anxiety after controlling for covariates, supporting our hypothesis that employees exposed to work-place incivility would have higher levels of social anxiety that mediated work engagement after controlling for age and gender. The findings here show workplace incivility to be a possible intervention target for social anx-iety to reduce negative impacts on work engagement in order to improve employee experience and retention for organizations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1220.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: employees; interview; physical activity; qualitative research; workplace
Online: 19 September 2023 (15:36:02 CEST)
Abstract: Background: Exercise Training at work has the potential to improve employees’ produc-tivity, health, and well-being. However, exercise interventions to healthcare workers in hospitals may be challenged by a high time pressure and the ongoing workflow with patient care. Objective: The aim was to identify barriers and facilitators for participation in exercise training during work in a hospital department. Methods: Eight semi-structured interviews were conducted with hospital employees of different staff groups, who participated in 12 weeks exercise twice weekly. The data analysis was a thematic approach based on the Theoretical Domains Framework and the COM-B factors in the Behavior Change Wheel. Results: Barriers and facilitators varied between different groups. Barriers included limited structure, busyness, and a discouraging culture. Facilitators in-cluded gaining a feeling of community, psychological and physical well-being. Seven contextual subthemes were vital for successful implementation of exercise in a hospital setting. Conclusions: The informants appreciated exercise training during work and wished to participate. Inpatient departments’ informants had difficulties participating in the intervention, whilst those with more administrative tasks found it easier. This study identified barriers and facilitators vital for a successful implementation of an exercise training intervention in a hospital department to improve health, wellbeing, and productivity amongst hospital employees. It explains how future interventions can improve reach, adoption, and implementation of exercise training interventions for hospital staff.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0228.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: long-term care; workplace management; Synergy Model
Online: 4 July 2023 (12:13:49 CEST)
Background: There are ongoing workforce challenges with the delivery of long-term care (LTC), such as staffing decisions based on arbitrary standards. The Synergy tool, a resident-centered approach to staffing, pro-vides objective, real-time acuity and dependency scores (Synergy scores) for residents. The purpose of this study was to implement and evaluate the impact of the Synergy tool on LTC delivery. Methods: A longitudinal mixed methods study took place within two publicly-funded LTC homes in British Columbia, Canada. Quantitative data included weekly Synergy scores for residents (24 weeks), monthly aggregated resident falls data (18 months) and a six-month economic evaluation. Qualitative data were gathered from family caregivers and thematically analyzed. Results: Quantitative findings from Synergy scores revealed considerable variability for resident acuity/dependency needs within and across units; and falls decreased during implementation. The six-month economic evaluation demonstrated some cost savings by comparing Synergy tool training and implementation costs with savings from resident fall rates reductions. Qualitative analyses yielded three positive impacts themes (improved care delivery, better communication, and improved resident-family-staff relationships), and two negative structural themes (language barrier and staff shortages). Conclusions: The Synergy tool provides useful data for enhancing a ‘fit’ between resident needs and available staff.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0209.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: CSR; SWEP; Workplace; Firm Performance; Firm Value; Kuwait
Online: 4 December 2023 (15:24:28 CET)
This study aimed to investigate the current status of the Sustainable Workplace Equality Policy (SWEP) in an emerging country—Kuwait—and how it impacts firms’ financial and market performance. The study included companies listed in the Kuwait Boursa (Boursa Kuwait is the operator of the Kuwait Stock Exchange) in the period between 2012 and 2020. A disclosure index was prepared for SWEP based on guidelines provided by a combination of various sources and standards such as the Global Reporting Initiatives (GRI) standard, S&P global corporate sustainability assessment, Dow Jones sustainability index, United Nations global compact, and KPMG sustainability reporting standards. Time series regression analysis was used to examine the study hypotheses. The analysis revealed a strong positive relationship between the SWEP disclosure and firm measures of financial performance. The results indicate that SWEP is value-relevant and affects firms’ market value, suggesting that investors should consider firms’ disclosure of the SWEP when making investment decisions. The results of the current study are of interest to several stakeholders, especially investors and policymakers. Specifically, the study is relevant to the Kuwaiti Government, which has defined a clear path for sustainable growth with the Vision 2035/New Kuwait that is aimed at transforming the country into a financial and commercial hub for the region by 2035.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0115.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Mobbing, Harcèlement moral, Workplace, Psychosocial risk, Content analysis.
Online: 18 April 2017 (17:32:34 CEST)
The topic of the article refers to expressions used to address the psychosocial risk linked to the workplace violence. The article bases on the Polish-French comparison, using analysis of definitions, legal acts and public statistics. The purpose is to show social differences, in the context of mobbing and “harcèlement moral”, that surface from ratified definitions of these phenomena and public statistics. The final conclusions are the effect of a compilation of results of analysis and available literature. The choice of the two European, diverse areas of comparison for the diagnosis - Poland and France - is the result of selection of the method of data content analysis, chosen by the author because of the availability of the scientific resources essential for the article and accessible during an academic stay in Centre d'Etudes de l'Emploi in France.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0151.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: psychological distress; COVID-19 pandemic; health care workers; perceived risks; workplace relationship; support; training; workplace hazards; perceived barriers; job tension
Online: 11 July 2022 (07:40:12 CEST)
While the global COVID-19 pandemic has been widely acknowledged to affect the mental health of health care workers (HCWs), attention to measures that protect those on the front lines of health outbreak response has been limited. In this cross-sectional study, we examine workplace contextual factors associated with how psychological distress was experienced in a South African setting where a severe first wave was being experienced with an objective of identifying factors that can protect against HCWs experiencing negative impacts. Consistent with mounting literature on mental health effects, we found a high degree of psychological distress (57.4% above General Health Questionnaire cut-off value) and a strong association between perceived risks associated with the presence of COVID-19 in the healthcare workplace and psychological distress (adjusted OR = 2.35, p <.01). Our research indicates that both training (adjusted OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.21 – 0.81) and the reported presence of supportive workplace relationships (adjusted OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.27 – 0.97) were associated with positive outcomes. This evidence that workplace resilience can be reinforced to better prepare for the onset of similar outbreaks in the future suggests that pursuit of further research into specific interventions to improve resilience is well merited.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0505.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: exercise microbreaks; office workers; middle-aged; musculoskeletal disorders; workplace
Online: 7 July 2023 (15:47:26 CEST)
Office workers often experience occupational musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of the current systematic review was to investigate the effectiveness of workplace exercise intervention on the oldest age group of office workers who have been reported in the literature so far, in terms of workability and well-being. Randomized Controlled Trials were used and the methodological guidelines of PRISMA were followed. The keywords used were: office workers, older, exercise intervention, workplace, microbreaks, workability and well-being. The databases searched were: PubMed, PEDro, ResearchGate, CINAHL, PsychINFO and Science Direct. PROSPERO ID: CRD42022329656. Five studies (total number of participants: 1190, mean age: 46,4) met the inclu-sion criteria. Their quality was deemed to be moderate to high, according to PEDro and MPSER scales. Workplace interventions of gradually increased strengthening and moderate stretching exercises, isometric positioning and postural reminders, either with or without supervision, result in decreasing musculoskeletal pain, disability, sick-leave from work and in the improvement of quality of life and physical activity of the middle-aged office workers, without negative impact on their workability. Despite the worldwide aging workforce, there is a knowledge gap due to research absence in the field of microbreak exercise interventions in the group of older office workers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0136.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: COVID-19; behavioral interventions; prevention; workplace safety; safety protocols
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:54:54 CEST)
Practicing preventive etiquettes such as hand washing, hand disinfection, wearing a face mask, practicing physical distancing, disinfection of surfaces and objects can help curb the transmission of COVID-19 at the workplace. This paper focuses on interventions and behaviors required to curb the spread of COVID-19 at workplaces. We undertook a detailed multi-disciplinary literature search on the following topics: hand hygiene, respiratory hygiene, physical distancing, quarantine and isolation, disinfection of objects and surfaces, behavior change, and health crisis communication. We identified interventions that are effective for preventing the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) at workplaces. These findings present very useful non-clinical interventions for preventing COVID-19 in the work environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0157.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: innovative; inclusive leadership behaviour; work engagement; innovative workplace behaviour
Online: 7 September 2020 (05:16:55 CEST)
(1) Background: Work creativity, manifested in innovative workplace behaviour (IWB) and employee work engagement, is fundamental to maintain firms’ sustainability and competitiveness. In this regard, this study aims at investigating the supporting effect of innovative leadership on IWB and employee engagement through maximising employee vigour, dedication and absorption. (2) Methods: The study data were collected from questionnaires administered to 150 respondents working in mobile phone companies in southern and central Iraq. The statistical analyses were conducted through the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and Smart PLS. In analysing the measurement model and testing the proposed hypotheses, the study results revealed that inclusive leadership and work engagement were intimately connected to IWB; (3) Results: Work engagement played a mediating role between inclusive leadership and IWB. The questionnaire data indicated that inclusive leadership behaviours, such as openness, accessibility and availability, motivated the subordinates to be engaged in IWB.; and (4) Conclusions: To promote IWB, company leaders then need to effectively engage their followers by taking pride and satisfaction in employee output, which might aid employee workplace and IWB engagement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0450.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: workplace; health promotion; public health; health checks; education; construction
Online: 20 August 2020 (09:42:29 CEST)
Interprofessional learning (IPL) is essential to prepare healthcare trainees as the future public health workforce. WHIRL was an innovative IPL intervention that engaged multi-professional teams of volunteer healthcare trainees (n=20) to deliver health checks (n=464), including tailored advice and signposting, to employees in the UK construction industry (across 21 events, 16 sites, 10 organisations) as part of an ongoing research programme called Test@Work. Volunteers undertook a four-part training and support package of trainer-led education, observations of practice, self-directed learning and clinical supervision, together with peer mentoring. In a one-group post-test only design, IPL outcomes were measured using the Inventory of Reflective Vignette - Interprofessional Learning (IRV-IPL), and the psychometric properties of the IRV-IPL tool were tested. WHIRL demonstrably improved healthcare trainees’ interprofessional skills in all five areas of collaboration, coordination, cooperation, communication, and commendation. The IRV-IPL tool was found to be a valid and reliable measure of interprofessional competencies across three scenarios; before and after health promotion activities, and as a predictor of future health promotion competence. This industry-based workplace IPL programme resulted in attainment of health check competencies, and bridged the gap between research, education and clinical practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0377.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Ergonomic Workplace Analysis; ergonomics solutions; collaborative environment; drilling centers
Online: 17 October 2018 (08:28:01 CEST)
Drilling centers are collaborative environments dedicated to facilitate decision-making in the well construction, where multidisciplinary teams work to support operations. The oil operators usually have drilling centers with different types of ergonomic features with considerable potential of integration, creating the opportunity to an Ergonomic Workplace Analysis. This paper aims to present the analysis of infrastructure requirements of one specific company in Brazil. The method was based on a survey with employees, which, coped with a statistical analysis, enabled understanding the impact of the layout requirements. The result is an approach to design collaborative environments, standardizing and defining models for the industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0073.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: workplace testing; economic analysis; COVID-19; asymptomatic screening; mass testing; employee population health; return to work practices; SARS-CoV-2; surveillance; workplace mitigation
Online: 6 May 2021 (11:34:57 CEST)
Background: The epidemiological situation generated by COVID-19 has cast into sharp relief the delicate balance between public health priorities and the economy, with businesses obliged to toe a line between employee health and continued production. In an effort to detect as many cases as possible, isolate contacts, cut transmission chains and limit the spread of the virus in the workplace, mass testing strategies have been implemented in both public health and industrial contexts to minimize the risk of disruption in activity. Objective: To evaluate the economic impact of mass workplace testing strategy as carried out by a large automotive company in Catalonia in terms of health and healthcare resource savings. Methodology: Analysis of health costs and impacts based on the estimation of mortality and morbidity avoided because of screening and the resulting savings in healthcare costs. Results: The economic impact of the mass workplace testing strategies (using both PCR and RAT tests) was approximately €10.44 per test performed or €5,575.49 per positive detected. 38% of this figure corresponds to savings derived from better use of health resources (hospital beds, ICU beds and follow-up of infected cases), while the remaining 62% corresponds to improved health rates due to avoided morbidity and mortality. In scenarios with higher positivity rates and a greater impact of the infection on health and the use of health resources, these results could be up to ten times higher (€130.24 per test performed or €69,565.59 per positive detected). Conclusion: In the context of COVID-19, preventive actions carried out by the private sector to safeguard industrial production also have concomitant public benefits in the form of savings in healthcare costs. Thus, governmental bodies need to recognize the value of implementing such strategies in private settings and facilitate them through, for example, subsidies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1026.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: adults; worksite; sedentary behavior; social cognitive theory; workplace; health promotion
Online: 27 April 2023 (04:06:17 CEST)
Sedentary behavior (SB) is an important public health concern. Adults working in desk-based occupations spend a considerable proportion of the workday sitting. More information is needed regarding the factors that contribute to occupational SB. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of social cognitive theory (SCT) to explain work-related SB using a quantitative, cross-sectional design by administering an online questionnaire. Participants included 381 full-time employees at a large, public university in the south-central United States. Hierarchical multiple linear regression was used to determine the relationship between SCT constructs and SB. Mean work-related SB was 6.08 (SD = 1.59) hours/day. In model 1, 9.6% of the total variance in SB was accounted for by standing desk ownership and physical activity level (p=0.001; R2=0.096). In model 2, SCT constructs led to a statistically significant R2 increase of 4.9% (p < 0.001, where standing desk ownership, physical activity, and self-efficacy explained 13.3% of the variance in work-related SB. Findings from this study suggest that self-efficacy may be an important factor in explaining variation in occupational SB. Public health researchers and practitioners should consider strategies to address employees’ self-efficacy when developing workplace interventions to target occupational SB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0283.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: cognitive rehearsal; coping skills; nursing education; simulation training; workplace bullying
Online: 16 February 2023 (09:36:05 CET)
Bullying makes learning difficult for nursing students, and using real-life scenarios during training can improve the understanding of workplace bullying. Thus, to mitigate bullying experienced by nurses, this study developed and evaluated a cognitive rehearsal education program that constituted of training nursing students through role-play simulations. A mixed-method research design was used to evaluate 39 nursing students from two universities. A quasi-experimental research design was applied to assess symptoms, knowledge, and perceptions of bullying, and a focus group interview was conducted with six participants. Quantitative analyses revealed that the program improved participants’ knowledge and perceptions, but not their symptoms. The focus group interview revealed that the program improved participants’ coping skills and desire for education. This program could be effective in raising awareness of workplace bullying and increasing relevant coping skills. It can be further developed as part of an overall strategy to manage workplace bullying and its consequences in hospital settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0418.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: transformational leadership; workplace engagement; education; meta-analysis; endogeneity; causal studies
Online: 30 June 2022 (07:43:16 CEST)
One of the major areas of research in a business setting has been the effect of the transformational leadership style on workplace engagement. Much debate has taken place on the definitions of both constructs but in recent years, general agreement appears to have been reached on the Multi-Factor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) (Avolio and Bass, 2004) as the measure of transformational leadership, and on workplace engagement measured by the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) (Schaufeli et al, 2006). However, in the education setting, there is much less agreement on the definition of transformational leadership. Furthermore, there is less of a focus on workplace engagement than in the business field even though available evidence suggests that workplace engagement worldwide is in crisis. This study sought to address both the lack of agreement on the transformational leadership definition and the lack of focus on workplace engagement in educational research by means of a meta-analysis. The meta-analysis resulted in a significant pooled effect size although due recognition is given to the endogeneity problem in causal studies. The endogeneity issue together with the results of the meta-analysis are discussed with a view to furthering educational leadership research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0511.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: workplace nutrition; behavioral interventions; cognitive interventions; employee well-being; organizational productivity
Online: 8 November 2023 (04:13:58 CET)
(1) Workplace nutrition interventions have garnered attention as a pivotal component of employee well-being and organizational productivity. However, the effectiveness of various intervention types remains inconclusive. This review aims to systematically evaluate the efficacy of cognitive, behavioral, and mixed nutrition interventions in the workplace, considering the nuances of intervention design, setting, and target demographics. (2) A comprehensive umbrella review was conducted, categorizing existing literature into person-oriented and environmental strategies. This review was prepared in line with the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology for umbrella reviews and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses reporting standard. (3) The analysis revealed a lack of definitive evidence supporting the universal effectiveness of any single intervention type. Nonetheless, behavioral and mixed interventions demonstrated more favorable outcomes compared to purely cognitive strategies. Factors such as intervention design, workplace setting, and target group characteristics were identified as significant determinants of intervention success. (4) The review emphasizes the imperative for additional investigations that utilize evidence-based approaches to formulate sound guidelines for efficacious nutrition interventions in occupational settings. This review functions as a foundational framework for guiding both scholarly research and the pragmatic execution of nutrition programs in the workplace.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0008.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Organizational factors; employee creativity; employee innovation; workplace innovation; principal component analysis
Online: 1 December 2020 (09:40:43 CET)
Organizations with proper human resources (HR) practices play an exemplary role in developing their employees’ innovation. Though there is extensive literature on managing organizational innovation, even in today’s scenario some organizations stand as a barrier for employees’ growth and innovation at the workplace. This study aimed to holistically explore the organizational factors affecting employee innovation using principal component analysis (PCA) and condense the dimensionalities for a better focus of organizational development. The study executed a survey questionnaire and collected useful data from one hundred and ninety-five (195) respondents of various Indian companies. The study identified forty-six sub-factors and evolved into nine major organizational factors influencing employee innovation namely organization structure, organization culture and environment, corporate strategy, innovation process, employee, technology, resources, knowledge management and management and leadership. The study recommended that any firm must focus on these factors to encourage employee innovation leading to overall organizational success. It also provides broad implications to HR managers, firm policymakers and top management to reassess and formulate the best organizational strategies to promote innovation culture in the organization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1762.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: apprentices; construction industry; group membership; mental health; social identification; suicide; workplace bullying
Online: 25 August 2023 (08:17:11 CEST)
Background: There is a lack of literature specifically examining the workplace bullying of apprentices and trainees in traditional, male-dominated sectors such as the Australian building and construction industry. Using social identity theory (SIT), the aim of this study was to gather the attitudes, thoughts, and feelings of construction industry leaders to better understand how social identification (i.e., group membership) impacts bullying on targets and perpetrators, and the willingness to report bullying for targets and bystanders. Method: One-on-one, semi-structured interviews using a purposive sample of eight leaders from construction and blue-collar industries. Qualitative data were analysed using reflexive thematic analysis. Results: Four overarching themes were identified: difficulties for apprentices transitioning into industry, the need for continued improvement to industry culture, reluctance to report bullying, and rethinking apprenticeships to empower. Each theme provides insight into the psychosocial phenomenon of the bullying of trade apprentices and suggests that an apprentices’ level of social identification with work groups shapes how bullying is identified, interpreted, and prevented. Conclusion: Findings from this study will be important for tailoring evidence-based interventions, human resource policies and initiatives for education and awareness training. Themes also highlight systemic inadequacies impacting apprentices’ mental health and skill development, with implications for the future sustainability of apprenticeship training agreements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0279.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Psychosocial stressors; Offshore oil and gas; Workplace health and safety; COVID-19
Online: 6 July 2023 (02:10:24 CEST)
The offshore oil and gas working environment is an inherently dangerous one, with risks posed to physical safety on a daily basis. One neglected field of research is the added psychosocial stressors present in this environment. This research examined the experiences of offshore oil and gas workers through one-on-one online interviews which were recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were analysed through qualitative software NVivo, which generated themes and patterns for the responses given to questions which were developed through a focus group. The results of the analysis showed that multiple psychosocial stressors are present for this population, such as fear of speaking up, unsatisfactory company-provided facilities, work-life interference, work status, micromanaging, gender harassment and bullying. In addition, interviews identified that production and time pressures along with fatigue can influence accidents and mistakes. Climate factors also cause discomfort, however these are managed according to best practice by organisations. Due to the timing of the study, COVID-19 was a significant stressor for some, but not all, employees. In conclusion, offshore oil and gas workers face multiple stressors in a dangerous environment that may lead to devastating consequences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0039.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: Performance Management; COVID-19; Virtual Workplace; Trust-Based Working; Business Continuity; Pandemic
Online: 3 June 2022 (09:50:49 CEST)
Previous research has either neglected to consider misbehaviour or misconduct in the virtual workplace during the current COVID-19 pandemic or highlighted some challenges encountered with remote working or work from home but in isolation, e.g., misbehaviours or ethical concerns associated with improper use of technology when accessing clients’ confidential information, without understanding their aetiology and context in a holistic manner. This has impacted the ability of existing research in providing recommendations organisations can practically implement to improve the sustainability and productivity of the virtual workplace, especially as they seek to navigate the current pandemic and prepare for the global business environment in the next decade. Instead, this study, for the first time, proposes a novel holistic methodology to identify the aetiologies of ethical and performance challenges with focus to the Information Technology consulting sector, as well as developing a set of recommendations companies can adopt to manage such behavioural and productivity challenges. Thus, this study illustrates the key issues associated with remote working implemented to respond to the current COVID-19 pandemic, which mine not only the individual performance in an organisation but also its overall productivity, as well as suggests the main performance and reward management strategies that can be leveraged to mitigate them. Tailored strategies are described and discussed as referred to this industry to help in navigating a more unstable yet competitive market to manage the virtual employees’ misbehaviours in the workplace and drive growth for individuals and organisations alike.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0493.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: HIV; HIV at workplace; District Implementation Plan; HIV and AIDS; Stakeholders; Funding
Online: 28 April 2020 (09:51:15 CEST)
The evaluation was conducted to find out whether the stipulated objectives of the policy are being followed, and at the same time find out whether the envisioned results of implementing such policy system have been achieved so far. The evaluation was expected to provide an opportunity for mending shortfalls of the whole system that would affect its sustainability and usefulness.A total of 33 participants were interviewed in this study and came from the study area (Nkhotakota District Council Office). Purposive sampling was used to select the participants. All study respondents were purposively selected where respondents considered having relevant information and they were interviewed to obtain wide range of perspectives.Seven themes were identified; knowledge on policy, limited stakeholder involvement, poor HIV and AIDS programming, ethical issues, future perspective of the policy, Other Recurrent Transaction (ORT) allocation, and availability of HIV and AIDS Committee. On knowledge on policy, the sub-themes included; objectives well outlined, and poor updates on the policy. On limited stakeholder involvement, the sub-themes were; lack of ownership, ignorance of involvement, and not involved/limited involvement. On the Poor HIV and AIDS programming theme, sub-themes identified were; exclusion of activities in the District Implementation Plan (DIP) and lack of funds. There was one sub-theme on ethical issues and future perspective.We found that the Nkhotakota District Council HIV and AIDS at workplace policy is not functioning properly due to poor coordination and lack of funding. However, there are some positives identified such as existence of the coordinating committee and allocation of funds through ORT. Although the system has been functional for some years in well-established structures, lack of participation by some stakeholders, non-inclusion of HIV and AIDS activities in the DIPs underpin its sustainability
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0474.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: migrant workers; expatriates; workplace; physical health; umbrella review; organizational psychology; occupational health
Online: 19 November 2018 (17:20:19 CET)
Migrants are mainly employed in "3D Jobs" dirty, dangerous, difficult, characterized by monotony, intense rhythms, in sectors at higher risk as construction, heavy industry, agriculture. Aim of this study is to elaborate a systematic review, in order to identify the main occupational risks and occupational diseases of this category. Research included articles published from 2013 to 2018 on the major online databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library and Scopus), using a combination of some keywords (migrant workers, expatriates, physical health, diseases, illnesses, travel, travelers, work and occupational). The online search indicated 1.109 references. We excluded 977 studies, because unrelated to physical health and 64 due to duplication. They were analyzed 68 articles, including 6 reviews and 62 original article. The main risk emerged are to developing infectious diseases, metabolic cardiovascular diseases and to manifesting a lower quality of life, in particular due to difficulties in accessing local health services. It will be crucial to implement the role of occupational medicine in order to introduce multilevel interventions designed to prevent work-related injuries and illnesses and to promote healthier working environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0391.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: scale design; reliability; validity; first responders; mental health; workplace; occupational stress; humiliation; betrayal
Online: 23 August 2022 (03:50:00 CEST)
First responders, such as police officers, paramedics, and fire-fighters are at an increased risk of experiencing negative mental health outcomes compared to the general population. This predisposition can partially be attributed to common occupational stressors, such as poor workplace culture and mistreatment from leadership, which may provoke strong feelings of betrayal and humiliation. The Workplace Assessment Scale (WAS) was developed as there is currently no appropriate measure to assess such feelings in the first responder population. The scale consists of the Betrayal Subscale and the Humiliation Subscale, each comprised of 5 Likert scale questions which ask participants to report the frequency at which they experience specific feelings associated with their workplace. This pilot validation study was conducted to assess preliminary reliability and validity of the WAS, using data which was originally collected as part of a larger first responder-based observational study. Based on 21/22 (95%) participant responses, the internal consistency appeared to be strong for both sub-scales as well as the overall questionnaire. However, item 9 will likely require modification or deletion from the scale. The validity analysis found no significant correlations between WAS and other psychiatric scales. Additional research is needed for further analysis and validation of the WAS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0536.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Big Data; Natural Language Processing; Social Media; Female Workplace Bullying, Crowdsourcing; Social Computing
Online: 25 August 2020 (04:13:59 CEST)
Motivated by the #Metoo movement, we explore in this paper people’s perception of female bullying at workplace. We looked at #workplacebullying and found that 1) people were split between identifying the prevalence of workplace bullying against female and the view that such bullying simply does not exist and is a nuisance, 2) The tweets also showed the existence of psychological effects of cyberbullying, and 3) the tweets showed many intervention techniques that can minimize the effects of such bullying. We further explored the top three recurring hashtags mentioned under the #workplacebullying and found that the three top hashtags were #sexism, #feminism and #equality. Our results showed that the above hashtags represent the positive and negative approach to workplace bullying i.e. #feminism hashtag was mostly used by people who denied that workplace bullying against females exist while # sexism was mentioned as the prime cause by people who agree that such bullying exist. #equality overwhelmingly comprises of techniques to minimize workplace bullying against females.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0355.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: Workplace spirituality; procedural justice; Work Locus of Control, Employee Job Satisfaction; Employee Organisational Commitment
Online: 18 September 2018 (14:32:10 CEST)
The present examination explored the impact of work spirituality and procedural justice on work locus of control, worker work fulfillment and representative authoritative duty among workers from private establishments of high learning in South Africa. Due to limited researches that have concentrated on the impact of workplace spirituality and procedural justice on work locus of control, employee job satisfaction and employee organisational commitment in developing countries especially in Southern Africa. A review was done and information was accumulated by methods for surveys on a sample of 150 academics and support staff in a private university setting in Gauteng, South Africa. Structural equation modelling was employed to analyse data using the Smart Partial Least Squares (PLS) software. By means of a partial least squares structural equation modeling approach, this study validates that elements such as workplace spirituality, procedural justice and work locus of control are instrumental in stimulating the employee job satisfaction and employee job commitment. The present investigation offers suggestions for academicians in the field of resource management by upgrading their comprehension of the how workplace spirituality and procedural justice impacts work locus of control, employee job satisfaction and employee organisational commitment
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0075.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: health promotion; ageing; workplace; occupational health; effectiveness; salutogenesis; holistic medicine; subsidiarity; participatory approach; setting
Online: 9 January 2018 (07:26:56 CET)
The ageing of workers is one of the most important issues for occupational health and safety in Europe. A number of intervention studies on health promotion for older workers were conducted in European workplaces between 2000 and 2015. This review gives an overview of these studies and considers perspectives for workplace health promotion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0028.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: low back pain; osteoarthritis; knee; prevalence; workplace; exposure; musculoskeletal diseases; risk factors; prevention; construction industry
Online: 2 March 2023 (01:55:05 CET)
Abstract: Sand-cement bound screed floor layers are at risk for work-related low back pain, lumbosacral radicular syndrome and knee osteoarthritis given their working technique of level-ling screed with their trunk bended and mainly supported by their hands and knees. To reduce the exposure of the physical demands of bending of the trunk and kneeling, a manually moved screed levelling machine was developed for floor layers in the Netherlands. The aim of this pa-per is to estimate the potential health gain of the manually moved screed levelling machine on the risk of low back pain (LBP), lumbosacral radicular syndrome (LRS) and knee osteoarthritis (KOA) compared to the traditional working technique. The potential health gain was assessed using the epidemiological population estimates of the Population Attributable Fraction (PAF) and the Potential Impact Fraction (PIF) combined with work-related risk estimates for these three disorders from systematic reviews. The percentage of workers exceeding these risk esti-mates was based on worksite observations among in total 28 floor layers. For LBP, 16/18 work-ers were at risk using the traditional working technique with PAF=38%, and for the manually moved screed levelling machine this was 6/10 with PIF=13%. For LRS, these data were 16/18 with PAF=55% and 14/18 with PIF=18% and for KOA, 8/10 with PAF=35% and 2/10 with PIF=26%. A manually moved screed levelling machine might have a significant impact on the prevention of LBP, LRS and KOA among floor layers in the Netherlands and a health impact assessment is a feasible approach to assess health gains in an efficient way.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0092.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: Industry 4.0; artificial intelligence; machine learning; mobile app; digital health; safe workplace; worker safety; Coronavirus
Online: 5 January 2021 (13:32:39 CET)
The recent outbreak of the novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) has given rise to diverse health issues due to its high transmission rate and limited treatment options. Almost the whole world, at some point of time, was placed in lock-down in an attempt to stop the spread of the virus, with resulting psychological and economic sequela. As countries start to ease lock-down measures and reopen industries, ensuring a healthy workplace for employees has become imperative. Thus, this paper presents a mobile app-based intelligent portable healthcare (pHealth) tool, called iWorkSafe, to assist industries in detecting possible suspects for COVID-19 infection among their employees who may need primary care. Developed mainly for low-end Android devices, the iWorkSafe app hosts a fuzzy neural network model that integrates data of employees' health status from the industry's database, proximity and contact tracing data from the mobile devices, and user-reported COVID-19 self-test data. Using the built-in Bluetooth low energy sensing technology and K Nearest Neighbor and K-means techniques, the app is capable of tracking users’ proximity and trace contact with other employees. Additionally, it uses a logistic regression model to calculate the COVID-19 self-test score and a Bayesian Decision Tree model for checking real-time health condition from intelligent e-health platform for further clinical attention of the employees. Rolled out in an apparel factory on 12 employees as a test case, the pHealth tool generates an alert to maintain social distancing among employees inside the industry. In addition, the app helps employee to estimate risk with possible COVID-19 infection based on the collected data and found that the score is effective in estimating personal health condition of the app user.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0657.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: HIV; workplace intervention; SMS; HIV testing; construction; mobile phone; Covid-19; health promotion; text messaging
Online: 27 September 2020 (03:02:41 CEST)
Background: HIV poses a threat to global health. With effective treatment options available, education and testing strategies are essential in preventing transmission. Text messaging is an effective tool for health promotion and can be used to target higher risk populations. This study reports on the design, delivery and testing of a mobile text messaging SMS intervention for HIV prevention and awareness, aimed at adults in the construction industry and delivered during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: Participants were recruited at Test@Work workplace health promotion events (21 sites, n=464 employees), including health checks with HIV testing. Message development was based on a participatory design and included a focus group (n=9) and message fidelity testing (n=291) with assessment of intervention uptake, reach, acceptability, and engagement. Barriers to HIV testing were identified and mapped to the COM-B behavioural model. 23 one-way push SMS messages (19 included short web links) were generated and fidelity tested, then sent via automated SMS to two employee cohorts over a 10-week period during the COVID-19 pandemic. Engagement metrics measured were; opt-outs, SMS delivered/read, number of clicks per web link, and four two-way pull messages exploring repeat HIV testing, learning new information, perceived usefulness and behaviour change. Results: 291 people participated (68.3% of eligible attendees). A total of 7,726 messages were sent between March and June 2020, with 91.6% successfully delivered (100% read). 12.4% of participants opted out over 10 weeks. Of delivered messages, links were clicked an average of 14.4%, max 24.1% for HIV related links. The number of clicks on web links declined over time (r= -6.24, p=0.01). Response rate for two-way pull messages was 13.7% of participants. Since the workplace HIV test offer at recruitment, 21.6% reported having taken a further HIV test. Qualitative replies indicated behavioural influence of messaging on exercise, lifestyle behaviours and intention to HIV test. Conclusion: SMS messaging for HIV prevention and awareness is acceptable to adults in the construction industry, has high uptake, low attrition and good engagement with message content, when delivered during a global pandemic. Data collection methods may need refinement for audience and effect of COVID-19 on results is yet to be understood.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0086.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: workplace; health promotion; work-related stress; anxiety; depression; participatory ergonomics; wellbeing; best practice; work organization
Online: 12 February 2018 (09:09:57 CET)
The workplace is an ideal setting for health promotion. The regular medical examination of workers enables us to screen for numerous diseases, spread good practices and correct lifestyles, and obtain a favourable risk/benefit ratio. The continuous monitoring of the level of workers' wellbeing using a holistic approach that goes beyond the simple prevention of occupational risks enables us to promptly identify problems in work organization and the company climate. Problems of this kind can be adequately managed by using a participatory approach. In this study participatory ergonomics groups were used to improve occupational life in a small company. After intervention we observed a reduction in levels of perceived occupational stress measured with the effort / reward imbalance model, and an improvement in psychological wellbeing assessed by means of the Goldberg anxiety / depression scale. Although the limited size of the sample calls for a cautious evaluation of this study, the GEP© strategy proved to be a useful tool due to its cost-effectiveness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0345.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Loss of consciousness; Mental health; Working life; Effort Reward Imbalance; Sleep Dis-orders; Health promotion; Workplace
Online: 25 October 2021 (11:54:17 CEST)
Syncope and presyncope occurring during work can affect safety and impair occupational performance. Few data are available regarding the prevalence of these events among workers. The possible role of sleep quality, mental stress and metabolic disorders in promoting syncope, presyncope and falls in workers is unknown. In the present study, 741 workers (male 35.4%; mean age 47±11 years), employed in different companies, underwent clinical evaluation and blood tests and completed questionnaires to assess sleep quality, occupational distress and mental disorders. The occurrence of syncope, presyncope and unexplained falls during their working life was assessed by an ad hoc interview. The prevalence of syncope, presyncope and falls of unknown origin was 13.9%, 27.0%, and 10.3%, respectively. The occurrence of syncope was associated with an increased risk of occupational distress (adjusted Odds Ratio aOR: 1.62, Confidence Intervals at 95%: 1.05-2.52), low sleep quality (aOR: 1.79 CI 95%: 1.16-2.77) and poor mental health (aOR: 2.43 CI 95%: 1.52-3.87). Presyncope was strongly associated with occupational distress (aOR: 1.77 CI 95%: 1.25-2.49), low sleep quality (aOR: 2.95 CI 95%: 2.08-4.18) and poor mental health (aOR: 2.61 CI 95%: 1.78-3.84), while no significant relationship was found between syncope or presyncope and metabolic syndrome. These results suggest that occupational health promotion interventions aimed at improving sleep quality, reducing stressors and increasing worker resilience might reduce syncope and presyncope events in the working population.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0052.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: workplace, toxicity, leadership, distributive bargaining, zero sum gain, Uhl Bien, complex adaptive systems, complexity leadership theory.
Online: 2 March 2021 (09:22:29 CET)
The issue of workplace toxicity constitutes a major problem for employers, employees and society at large. Toxicity in a workplace context relates to damaging behaviours perpetrated by individuals and organisations that netatively impact on the health and wellbeing of others. Workplace toxicty is habitually associated with activities such as bullying, harrassment, unethical and even illegal acts. In this article, today’s workplace is likenened to a cage where ambition and greed drive people to engage in toxic behaviour to fight for whatever scarce rewards are on offer. Set against a backdrop of continuous demands on employees in a era of constant change and challenge, leadership practice in the 21st century is understandably seeped in complexity. Whilst conditions of scarcity are in fact constructed by employers in today’s lean environments, workplace toxicity has significant implications for organisational leaders in terms of work place disputes, absenteeism and litigation etc. Twentieth century hierarchial and autocratic leadership models are now deemed to be both obsolete and wholly inadedgate to inform leadership practice in the knowledge era. This conceptual article looks at the efficacy of complexity leadership theory (CLT) in empowering today’s leader to better understand and address 21st century workplace toxicity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0256.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: workplace health promotion; sleep quality; sleep hygiene; sleepiness; safety; insomnia; sleep deprivation; accidents; near miss; police
Online: 12 October 2020 (16:27:57 CEST)
A workplace sleep health promotion program was implemented in an Italian police unit from 2016 to 2017. Of the 242 police officers in the unit, 218 (90%) agreed to take part in the program. A crossover trial was made in which the police officers were divided into two groups that performed sleep health promotion activities in the first and second year, respectively. The first group of officers showed significant sleep improvements at the end of the first year, while the second group had similar or worse parameters than at baseline. At follow-up, a significant improvement in the quantity and quality of sleep was reported in both groups. Sleep improvements at follow-up were associated with a marked reduction in the frequency of accidents at work and near-misses. All sleep parameters showed a significant association with injuries and near-misses in univariate logistic regression analyses. Before the intervention, sleepiness was the best predictor of injuries (aOR 1.220; CI95% 1.044-1.426) and near-misses (aOR 1.382; CI95% 1.182-1.615). At follow-up, when sleep conditions had improved, insomnia symptoms were the most significant predictors of work accidents (aOR 13.358; CI95% 2.353-75.818). Sleep health promotion can be useful in police officers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0262.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: healthcare workers; workplace wellness; mental health and wellbeing; recovery; resilience; Australian bushfires; COVID-19; burnout; occupational trauma
Online: 15 August 2022 (11:58:02 CEST)
The 2019-2020 Australian bushfires followed by the COVID-19 pandemic brought the significant mental health implications of working in healthcare to the fore. The importance of appropriate support services to ensure the resilience and recovery of healthcare workers has been highlighted. In response to healthcare staff experiences during the bushfires, the SEED Wellness Program was created in 2020 in the Illawarra Shoalhaven Local Health District, in NSW Australia. SEED used a participatory action methodology to engage and collaborate with healthcare staff teams in workplace-based restorative activities. Guided by Practice Theory, this study aimed to identify and describe SEED wellness practices that supported healthcare staff. Thirty-three healthcare workers participated in focus groups or individual interviews between June 2021 and March 2022. The analysis involved inductive thematic individual and collective exploration of SEED practices, including co-analysis with participants. Eight core practices that supported participants’ wellbeing were identified including responsive and compassionate leading, engaging staff at every stage of the recovery process, creating a sense of connection with others, and collective caring. The study found that workplace wellness initiatives are optimised when place-based and grounded in local knowledge, needs, and resources incorporating a collective and supportive team approach. Moreover, to ensure engagement in, and sustainability of these initiatives, both bottom-up and top-down commitment is required.
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: spiritual intelligence; leadership; Bible; project management; supply chain; workplace spirituality; theology of work; construction; neuroscience; cognitive psychology; psychoanalysis; neurology
Online: 3 August 2021 (09:36:11 CEST)
Spiritual intelligence had an impact on different biblical leaders, and in this text, we see some cases to serve as a sample (Joseph, Bezalel, and Daniel). In the Bible, this impact is demonstrated in innovations introduced by Joseph in Egypt, Bezalel the manager of the macro project of building in crisis time, Daniel the politician. It is the supreme intelligence and leaders are invited to make a shift from rationality to spirituality. The more leaders of organizations will use spiritual intelligence, the more leaders and followers will experience satisfaction, joy, accomplishment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0874.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: bullying; enabling environment; health promoting school; occupational health and safety; safe school; teaching and learning; workplace violence; employee assistance program
Online: 13 June 2023 (04:21:13 CEST)
Despite several studies on learner-to-teacher workplace violence and harassment, the problem persists in some South African schools. Learner-to-teacher violence and harassment is a form of workplace violence and harassment as schools are workplaces for teachers. Learner-to-teacher violence and harassment is therefore an important occupational health and safety issues for teachers. The employer is obliged to provide a safe working environment for the teachers to enable quality teaching and learning in the schools. The purpose of this interpretative phenomenological study was to explore and describe the lived experiences of high school teachers who have been targets of workplace violence and harassment perpetrated by learners at selected schools in Limpopo province of South Africa. Many teachers were willing to share their lived-experiences but due to data saturation, only eleven participated after being selected through purposive sampling from seven high schools under a particular circuit. Research ethics of voluntary participation, informed consent, ethical clearance and gatekeeper permission were observed. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews using an interview guide. Interviews were audio-taped, and field notes were also taken. Voice recordings were transcribed verbatim and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis into themes and sub-themes. Findings were confirmed by an independent coder to achieve trustworthiness. Teachers experienced physical workplace violence and harassment, verbal workplace violence and harassment as well as nonverbal workplace violence and harassment from learners. Learner-to-teacher workplace violence and harassment affects teachers emotionally and in turn affects quality teaching and learning in the schools. Some teachers propose involvement of community policing forum, strengthening of School Governing Bodies as well as reducing overcrowding in the classroom as possible solutions to deal with learner-to-teacher bullying.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1944.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: Inclusive Leadership; Psychological Contract Fulfillment; Employee Well-Being; Workplace Well-Being; Life Well-Being; Proactive Work Behavior; Business Services Sector professionals
Online: 29 May 2023 (02:13:53 CEST)
Proactivity is a particularly important attribute of knowledge-intensive organizations, where the work required to increase the potential of knowledge-intensive employees is crucial. A priority challenge for these firms is also to understand the increasing importance of the functioning of cognitive mechanisms leading to increased knowledge workers' well-being following the implementation of the psychological contract. The aim of this article is to identify the relationship between inclusive leadership, the fulfillment of the psychological contract, two dimensions of well-being: workplace and life well-being and knowledge workers' proactivity. Based on survey data collected through the CAWI method from 1.000 knowledge workers employed in Polish companies in the business services sector, the research hypotheses were tested using a stepwise equation modelling (SEM) technique, leading to a model containing all the main constructs. The results obtained indicate that inclusive leadership positively impacts the fulfillment of the psychological contract. Furthermore, the fulfillment of the psychological contract positively affects proactive working behavior with and the wellbeing of knowledge workers. Along with proactive work behavior, two dimensions of well-being, were examined as outcome variables. The analysis also shows that knowledge-intensive organizations, intending to build the proactivity of their employees and nurture a high level of well-being in their lives and in the workplace, should take care to fulfil the expectations and obligations of the psychological contract. However, one way to achieve this is for managers to use an inclusive management style, which supports an atmosphere of a safe working environment in a diverse setting and leads to employees feeling comfortable sharing their opinions and ideas. The study of inclusive leadership in the context of knowledge-intensive organizations provides human resource professionals and employee man-agers with important insights into how inclusive leadership can effectively contribute to the psychological contract, which will consequently lead to proactive work behavior and also improve employees' workplace and life well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0241.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: Collaborative robotics; Human-Robot Collaboration (HRC); Knowledge-Based Approach (KBA); collaborative workplace design; systematic layout planning; digital layout optimization; what-if analysis.
Online: 12 November 2021 (17:17:02 CET)
The innovation driven Industry 5.0, in agreement with Industry 4.0, leads to consider human in a prominence position as the center of manufacturing field. This pushes towards the hybridization of manufacturing plants promoting a fully collaboration between human and robot. Furthermore, the new paradigm of "human centred design" and "anthropocentric design" allows enabling a synergistic combination of human and robot skills. However, properly collaborative workplaces are currently very few. Industry is still not confident, and systems integrators hesitate to venture into Human-Robot Collaboration (HRC). Despite the effort in collaborative robotics, a general solution to overcome the current limitations in designing of collaborative workplaces still misses. In the current work, a Knowledge-Based Approach (KBA) is adopted to face collaborative workplace designing problem. The framework resulting from the KBA allows developing a modelling paradigm that enable to define a streamlined approach for the layout designing of a collaborative workplace. Finally, a what-if analysis and a ANOVA analysis are performed to generate and evaluate a set of scenarios related to a collaborative workplace for quality inspection of welded parts. Facing the high complexity and multidisciplinary of HRC can be conveyed to develop a general design approach aimed at overcoming the difficulties that limit the spread of HRC in the manufacturing field.