REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0760.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: medication overuse headache (MOH)
Online: 12 September 2023 (16:46:00 CEST)
Purpose of review: Medication overuse headache (MOH) is an important problem worlwide areas of different controversy regarding its entity. This article reviews the risk factors, comorbidities, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, effective management and prognosis of MOH, by summaries and integrates the results and finding in previously performed more than 15000 studies (from the year of 2010 to 2023) available from the scientific database of the University Medical Library in the University Clinical centre of Niš, which aimed to investigate and define a complexcity of this type of headache. Recent finding: It has been proposed that all acute migraine medications can lead to MOH, with differences in the propensity of different agents to cause the problem. Early data suggests that triptans and other pain killers used for the acute treatment of migraine, may be an exception. Recent studies show that practicioners and the general public are still largely unaware of the problem of medication overuse and its damaging effects. Summary: Although it is likely that MOH does occur and restricting the amount of acute medications is necessary to prevent it. It is also possible that increasing amounts of acute medications are simply a reflection of poorly controlled headaches, rather than a couse. Further researches need to be developed to identify more precisious mechanism in MOH effecitive management and its evolution. Key word: medication overuse headache (MOH)
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0247.v1
Online: 5 September 2023 (09:26:47 CEST)
Purpose of review: Medication overuse headache (MOH) is an important problem worlwide areas of different controversy regarding its entity. This article reviews the risk factors, comorbidities, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, effective management and prognosis of MOH, by summaries and integrates the results and finding in previously performed more than 15000 studies (from the year of 2010 to 2023) available from the scientific database of the University Medical Library in the University Clinical centre of Niš, which aimed to investigate and define a complexcity of this type of headache. Recent finding: It has been proposed that all acute migraine medications can lead to MOH, with differences in the propensity of different agents to cause the problem. Early data suggests that triptans and other pain killers used for the acute treatment of migraine, may be an exception. Recent studies show that practicioners and the general public are still largely unaware of the problem of medication overuse and its damaging effects. Summary: Although it is likely that MOH does occur and restricting the amount of acute medications is necessary to prevent it. It is also possible that increasing amounts of acute medications are simply a reflection of poorly controlled headaches, rather than a couse. Further researches need to be developed to identify more precisious mechanism in MOH effecitive management and its evolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1859.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Medication Overuse Headache; Migraine; TTH; Children
Online: 29 August 2023 (03:38:02 CEST)
Abstract: Medication overuse headaches is a frequent phenomenon observed in individuals suf-fering from chronic headaches. It arises due to the excessive consumption of pain-relief medica-tions, resulting in the escalation and continuous persistence of headache symptoms. Nevertheless, the prevalence and distinctive characteristics of medication overuse headaches in the pediatric population have not been comprehensively explored. The primary objective of this research is to delineate the features of medication overuse headaches in children, particularly emphasizing the investigation of its epidemiology and the diagnostic patterns for headaches. We conducted a ret-rospective study by and analyzed the medical records of children and adolescents who were evaluated at outpatient pediatric headache clinic at the Bnai Zion medical center for headache during the period spanning 2007 to 2017. Our study encompassed a cohort of 1008 patients expe-riencing headaches. Among these participants, 268 individuals (26.6%) were diagnosed with mi-graine, 250 (24.8%) exhibited tension-type headaches (TTH), and 490 (48.6%) were classified as having undifferentiated headaches. Out of the whole group, 65 had chronic headaches: 35 (54%) with migraine, 20 (30%) with tension-type headaches (TTH), and 10 (15%) with undifferentiated headache of childhood, with the majority (73%) being female.In summary, medication overuse headaches are a prevalent issue among children grappling with chronic headaches. Intriguingly, they appear to be more pronounced within the tension-type headache (TTH) group compared to migraine sufferers, and exhibit a higher prevalence among females. This study underscores the significance of early detection and careful management of medication overuse headaches in pedi-atric cases, shedding light on its distinct characteristics in the realm of childhood headache disor-ders. Further research is warranted to elucidate the underlying factors contributing to the ob-served gender disparity and the distinct prevalence rates among different headache subtypes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0509.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: education; medication-overuse headache (MOH); migraine; online; prevention; rational analgesic-use for headache; social networking services; social media
Online: 28 January 2023 (02:47:04 CET)
Introduction Headache is a common public health problem, but its burden could be avoided by raising headache awareness and the appropriate use of acute medication and prophylactic medication. Few reports on raising headache awareness in the general public have been reported, and there are no reports on headache awareness campaigns through social networking services (SNS), or social media, in Japan. We prospectively performed a headache awareness campaign from March 2022 through 2 SNS, targeting nurse and wind instrumental musicians, because they are with high headache prevalence. Methods Through the 2 SNS, the article and video were distributed, respectively. The article and video described the 6 important topics for the general public about headaches, which were described in the Clinical Practice Guideline for Headache Disorders 2021. Just after reading or watching them as e-learning, we performed online questionnaire sheets to investigate the awareness of the 6 topics through the 2 SNS. The awareness of the 6 topics before and after the campaign was evaluated. Results In the SNS nurse-senka, we obtained 1191 responses. Women comprised 94.4%, and the median (range) age was 45 (20 to 71) years old. Headache sufferers were 63.8%, but only 35.1% had consulted doctors. In the SNS Creatone, we got the response from 134 professional musicians, with 77.3% of women. The largest number of respondents were in their 20s (range 18-60 years old). Headache sufferers were 87.9%. Of them, 36.4% had consulted doctors, 24.2% were medication-overuse headache. The ratios of individuals who were aware of the 6 topics significantly increased from 15.2%-47.0% to 80.4-98.7% after the online questionnaire in both SNS (p < 0.001, all). Conclusions We conducted this headache awareness campaign through e-learning and an online survey via 2 SNS. The ratios of individuals who were aware of the 6 topics about headaches significantly increased 1 month after e-learning. Our results suggest that e-learning and online survey can improve headache awareness. The materials in this campaign can be installed into smartphone applications and further spread on SNS, leading to strong influence. With rapid digital transformations such as online telemedicine and artificial intelligence diagnosis, raising awareness will be more efficient and effective and should be important.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0133.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Wrist injury; motion capture; croquet; technique analysis; overuse
Online: 7 May 2020 (15:16:48 CEST)
This study investigated the relationship between wrist flexion and the dynamics of the swing of a croquet mallet. Twenty seven subjects participated in a study which used 3D motion capture equipment and high speed and high-definition video to determine if there is a correlation between the lateral twist of a croquet player’s swing and the flexion of the wrist during that swing. The study found a significant correlation between the amount of flexion of the wrist from the start of the stroke to the top of the backswing and the twist of the mallet head at the top of the backswing (r=0.330, p<0.01). The methodology and findings are relevant to all sports where minimising wrist flexion is favourable for improving consistency of stroke making. Additionally, reducing wrist motion in stroke-making may reduce the incidence of wrist pain and injury in croquet, further supporting recommendations to reduce the amount of wrist flexion during the croquet swing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0319.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: medication review; clinical pharmacist; hospital
Online: 5 July 2023 (15:13:02 CEST)
Clinical pharmacists are employed at many hospital departments in Denmark, but not yet on the Faroe Islands. The purpose of this study was to test feasibility of a clinical pharmacist-led medication review service at the surgical ward of the National Hospital on the Faroe Islands. Hospitalised surgical patients were offered a medication review service by a clinical pharmacist. Identified drug related problems (DRPs) were classified according to the Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe (PCNE) model. The qualitative inputs from the ward’s staff were collected. In total, 42 patients with 171 identified DRPs were included. The majority of the DRPs concerned suboptimal effect and the safety of the drug treatment. The 49.6 % of the proposed medication changes were accepted by the ward physicians. According to the qualitative inputs, the interest for the service was greater among the younger physicians compared to the older ones, and among nurses compared to physicians. Identified barriers for the optimal service implementation were an absence of medication ordinations and poor visibility of pharmacist’s notes in electronic health records. For a successful implementation of the service, work on the physicians’ interest in an interdisciplinary cooperation and optimization of the electronic health records are warranted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1147.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: clinical pharmacist; pharmacist intervention; perioperative; surgical setting; potentially inappropriate medication; best possible medication history
Online: 18 July 2023 (04:15:38 CEST)
Background: Best Possible Medication History (BPMH) collected by clinical pharmacists is crucial for effective medication review but, in Italy, it is often left to the nursing staff. This study aims to compare the quality and accuracy of a clinical pharmacist-documented BPMH with the current standard practice of ward staff-collected BPMH at an Italian perioperative surgical setting. Methods: A 20-week prospective observational non-profit study was conducted in a major University hospital. The study comprised a feasibility, an observational, and an interventional phase. During the feasibility phase, 10 items for obtaining a correct BPMH were identified. The control group consisted of retrospectively analyzed BPMHs collected by the ward staff during the observational phase, while interventions included BPMHs collected by the clinical pharmacist during the third phase. Omissions between the two groups were compared. Results: 14 (2%) omissions were found in the intervention group, compared with 400 (57.4%) found in the controls (p<0.05); data collection was more complete when collected by pharmacists compared to the current modalities (98.0% versus 42.6%; p<0.05). Conclusions: The involvement of a pharmacist significantly reduced the number of omissions in perioperative surgical-collected BPMHs. This intervention holds the potential to decrease the risk of medication errors associated with inaccurate or incomplete BPMHs prior to surgical hospitalization.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1209.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: End-stage renal disease; medication review; drug-related problems; negative outcomes associated with medication.
Online: 16 June 2023 (10:13:13 CEST)
(1) Background: This article reviews the available scientific literature on drug-related problems and negative outcomes associated with medications identified by medication review with follow-up for end-stage renal disease and discussed with the physicians; (2) Methods: A systematic review was conducted of the scientific literature retrieved from the following databases: MEDLINE (via PubMed), Web of Science, SCOPUS, Cochrane Library: The Cochrane Central Register and Control Trials (CENTRAL) and Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe (LILACS), Medicina en Español (MEDES), and the SciELO bibliographic database (collection of scientific journals). The following terms were used as descriptors and searched in free text: "end-stage renal disease", "medication review", and "drug-related problems” and “negative outcomes associated with medication". The following limits were applied: "humans" and "adults (more than 18 years)”; (3) Results: A total of 59 references were recovered and after applying inclusion/exclusion criteria, 16 articles were selected. Of these selected articles, 15 provided information on drug-related problems and only 1 on negative outcomes associated with medications; (4) Conclusions: It can be concluded that drug-related problems and negative outcomes associated with medication affect patients with end-stage renal disease, mainly those receiving renal replacement therapy. More evidence is needed, especially on negative outcomes associated with medication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0108.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: comorbidity; sequence; all-cause mortality; medication
Online: 9 May 2022 (07:36:42 CEST)
Introduction: The presence of multiple comorbidities increases the risk of all-cause mortality, but the effects of the comorbidity sequence before the baseline date on mortality remained unexplored. This study investigated the relationship between coronary heart disease (CHD), atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) sequence on all-cause mortality risk in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: This study included patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus prescribed antidiabetic/cardiovascular medications in public hospitals of Hong Kong between January 1st, 2009 and December 31st, 2009 with follow-up until death or December 31st, 2019. Cox regression was used to identify comorbidity sequences predicting all-cause mortality in patients with different medication subgroups. Results: A total of 249291 patients (age: 66.0±12.4 years, 47.4% male) were included. At baseline, 7564, 10900 and 25589 patients had AF, HF and CHD, respectively. Over follow-up (3524±1218 days), 85870 patients died (mortality rate: 35.7 per 1000 person-years). Sulphonylurea users with CHD developed later, but insulin users with CHD developing earlier, in the disease course had lower mortality risks. Amongst insulin users with two of the three comorbidities, CHD with preceding AF (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.06, 95% CI: [2.60-3.61], p<0.001) or HF (HR: 3.84 [3.47- 4.24], p<0.001) had a higher mortality. In users of lipid-lowering agents with all three comorbidities, those with preceding AF had higher risk of mortality (AF-CHD-HF: HR: 3.22, [2.24-4.61], p<0.001; AF-HF-CHD: HR: 3.71, [2.66-5.16], p<0.001). Conclusion: The sequence of comorbidity development affects the risk of all-cause mortality to varying degrees in diabetic patients on different antidiabetic/cardiovascular medications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0335.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Self-medication; dispensing; drug; prescription; misuse; Libya
Online: 28 June 2020 (10:03:59 CEST)
Background and Objectives: In Libya, prescription medicines can easily be dispensed without a prescription, as self-medication with the subsequent of potential misuse and unnecessary risk for patients. This systematic review and meta-analysis explored the prevalence of self-medication among citizens in Libya. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, EMBASE, Medline, Scopus, google scholar and ResearchGate databases for studies published in Libya reporting the prevalence of non-prescription use of medicines in community pharmacies, targeting studies published from Jan 2008 until Dec 2019. A random meta-analysis was performed to analyze pooled estimates of non-prescription usage of medicines. Results: Out of 63 articles identified, a total of 13 papers from 7 cities were met the inclusion criteria and involved a total of 4741 subjects. The overall pooled proportion of self-medication of drugs was 53.6% (95% CI: 0.93% - 1.08%), with low heterogeneity and the P-value of the whole population tasted was found to be = 1.000 (df = 12). Seven out of the 13 studies reported data on self-medication for antibiotics without prescription. The records ranged from 15.3% (95% CI 0.61–1.65) in Misurata to 76.6% (95% CI 0.80–1.25) in Tripoli. Conclusion: Self-medication use of medicines among Libyan population is a common phenomenon involving a high proportion use of antibiotics. This misuse of medications could enhance the development and spread of antibiotic resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0895.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Event Related Potentials; Epilepsy; P300; Anti-Seizure Medication
Online: 13 July 2023 (07:40:09 CEST)
Background: Epileptic patients frequently encounter cognitive impairment. Functions that are mostly affected involve memory, attention and executive function; however this is mainly dependant on the location of the epileptic activity. The aim of the study is to assess cognitive functions in MRI-negative epilepsy patients by means of neurophysiological and neuropsychological measures. Methods: The patients were enrolled from the outpatient Epilepsy/Clinical Neurophysiology clinic over a time period of 6 months. The study sample comprised 20 MRI negative epilepsy patients [mean age ± standard deviation (SD), 30.3 ± 12.56 years; age range 16-60 years; average disease duration, 13.95 years) and 10 age-matched controls (mean age ± SD, 24.22 ± 15.39 years), that were also education-matched (p>0.05) Patients with epileptogenic lesions were excluded from the study. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects involved in the study. Auditory ERPs and the cognitive screening tool EpiTrack, were administered to all subjects. Results: Latencies of P300 and slow waves were prolonged in patients compared to controls (p<0.05). ASM load and the patients’ performance in the EpiTrack maze subtest were the most significant predictors of P300 latency. A decline in memory, attention, and speed of information processing has been observed in patients with cryptogenic epilepsy compared to age-matched controls, as reflected by P300 latency and EpiTrack scores.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0281.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Covid-19; Medicine; Practice; Bedelle city; Self-Medication
Online: 19 October 2022 (10:09:14 CEST)
Abstract Introduction There is a clear link between self-medication practice and ongoing pandemic diseases like COVID-19, According to studies conducted globally and the general Ethiopian population turned to self-medication and symptomatic treatment as a result of inadequate COVID-19 treatment and also about 80% of the population amassed drugs for pandemic use. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess self-medication practice for treatment of Covid-19 and reason to use self- medication among residents in Bedelle city and its surrounding, Southwest Oromia, Ethiopia. Methodology: A cross sectional study design was employed and the standardized questionnaire was developed by reviewing relevant literatures then the data was collected using face to face interview. Final data was analyzed by using SPSS version 23. Result: The final study contained 415 respondents in total, with a response rate of 98.5%. The majority of responses were females and between the ages of 18 - 25 Category. In this study population, the use of self-medication since the onset of the Covid-19 epidemic was reported by participants were around 50.6%. Analgesics (42.4%) and cold medicines (29.5%) were the most frequently used medications for treatment of COVID-19. Also the reported uses of these drugs included treatment of Covid-19 symptoms like the Headache (22.2%), Fever (13.2%), respiratory infective (14.3%), and cold (21.4%) were the most frequently reported symptoms for self-medication. Self-medication methods were used more frequently by women than Men. Conclusion: According to this study, analgesics and cold medications are commonly self- medicated drugs used for Covid-19 therapy. It is a serious health concern, particularly when COVID-19 symptoms are present, and high consumption of self-medication has been linked to COVID-19 prevention or treatment. Key words: Covid-19, Medicine, Practice, Bedelle city, Self-Medication
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0025.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Medication adherence, definition, disorder, perspective, healthcare professional, disorder
Online: 3 June 2019 (14:11:22 CEST)
It is not new in medical history to propose a global concern to be classified as a disease. Defining a concern into disease allows to assign ethical responsibilities to develop powerful and effective interventions. It also allow to appropriate distribute the resources uniformly economically and morally. In 2003, World Health Organization report stated that 30-50 % of patients do not take their medications as prescribed associated with morbidity, mortality and health cost. It was considered a global concern, however, irrespective of decades of researches conducted on medication adherence, we are still unable to state that medication adherence issues are being resolved. In this review, we have described few apprehensions in current understandings of medication adherence that have limited its research. We have also proposed medication adherence as disorder and provided its’ definition and classification
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0411.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Glucosamine, intraocular pressure, glaucoma, osteoarthritis, medication side effects.
Online: 23 August 2018 (10:20:47 CEST)
Glucosamine is the most common nutrition supplement used in the United States. It is promoted not only as a pain reliever but also a therapy to slow osteoarthritis. Although studies with 3,800 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee or hip found that glucosamine was no better than placebo, it continues to be used for these two indications due to its perceived safety. However, reports of an increased intraocular pressure are alarming, especially in glaucoma. Glycosaminoglycans play a key role in the physiology of the cornea, conventional outflow of aqueous humor and the retina. In theory, long-term treatment with glucosamine could reach a concentration that impacts the morphology and function of ocular tissues. We recommend ophthalmologists counsel glaucoma patients about the potential risks of glucosamine and encourage cessation in uncontrolled intraocular pressure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0392.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Medication-related burden; Questionnaire; chronic disease conditions; adherence
Online: 25 June 2018 (14:35:31 CEST)
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the perceived medication-related burden among patients with multiple non-communicable diseases (NCDs), and to investigate the association between perceived burden and adherence to medication therapy. Medication-related burden was measured in three primary care clinics in Qatar using the Living with Medicines Questionnaire (LMQ) among adults with diabetes, with or without other comorbidities. Adherence was measured using the Adherence to Refills and Medications Scale (ARMS). Two hundred ninety-three eligible patients participated in the study. Majority of participants reported experiencing minimum (66.6%) to moderate (24.1%) medication-related burden. There was a significant positive correlation between the medication-related burden (measured by the LWQ) and medication adherence (measured by ARMS) (rs (253) = 0.317, p <0.0005). The duration of diabetes diagnosis, adherence score, marital status, employment status, and presence diagnosis of hypertension were significant predictors of medication burden. A considerable proportion of the patients in this study have reported experiencing medication-related burden. Healthcare providers should seek strategies to address this burden especially among patients with risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, non-adherent to their medication therapy, living alone, or non-employed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2026.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: HIV; AIDS; antiretroviral therapy; COVID19; public health; medication adherence
Online: 30 August 2023 (09:45:38 CEST)
I. Introduction: Adherence to ART reduces morbidity and mortality among PLHIV by suppression of viral replication, restoration and preservation of immune function. However, poor adherence may lead to treatment failure and death. PLHIV have high probability of treatment interruptions due to lockdowns related to COVID-19 protocol. Mortality rate is higher among COVID-19 patients with HIV than those with COVID-19 only. This led to determination of the barriers to antiretroviral medication adherence in PLHIV at the time of COVID-19 pandemic and seek significant association between identified HIV treatment barriers and socio-demographic characteristics. II. Methods: A cross-sectional study using online survey questionnaire was distributed via social media. Sample size was computed using Open Epi software. Data was analyzed using Stata software. Categorical variables and quantitative data were summarized using frequencies and percentages, and mean and standard deviation respectively. Chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test, whichever is more appropriate, was used to determine association between socio-demographic characteristics and HIV treatment barriers. III. Results: There is a total of 116 respondents, 115 were males, homosexual (59.5%), with mean age of 30.25 years old (SD = 6.22) and majority (53.4%) were from NCR. The most common HIV treatment barriers reported by PLHIV in accessing treatment and care were unavailability of transportation and cost of courier services for ARV delivery (62.1%), location of treatment hubs (52.6%) and financial assistance (37.9%). IV. Conclusion: There is significant association between location of treatment hubs and respondents who finished college/graduate studies; checkpoints and crossing borders and: 1. respondents from Northern Luzon, 2. unemployment; financial assistance and: 1. Respondents 18 to 25 years old, 2. unemployment, 3. respondents who finished elementary/high school; psychosocial support and: 1. Respondents from NCR, 2. Respondents 26 to 30 years old;
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0500.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Alzheimer; blood brain barrier; CD4+ T cells; migration; medication
Online: 24 August 2020 (03:08:41 CEST)
The effect of Alzheimer's disease (AD) medications on CD4+ T cells homing has not been thoroughly investigated. Alzheimer's disturbs the life of at least five million persons in the USA. CD4+ T cells could both exacerbate and reduce AD symptoms. Regulating CD4+ T cells homing to the leaky blood-brain barrier (BBB) constitutes a new hope for enhancing AD prognosis. Alzheimer's drugs such as Donepezil (Aricept), Rivastigmine (Exelon), Galantamine (Razadyne) and memantine are known to play an important part in regulating the neurotransmitters mechanisms. However, little is known about the effect of these drugs on CD4+ T cells homing. In this review, we focus on current and new drugs that could modulate CD4+ T cells interactions with the BBB in AD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0204.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: computer vision; image processing; medication adherence; object detection; pill detection
Online: 17 February 2022 (08:45:14 CET)
Objective tools to track medication adherence are lacking. A tool to monitor pill intake that can be implemented in mHealth apps without the need for additional devices was developed. We propose a pill intake detection tool that uses digital image processing to analyze images of a blister to detect the presence of pills. The tool uses the circular Hough transform as a feature extraction technique and is therefore primarily useful for the detection of pills with a round shape. This pill detection tool is composed of two steps. First, the registration of a full blister and storing of reference values in a local database. Second, the detection and classification of taken and remaining pills in similar blisters, to determine the actual number of untaken pills. In the registration of round pills in full blisters, 100% of pills in gray blisters or blisters with a transparent cover were successfully detected. In counting of untaken pills in partially opened blisters, 95.2% of remaining and 95.1% of taken pills were detected in gray blisters, while 88.2% of remaining and 80.8% of taken pills were detected in blisters with a transparent cover. The proposed tool provides promising results for the detection of round pills. However, the classification of taken and remaining pills need to be further improved, in particular for the detection of pills with non-oval shapes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0398.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: statistical significance; confidence; medication tests; central limit theorem; fat tail
Online: 15 March 2021 (15:55:33 CET)
Statistical significance measures the reliability of a result obtained from a random experiment. We investigate the number of repetitions needed for a statistical result to have a certain significance. In the first step, we consider binomially distributed variables in the example of medication testing with fixed placebo efficacy, asking how many experiments are needed in order to achieve a significance of 95 %. In the next step, we take the probability distribution of the placebo efficacy into account, which to the best of our knowledge has not been done so far. Depending on the specifics, we show that in order to obtain identical significance, it may be necessary to perform twice as many experiments than in a setting where the placebo distribution is neglected. We proceed by considering more general probability distributions and close with comments on some erroneous assumptions on probability distributions which lead, for instance, to a trivial explanation of the fat tail.
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: barcode medication administration (BCMA); nurses’ workflow; inpatient setting; drug round
Online: 28 July 2020 (05:07:23 CEST)
Barcode medication administration (BCMA) is advocated as a technology that reduces medication errors relating to incorrect patient identity, drug or dose. Little is known, however, about the impact it has on nursing workflow. Our aim was to investigate the impact of BCMA on nursing activity and workflow. A comparative study was conducted on two similar surgical wards within an acute UK hospital. We observed nurses during drug rounds on a non-BCMA ward and a BCMA ward. Data were collected on drug round duration, timeliness of medication administration, patient identification, medication verification and general workflow patterns. BCMA appears not to alter drug round duration, although it may reduce the administration time per dose. Workflow was streamlined, with a reduction in use of the medicines room. The rate of patient identification increased from 74% (of 47) patients to 100% (of 43), with 95% of 255 scannable medication doses verified using the system. This study suggests that BCMA does not affect drug round duration; further research is required to determine the impact it has on timeliness of medication administration. There was reduced variability in the medication administration workflow of nurses, along with an increased patient identification rate and high medication scan rate, representing potential benefits to patient safety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1965.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: elderly medication reminder application; Kano model; AHP; QFD; PUGH decision matrix
Online: 29 May 2023 (04:42:27 CEST)
Poor medication adherence among older adults is a widespread problem worldwide. As the population ages, the design of smartphone medication management apps is critical to improving medication adherence among older adults. Taking the design of an elderly medication reminder APP as an example, this study proposes a sustainable design research method that integrates the KANO model, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Quality Function Deployment (QFD), and PUGH decision matrix. The method collects user demands through in-depth interviews, and applies the KANO model to classify these demands. The hierarchical structure of user needs is established by using AHP, and the priority is sorted according to the weight and importance determined by the judgment matrix. QFD is used to translate user needs into design requirements, and the house of quality matrix identifies key design requirements. Finally, design alternatives are evaluated using Pugh's concept selection method. The results of this study demonstrate that the integration of KANO-AHP-QFD-PUGH can be effective as a sustainable optimal design approach for the user experience of a medication reminder application for the elderly. This integrated method not only facilitates innovative optimization and sustainability of application design methods but also provides valuable theoretical and practical insights for future drug-assisted design for elderly users.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0426.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE); antipsychotic medication; polymorphism, insertion/deletion; treatment response
Online: 28 September 2022 (03:12:20 CEST)
We investigated whether a functional insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) influenced antipsychotic treatment. At baseline, and after 8 weeks of treatment with various antipsychotic medications, we assessed patients’ Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores, PANSS factors, and metabolic syndrome-related parameters (fasting plasma lipid and glucose levels, and body mass index). A total of 186 antipsychotic-naïve first-episode psychosis patients or nonadherent chronic psychosis individuals (99 males and 87 females) were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction analysis. The ACE-I/D polymorphism was significantly associated with changes in PANSS psychopathology only (p < 0.05). Compared to ACE-II homozygous males, ACE-DD homozygous and ACE-ID heterozygous males manifested significantly greater decreases in PANSS positive score, PANSS excitement factor, and PANSS cognitive factor. ACE-DD homozygous females manifested higher decreases in PANSS depression factor compared to ACE-II homozygous and ACE-ID heterozygous females. The polymorphism’s effect size was estimated as moderate to strong, while its contribution to the PANSS psychopathology ranged from ~5.4–8.7%, with the lowest contribution observed for PANSS positive score changes and the highest for PANSS depressive factor changes. Our results indicated that ACE-I/D polymorphism had a statistically significant but weak gender-specific impact on psychopathology data and showed no association between ACE-I/D polymorphism and metabolic syndrome-related parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0314.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: metabolomics; antiseizure medication; ¹H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance; focal epilepsy; response to treatment
Online: 23 March 2022 (09:11:52 CET)
A major challenge in the clinical management of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is identifying those who do not respond to antiseizure medication (ASM), allowing for the timely pursuit of alternative treatments, such as epilepsy surgery. Here, we investigated changes in plasma metabolites as biomarkers of pharmacoresistance in patients with MTLE. Furthermore, we used the metabolomics data to gain insights into the mechanisms underlying MTLE and response to ASM. We performed an untargeted metabolomic method using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and multi- and univariate statistical analyses to compare data obtained from plasma samples of 28 patients with MTLE compared to 28 controls. The patients were further divided according to response to ASM: 20 patients were refractory to treatment, and eight were responsive to ASM. We only included patients using carbamazepine in combination with clobazam. We compared the group of patients with controls and found that the profiles of glucose (p = 0.01), saturated lipids (p = 0.0002), isoleucine (p = 0.0001), β-hydroxybutyrate (p = 0.0003), and proline (p = 0.02) were different in patients compared to controls (p < 0.05). In addition, lipoproteins (p = 0.05), lactate (p = 0.05), glucose (p = 0.05), unsaturated lipids (p = 0.05), isoleucine (p = 0.05), and proline (p = 0.05), could discriminate between the two groups of patients classified according to response to ASM. The identified metabolites were linked to different biological pathways related to cell energy metabolism, and pathways linked to inflammatory processes and the modulation of neurotransmitter release and activity in MTLE. In contrast, we found that pyruvate metabolism may be linked to resistance to ASM. In conclusion, in addition to insights into the mechanisms underlying MTLE and the response to treatment with ASM, our results suggest that plasma metabolites may be used as biomarkers of disease and response to ASM in patients with MTLE. These findings warrant further studies exploring the clinical use of metabolites to assist in decision-making when treating patients with MTLE.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1888.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: potentially inappropriate medications; potential medication omissions; seniors; readmissions; mortality; reducing admissions; reducing mortality
Online: 29 August 2023 (03:51:01 CEST)
Introduction: The goals of this retrospective cohort study of 129,443 persons admitted to Calgary acute care hospitals 2013-2021 were to ascertain correlations of “potentially inappropriate medi-cations” (PIMs), “potential prescribing omissions” (PPOs) and other risk factors with readmissions and mortality. Methods: Processing and analysis codes were built in Oracle Database 19c (PL/SQL), R and Excel. Results: The percentage dying during their hospital stay rose from 3.03% during the first to 7.2% during the 6th admission. The percentage dying within 6 months of discharge rose from 9.4% after the first to 24.9 after the sixth admission. Odds ratios (adjusted for age, gender and comorbidities) for readmission were the post-admission number of medications (1.16; 1.12-1.12), STOPP PIMs (1.16; 1.15-1.16); AGS Beers PIMs (1.11; 1.11-1.11) and START omissions not corrected with a prescription (1.39 (1.35-1.42). Odds ratios for mortality were post-admission number of medications (1.04; 1.04-1.05), STOPP PIMs (0.99; 0.96-1.00); AGS Beers PIMs (1.08; 1.07-1.08) and START omissions not corrected with a prescription (1.56 (1.50-1.63). START omissions corrected with a prescription correlated with a dramatic reduction in mortality (0.51; 0.49-0.53). Odds ratios for readmissions for the second through 39th admission were consistently higher if START PPOs were not corrected for the second admission (1.41; 1.36-1.46), third (1.41;1.35-1.48); fourth 1.35;1.28-1.44); fifth 1.38; 1.28-1.49); sixth (1.47;1.34-1.62) and 7th through 39th admission (1.23; 1.14-1.34). For all admissions when a pre-scription was given to correct START PPOs ORs for mortality within six months of discharge were dramatically improved (0.51; 0.49-0.53). This was also true for the second (0.52; 0.50-0.55; fourth (0.56; 0.52-0.61; fifth (0.63; 0.57-0.68); sixth (0.68; 0.61-0.76); and 7th through 39th admissions (0.71; 0.65-0.78). Conclusions: PPOs should be corrected by prescriptions and teams of family physicians, pharmacists and nurses should focus on patients’ understanding of their illnesses, medications and ability for self-care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1359.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: atrial fibrillation; risk factors; thromboembolic events; novel oral anticoagulants; complications; hospitalization; medication monitoring
Online: 23 August 2023 (07:49:13 CEST)
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia associated with various risk factors and significant morbidity and mortality. This article presents findings from a study involving 115 patients with permanent AF. The study examined demographics, risk factors, associated pathologies, complications, and anticoagulant therapy. The results showed a slight predominance of AF in males, with the highest incidence in individuals aged 75 and above. Common risk factors included arterial hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes mellitus type 2, and obesity. Comorbidities such as congestive heart failure, mitral valve regurgitation, and pulmonary disorders were prevalent among the patients. Major complications included congestive heart failure, stroke, and myocardial infarction. Thromboembolic and bleeding risk assessment using CHAD2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED scores demonstrated a high thromboembolic risk in all patients. The majority of patients were receiving novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) before admission, while NOACs were also the most prescribed antithrombotic therapy at discharge. The study highlights the importance of risk factor management and appropriate anticoagulant therapy in AF patients to reduce complications and improve outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0196.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: CSHCN; CMC; care coordination; case series; collaboration; medical complexity; medication management; methodology; pediatrics
Online: 10 November 2022 (10:04:10 CET)
Care coordination (CC) for children with special healthcare needs and medical complexity (CSHCN-CMC) is challenging, and medication management is especially difficult for providers, parents/caregivers, and patients alike. While numerous strategies for CC have been suggested and implemented, barriers to medication optimization remain. The report describes the creation of a pediatric clinical pharmacotherapy practice, related standard operating procedures to assure consistent application of screening tools and care provision through comprehensive medication management (CMM), and establishment of a collaborative practice agreement (CPA) to guide drug therapy delegation, monitoring, and modification. The methodology of a prospective case series is also presented to highlight drug therapy problems and their resolution in CSHCN-CMC. Future opportunities to expand the practice for engagement in population health management as well as prior authorization activities on behalf of physicians will be discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0244.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: determinants, developing countries, disease outbreaks, implications, literature review, natural products, public health, self-medication
Online: 3 August 2023 (09:42:14 CEST)
Self-medication with natural products during disease outbreaks in developing countries poses significant public health challenges yet remains relatively unexplored in the published literature. This study aims to assess the implications of such practices, address the state and quality of evidence, identify gaps in the literature, explore determinants and contributing factors, elucidating the implications, and propose possible solutions. Using a modified systematic literature review methodology, 20 articles were selected from 1,683 reports after applying rigorous selection criteria and quality assessment using the AXIS critical evaluation tool. The findings revealed a dearth of literature concerning the implications of self-medication with natural products during disease outbreaks, highlighting the need for further investigation in this domain. Key determinants included gender, acquisition, and ideological factors, while common side effects comprised diarrhoea, stomach pain, sweating, headache, and nausea/vomiting. Notably, self-medication with natural products was associated with reduced communication with healthcare providers, leading to underreported side effects. It also creates a false sense of safety which may potentially exacerbate the spread of the prevailing disease. In conclusion, the rampant use of natural products for self-medication necessitates increased awareness among the population, encouraging individuals to seek professional medical care and support when faced with disease outbreaks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0464.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Evidence based practice; Pharmaceutical care; Community pharmacy; France; Over-the-counter medication; sources of information
Online: 7 August 2023 (10:45:26 CEST)
We assessed the use of Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) among pharmacists working in community pharmacies in France, and the factors linked to this practice. During 3 months in 2018 an online survey was sent to over 7,000 active pharmacists, and posted on pharmacist social media sites. The 40-item questionnaire described four clinical cases reflecting typical situations (conventional med-icine and Complementary and Alternative Medicine) encountered daily by community pharma-cists. Multiple-choice responses were proposed and scored according to whether they reflected EBP. A high total score indicated behavior in line with EBP. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate factors that might explain adherence to EPB (pharmacy’s characteristics, the pharmacist’s status, mode of continuing education and sources of information). 595 pharmacists completed the questionnaire. The majority relied on pharmaceutical industry and other biased and/or non-evidence-based sources, particularly concerning information on homeopathic products. The consultation of independent reviews, health agency recommendations, and peer-reviewed scientific journals, was associated with evidence-based decisions. In contrast, reliance on phar-maceutical industry documents, personal experience and informal handbooks was linked to lower EBP scores. The level of EBP use by French community pharmacists needs to be improved to ensure that good quality scientifically-based advice is given to customers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0117.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: active pharmaceutical ingredient; compounded drug; compounding; extemporaneous formulation; manufactured material; medication; monograph; pediatric; reference standards
Online: 5 April 2022 (10:17:10 CEST)
The purpose of this work was to evaluate the suitability of recent US Food and Drug Administration (US-FDA) approved and marketed oral liquid, powder, or granule products for children in North America, to identify the next group of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) that have high potential for development as commercially available FDA-approved finished liquid dosage forms , and to propose lists of compounded nonsterile preparations (CNSPs) that should developed as commercially available FDA-approved finished liquid dosage forms as well as those that pharmacists should continue to compound extemporaneously. Through this identification and categorization process, the pharmaceutical industry, government, and the professions are encouraged to continue to work together to improve the likelihood that patients will receive high quality standardized extemporaneous CNSPs and US-FDA-approved products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0120.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Sever oligospermia; Medication and cancer treatment influence on oligozoospermia; ICSI for men with sever oligozoospermia
Online: 7 October 2021 (14:13:32 CEST)
Assisted reproductive technology has been developed significantly throughout the past few years, particularly diagnosing and treating male infertility. Many studies have been performed showing that Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) is a successful method to attain clinical pregnancy and live birth through impaired spermatozoa characteristics or low sperm count, such as severe oligospermia. Severe oligospermia indicates low sperm count, which in some cases leads to azoospermia. Severe oligospermia can be caused by several factors such as genetics or medication. In search of efficient treatment for couples with Severe oligospermia, numerous retrospective and prospective researches have reported high pregnancy and live birth rates through testicular sperm for men with severe oligospermia and cryptozoospermia with or without high sperm DNA damage. The research showed that the use of testicular sperm in combination with ICSI yielded a high pregnancy rate and live births over another source of sperm, such as ejaculated sperms. Moreover, the use of ICSI in severe oligospermia has shown successful fertilization and pregnancy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1455.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Acute respiratory illness; critical care; recombinant tissue plasminogen activator; nebulization, fibrinolytics, COVID-19 pandemic, inhaled medication, targeted therapy
Online: 20 June 2023 (14:59:12 CEST)
Nebulized thrombolysis offers locally targeted therapy with potentially lower bleeding risk than systemic administration for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) respiratory failure. In a proof-of-concept safety study, adult patients with COVID-19-induced respiratory failure and a <300mmHg PaO2/FiO2 (P/F) ratio, requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) or non-invasive respiratory support (NIRS) received nebulized rt-PA in two cohorts (C1 and C2), alongside standard of care during the first two UK COVID-19 waves. Matched historical controls (MHC; n=18) were used in C1. Safety co-primary endpoints were treatment-related bleeds and fibrinogen reduction to <1.0–1.5 g/L. A dose escalation strategy for improved efficacy with the least safety concerns was determined in C1 for use in C2; patients were stratified by ventilation type to receive 40–60 mg rt-PA per day for ≤14 days. Nine patients in C1 (IMV, 6/9; NIRS, 3/9) and 26 in C2 (IMV, 12/26; NIRS, 14/26) received nebulized rt-PA for a mean (SD) of 6.7 (4.6) and 9.1(4.6) days, respectively. Four bleeding events (one severe and three mild) in three patients were considered treatment-related. No significant fibrinogen reductions were reported. Greater improvement in mean P/F ratio from baseline to end of study was observed in C1 compared with MHC [C1; 154 to 299 vs MHC; 154 to 212). In C2, there was no difference in the baseline P/F ratio of NIRS and IMV patients. However, a larger improvement in P/F ratio was observed in NIRS patients [NIRS; 126 to 240 vs IMV; 120 to 188) and they required fewer treatment days (NIRS; 7.86 vs IMV; 10.5). Nebulized rt-PA appears to be well-tolerated, showing a trend of improved oxygenation and faster recovery in patients with acute COVID-19-induced respiratory failure requiring respiratory support; this effect was more pronounced in the NIRS group. Further investigation is required to study the potential of this novel treatment approach.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Stress; fear; anxiety; aggression; veterinary visit; low-stress handling; counterconditioning; behaviour modification; anxiolytic medication; psychoactive drugs; dogs; cats
Online: 8 January 2021 (14:37:01 CET)
A high proportion of dogs and cats are fearful during veterinary visits, which in some cases may escalate into aggression. Here, we discuss factors that contribute to negative emotions in a veterinary setting and how these can be addressed. The set-up of the waiting area (e.g. spatial dividers; elevated places for cat carriers), tailoring the examination and the treatment to the individual, considerate handling (minimal restraint when possible, avoiding leaning over or cornering animals) and offering high-value food or toys throughout the visit can promote security and, ideally, positive associations. Desensitisation and counterconditioning are highly recommended both to prevent and address existing negative emotions. Some negative experiences such as short-term pain from injections can be minimised by using tactile and cognitive distractions. Preemptive analgesia is recommended for known painful procedures. Recommendations for handling fearful animals to minimise aggressive responses are discussed. However, anxiolytics or sedation should be used whenever there is a risk of traumatising an animal or for safety reasons. Stress-reducing measures can decrease stress and fear in patients and consequently their owners – thus strengthening the relationship with the clients as well as increasing the professional satisfaction of veterinary staff.
INTERESTING IMAGES | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0439.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: parental health literacy; necessary health education; understanding treatment guidelines; medication non-adherence; healthcare; avoidable medical costs; global health burden; COVID-19 vaccine negligence
Online: 25 January 2023 (03:43:57 CET)
People must have particular personality traits and social resources, also known as health literacy, in order to access, comprehend, and use information to make decisions about their health. Patients' ability to engage in complex disease management and self-care is strongly related to their level of health literacy. It can help us stay healthy by preventing illness and effectively managing existing illnesses. People with low health literacy (LHL) may find it difficult to manage their condition and prevent illness, which may lead to increased use of healthcare services. Furthermore, LHL is associated with increased hospitalizations, increased use of emergency care, decreased use of preventative services, and a worsened ability to understand labels and health messages, a worsened state of health, higher mortality, and more expensive medical care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1050.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: transungual; antifungal nail lacquer; Itraconazole Nail Medication; Nail Drug Uptake; Nail penetration; Nail Plate Application; itraconazole hydrochloride; Topical Nail Polish; nail clipping; Nail Diffusion
Online: 15 August 2023 (07:06:34 CEST)
: Broad-spectrum antifungal drug deployed for topical therapy, specific for onychomycosis, Itraconazole was used as the active pharmaceutical ingredient in a nail lacquer formulation1. The objective of the study was to optimize an antifungal nail lacquer, which when applied topically onto the dorsal surface of the nail plate would facilitate the transungual penetration of the drug. Itraconazole hydrochloride was synthesized to aid the formulation of the lacquers. The optimization involved comparing four different formulations of 1%w/w Itraconazole nail lacquers containing combinations of penetration enhancers (Urea, Salicylic acid, and Papain) based on their ability to facilitate diffusion of the drug through the nail plate over five days. The drug uptake was quantified by extracting the drug from the nail clippings and analyzing it. The tests conducted to account for the quality of the optimized formulation were drug content, spreadability, check for precipitation, and accelerated stability. The results demonstrated that the optimized 1%w/w Itraconazole nail lacquer contained 5%w/w Salicylic acid, 5 %w/w Papain, and 2.8% w/w Urea. The drug uptake from nail clippings was higher than the MIC90 for T. Rubrum strain, and the quality of the optimized lacquer was not compromised throughout three weeks2. The hypothesis stated that the inclusion of Salicylic acid, Papain, and Urea in an Itraconazole (1%w/w) nail lacquer would have the highest transungual penetration on application to the nail plate. In conclusion, the hypothesis was accepted, and the optimized lacquer passed the drug uptake evaluation and all quality control tests.