Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: SARS; Covid-19; Vitamins; Therapy
Online: 23 April 2020 (05:44:52 CEST)
In December 2019 a novel human-infecting coronavirus, named SARS-CoV-2 has been recognized to cause a pneumonia epidemic outbreak with different degree of severity in Wuhan, Hubei Province in China. Since then this epidemic spread worldwide an in the last week Europe and Italy also have been involved. Effective preventive and therapeutic strategies are absolutely required to block this serious public health concern. Unfortunately, SARS-CoV-2 has been isolated only recently, therefore a few studies concerning its immunopathogenesis and tretament are available. Therefore, on the basis of the assumption that the SARS-CoV-2 is genetically related to SARS-CoV (about 82% of genome homology) and that its characteristics, like the modality of transmission, the route of infection, the organ localization, the type of the immune response it may stimulate, the morbidity and the mortality rates are still poor-known, a literature search was performed to identify the reports assessing these elements in patients with SARS-CoV-induced infection. Therefore, we have analysed: 1) the structure of SARS CoV-2 and SARS CoV; 2) the clinical signs and symptoms and pathogenic mechanisms observed during the development of acute respiratory syndrome and the Cytokine Release Syndrome; 3) the modification of the cell microRNome and of the immune response in patients with SARS infection; 4) the possible role of some liposoluble compounds (such as vitamin A, D and E) in modulating directly or indirectly the replication ability of SARS-CoV-2 and host immune response.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0548.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: millet; fermentation; microbiome; metagenomics; vitamins; biosynthesis
Online: 29 November 2022 (09:42:36 CET)
Fermented foods play an important role in the human diet and particularly so in under-resourced environments where cold preservation is not attainable due to irregular supply of electricity. Fermented foods are reported to support gut health by contributing probiotics and the purpose of this study was to investigate the microbial diversity and metabolic potential of spontaneous millet fermentation. The literature in the field was reviewed and analysis conducted on publicly available Sequence Read Archive (SRA) datasets. Quality analysis was performed with FastQC, and operational taxonomic units (OTUs) generated using Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology (QIIME2) and Divisive Amplicon Denoising Algorithm (DADA2) pipeline with Greengenes as the reference database. Metagenomics and pathways analysis were performed with Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt2). Statistical analysis and visualization were accomplished with Statistical Analysis of Metagenomic Profiles (STAMP). At the family taxonomic level, there were significant differences in the relative abundances of bacteria involved in the spontaneous fermentation of millet namely, Lactobacillaceae, Leuconostocaceae, and Clostridiaceae in one dataset. The incidence of Lactobacillaceae and Bifidobacteriaceae suggest the probiotic characteristic of fermented millet. The datasets were collected with fermentations mediated by autochthonous microorganisms and the presence of some potential pathogens such as Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridiaceae, Aeromonadaceae, Microbacteiaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Neisseriaceae suggest the need for standardization of fermentation approaches. The genomes show the potential to synthesize metabolites such as vitamins suggesting that the respective fermented foods can be further optimized to enhance nutritional benefits.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0555.v1
Online: 23 September 2020 (17:44:21 CEST)
Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has caused more than 745,000 deaths worldwide. Vitamin D has been identified as a potential strategy to prevent or treat this disease. The purpose of the study was to measure vitamin D at hospital admission of COVID-19; Methods: We included critically ill patients with the polymerase chain reaction positive test for COVID-19, from March to April, 2020. Statistical significance was defined as P < .05. All tests were 2-tailed; Results: A total of 35 patients (median age, 60 years; 26 [74.3%] male) were included. Vitamin D levels were categorized as deficient for 14 participants (40%). Vitamin D deficiency was associated with vitamin A (P= 0.003) and Zinc (P= 0.019) deficiency and lower levels of albumin (P= 0.026) and prealbumin (P= 0.009). Overall, none of the studied variables were associated with vitamin D status: mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) or hospital stay, necessity of vasoactive agents, intubation, prone position, C reactive protein (CRP), Dimer-D, Interleukin 6 levels (IL-6), ferritin levels, or bacterial superinfection; Conclusions: In this single-center, retrospective cohort study, deficient vitamin D status was found in 40% in COVID-19 critically ill patients. However, deficient vitamin D status was not associated with inflammation or outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0245.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis, fatigue, dietary supplements, vitamins, folic acids
Online: 11 May 2021 (14:11:39 CEST)
Despite recent advances in immune-modulatory drugs, pharmacological therapies have been proven ineffective in severe presentations of multiple sclerosis (MS), including secondary progressive MS. At present, therapeutic interventions' performance is primarily focused on ameliorating symptoms to improve the patient's quality of life. Among complementary treatments, nutrition has been considered a decisive factor to control symptoms and enhance the wellness of MS patients. Although no special diets are associated with MS, the impact of diet and dietary supplements on the course of progressive forms of the disease have been studied during the last years. Fatigue is among the most common and disabling symptoms reported by MS patients. Fatigue has been defined in the Multiple Sclerosis Council for Clinical Practice Guidelines (MSCCPG, 1998) as a "subjective lack of physical and/or mental energy that the individual perceives as an interference with habitual and desired activities". This study aimed to compare the psychometric functioning of the "Fatigue Severity Scale" (FSS) and the "Modified Fatigue Impact Scale" (MFIS) in our sample of people with MS. Specifically, during chronic treatment, the change in these two parameters with two vitamin-rich dietary supplements (Citozym® and Ergozym®) was evaluated. The impact of these nutritional supplements revealed differences in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory parameters between treatment groups with subsequent improvement in fatigue. In conclusion, the results obtained have confirmed the effectiveness of complementary nutritional therapies, evaluated essentially based on hematological biomarkers, through which it is possible to act on disability to improve the quality of life of MS patients.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: SARS; CoV-2; COVID-19; vitamins; therapeutic strategy
Online: 18 May 2020 (12:51:05 CEST)
Objectives: In December 2019 a novel human-infecting coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has emerged. The WHO has stated the epidemic as a “public health emergency of international concern”. A dramatic situation has emerged with thousands of deaths, occurring mainly in the aged and very ill people. Epidemiological studies suggest that immune system function is impaired in elderly individuals and these subjects often present a severe deficiency in nutrients as fatsoluble and hydrosoluble vitamins. Design: In this second part of the review about Cov2 in aged people, we searched for studies describing the possible efficacy of vitamins A, D, E and C in improving the immune system function and their possible activities against viruses. Results: Vitamins may shift the proinflammatory Th17 mediated immune-response arising in the autoimmune diseases towards a T-cell regulatory phenotype. These diseases may serve as a paradigm for the study of CRS emerging in the course of SARS CoV-2 infection. Conclusion: This review discusses about the possible activity of Vitamin A, D, E and C in restoring normal antiviral Immune System function or the potential therapeutic role of these micronutrients as a part of a multi-treatment strategy against SARS-CoV-2 infection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0422.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: LDL-oxidation; DNA-damage; antioxidant vitamins; oxidative stress
Online: 20 September 2018 (16:53:42 CEST)
Radical oxygen species formed in human tissue cells by many endogenous and exogenous pathways, cause extensive oxidative damage, which has been linked to various human diseases. This review paper provides an overview of lipid peroxidation and focuses on the free-radicals initiated processes of LDL oxidative modification and DNA oxidative damage, which are widely associated to the initiation and development of atherosclerosis and carcinogenesis, respectively. The article subsequently provides an overview of the recent human trials or even in vitro investigations on the potential of natural antioxidant compounds (such as carotenoids, vitamins C and E) to monitor LDL and DNA oxidative changes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0427.v1
Online: 29 March 2020 (08:26:36 CEST)
The coronavirus COVID-19 epidemic has wreaked havoc on inhabitants of earth killing thousands of humans from more than 150 countries. The epidemic has put a number of countries under complete lockdown and the deadly situation is still prevailing around the globe. Vaccines have been long known as the most effective means of preventing viral infections. However, the lack of vaccines against COVID-19 has further worsened the situation. In this time of health crisis, it is the duty of scientific research community to provide alternative, effective and affordable strategies to vaccinate human bodies against viral infections-COVID-19 based on focused experimental approaches. Growing evidence suggests that certain natural foods and lifestyle changes have potential to optimize immune functions against viral infections including improving defense function, resistance towards invading pathogens, while maintaining self-tolerance. Boosting immune system gives an edge in fending off viruses and staying healthy. This review presents the six smart steps to add to your to-do list which let the inner work of immunity take place against viral infections-COVID-19 by dissolving the powers of disease and illness. Many of these factors are associated in their functions to improve or properly maintain the immune function such as promoting anti-inflammatory functions, inhibiting pro-inflammatory mediators, modulating cell-mediated immunity, altering the antigen-presenting cellular functions as well as promoting communication between the innate and adaptive immune responses. Thus, a scientific illustration of boosting the immune system by proper sleep, moderate exercise, avoiding stress, utilizing vitamins enriched foods, intake of more water and use of fruits and vegetables will hopefully help the community to deal with the coronavirus by vaccinating the human systems naturally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0151.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: vitamins; micronutrients; deficiencies; screening; general population; lifestyle; prevention; vitamin d; vitamin b12
Online: 10 March 2022 (14:11:38 CET)
Maintaining an adequate micronutrient status can be achieved by following a complete, diverse diet. Yet, food trends in Western countries show suboptimal consumption of healthy nutrients. In this study we explored the prevalence of vitamin and mineral imbalances in a general population cohort of Dutch adults, and evaluated the effect of a digital lifestyle program on the nutritional status and nutrition health behaviors of these individuals. A micronutrient panel was measured in 348 participants, alongside a dietary assessment. One-hundred users subsequently underwent a remeasurement. We identified at least one nutritional imbalance in 301 individuals (86.5%). 80% improved and normalized B6, 67% improved folate, 70% improved B12, and 86% improved vitamin D. Iron abnormalities were corrected in 75% of participants. In conclusion, this study found micronutrient deficiencies of easily obtainable vitamins through diet or supplementation such as B vitamins and vitamin D were more prevalent than expected in a Dutch population. This can partly be explained by an insufficient consumption of food groups rich in B vita-mins. Our preliminary results in those remeasured after a digitally-enabled lifestyle intervention show these imbalances can be corrected with adequate behavioral support in a “food as medicine” approach complemented with supplementation where needed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0070.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Nutraceuticals; Personalized Medicine; Precision Medicine; Probiotics; Vitamins; Covid; Dietary Supplements; Adverse Drug Effects
Online: 3 November 2022 (06:27:25 CET)
Nutraceuticals have taken the spotlight during the past two decades as evidenced by the exponential publications on them. Long a part of routine in Traditional Medicine Systems, the rise of their mainstream use globally raises both safety concerns and need for better understanding of efficacious dosing. We attempt to answer these questions in this preliminary scoping review by an analysis of current literature on nutraceutical use as a personalized or prescription medicine. Using Covidence, Rayyan, and manual searches of PubMed, 598 unique publications were selected. 32 are systematic reviews, of which we overview the scope. We also overview 30 papers that address adverse drug reactions. To obtain an unbiased landscape of the 598 papers, we analyzed keywords using multiple methods. Expectedly, the most frequent keywords were probiotics and vitamins. Unexpectedly and remarkably, among the highest keyword yield was ‘COVID’. Further exploring this aspect, we review 15 pertinent papers, that not only provide robust evidence for nutraceutical benefits as part of SARS-CoV-2 treatment, but also amplify the notion that nutraceuticals are protective. Overall, the strident note is that further robust targeted research is needed in order to reap the full benefits of nutraceuticals in a safe and efficacious manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0167.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: Almond; Almond beverage; Almond skin; Antiradical activity; Green extraction; Hydrodynamic cavitation; Nutritional values; Polyphenols; Proteins; Vitamins
Online: 10 January 2023 (02:12:56 CET)
Almond beverages are gaining ever-increasing consumer preference in the growing market of non-alcoholic vegetable beverages, ranking in first place among oilseed-based drinks, mainly due to the perceived healthy benefits. However, the high cost of the raw material, time and energy consuming pre-treatments such as soaking, blanching and peeling, and post-treatments such as thermal sterilization, leading also to the loss of valuable macronutrients and micronutrients, hinder the sustainability, affordability and spread of almond beverages. Hydrodynamic cavitation processes were applied, as a single-unit operation, to the extraction in water of almond skinless kernels in the form of flour and fine grains, and to whole almond seeds in the form of coarse grains, up to high concentrations. The results showed full compliance with a high-end commercial product and with the expected levels based on the properties of the raw materials. The concentrated extract obtained from whole almond seeds showed a comparatively much higher antiradical activity, likely due to the contribution of the almond kernel skin. In conclusion, hydrodynamic cavitation could represent a convenient alternative processing route to the production of conventional and new integral almond beverages, avoiding multiple and costly technological steps, while affording fast production cycles of potentially healthier beverages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0306.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: COVID-19 Pandemic; Dietary patterns; BMI; Nutrition; Vitamins; Healthy Food; Dietary Supplements; Factor analyses; Internal Consistency; weight gain
Online: 17 November 2021 (12:09:58 CET)
Since its inception in 2019, COVID-19 has been associated with significant changes in lifestyle-related behavior, including physical activity, diet, and sleep, which are vital to maintaining our well-being. This study measures lifestyle-related behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown using a 21-item questionnaire. The responses were collected from March 2021 to September 2021. Four hundred sixty-seven participants were engaged in assessing the changes caused by the pandemic and their effect on BMI. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were tested for 71 participants. Cronbach's alpha values for the questionnaire all exceeded 0.7, demonstrating good validity and internal consistency for it. The effect of each question regarding physical activity and dietary habits over the BMI difference was studied using ANOVA. The study shows that more than half of the participants reported snacking more between meals and increased their sitting and screen time, while 74% felt more stressed and anxious. These indications were the cause of the increase in the BMI rate for individuals in the lockdown. In contrast, 62% of the participants showed more awareness about their health by increasing the intake of immunity-boosting foods, and 56% of the participants showed an increase in the consumption of nutrition supplements. Females and married individuals tended to be healthier, so their BMI showed stability compared to others based on their gender and marital status.
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: immune system; viral infection; influenza; COVID-19; micronutrients; vitamins; omega-3 fatty acids; minerals; vitamin C; vitamin D
Online: 12 March 2020 (04:30:45 CET)
Public health practices including handwashing and vaccinations help reduce the spread and impact of infections. Nevertheless, the global burden of infection is high, and additional measures are necessary. Acute respiratory tract infections, for example, are responsible for approximately 2.65 million deaths per year. The role nutrition plays in supporting the immune system is well-established. A wealth of mechanistic and clinical data show that vitamins, including vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, E, and folate; trace elements, including zinc, iron, selenium, magnesium, and copper; and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid play important and complementary roles in supporting the immune system. Inadequate intake and status of these nutrients are widespread, leading to a decrease in resistance to infections and as a consequence an increase in disease burden. Against this background the following conclusions are made: 1) Supplementation with the above micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids is a safe, effective, and low-cost strategy to help support optimal immune function; 2) Supplementation above the RDA, but within recommended upper safety limits, for specific nutrients such as vitamins C and D is warranted; and 3) Public health officials are encouraged to include nutritional strategies in their recommendations to improve public health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0129.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: Diabetic retinopathy; Oxidative stress; Advanced glycation end products (AGEs); Antioxidant enzymes; Vascular endothelial growth factor; B-vitamins; Vitamin-C; Vitamin- E
Online: 8 June 2022 (12:40:07 CEST)
Excessive intracellular glucose in insulin independent tissues including nerve, nephron, lens and retina invites mishandling of metabolism of glucose resulting in a background of increased oxidative stress, advanced glycation end products (AGE) formation, lipid peroxidation and failure of antioxidant defense systems in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). All these detrimental biochemical anomalies ultimately attack biological membranes and especially capillary beds of retina and glomerulus of kidney, resulting in break-down of inner blood-retinal i.e. initiation of diabetic retinopathy (DR). If these disarrays are corrected to a large extent, development of DR can be avoided or delayed. In this prospective clinical trial, 185 patients with T2DM who received B-vitamins, vitamin-C, and E along with anti-diabetic medication for five years, demonstrated a slower rate of the development of DR and reduced abnormal biochemical mediators like reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), AGE, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) compared to 175 T2DM individuals who were treated with only anti-hyperglycemic drugs.