ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0108.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: comorbidity; sequence; all-cause mortality; medication
Online: 9 May 2022 (07:36:42 CEST)
Introduction: The presence of multiple comorbidities increases the risk of all-cause mortality, but the effects of the comorbidity sequence before the baseline date on mortality remained unexplored. This study investigated the relationship between coronary heart disease (CHD), atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) sequence on all-cause mortality risk in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: This study included patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus prescribed antidiabetic/cardiovascular medications in public hospitals of Hong Kong between January 1st, 2009 and December 31st, 2009 with follow-up until death or December 31st, 2019. Cox regression was used to identify comorbidity sequences predicting all-cause mortality in patients with different medication subgroups. Results: A total of 249291 patients (age: 66.0±12.4 years, 47.4% male) were included. At baseline, 7564, 10900 and 25589 patients had AF, HF and CHD, respectively. Over follow-up (3524±1218 days), 85870 patients died (mortality rate: 35.7 per 1000 person-years). Sulphonylurea users with CHD developed later, but insulin users with CHD developing earlier, in the disease course had lower mortality risks. Amongst insulin users with two of the three comorbidities, CHD with preceding AF (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.06, 95% CI: [2.60-3.61], p<0.001) or HF (HR: 3.84 [3.47- 4.24], p<0.001) had a higher mortality. In users of lipid-lowering agents with all three comorbidities, those with preceding AF had higher risk of mortality (AF-CHD-HF: HR: 3.22, [2.24-4.61], p<0.001; AF-HF-CHD: HR: 3.71, [2.66-5.16], p<0.001). Conclusion: The sequence of comorbidity development affects the risk of all-cause mortality to varying degrees in diabetic patients on different antidiabetic/cardiovascular medications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0335.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Self-medication; dispensing; drug; prescription; misuse; Libya
Online: 28 June 2020 (10:03:59 CEST)
Background and Objectives: In Libya, prescription medicines can easily be dispensed without a prescription, as self-medication with the subsequent of potential misuse and unnecessary risk for patients. This systematic review and meta-analysis explored the prevalence of self-medication among citizens in Libya. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, EMBASE, Medline, Scopus, google scholar and ResearchGate databases for studies published in Libya reporting the prevalence of non-prescription use of medicines in community pharmacies, targeting studies published from Jan 2008 until Dec 2019. A random meta-analysis was performed to analyze pooled estimates of non-prescription usage of medicines. Results: Out of 63 articles identified, a total of 13 papers from 7 cities were met the inclusion criteria and involved a total of 4741 subjects. The overall pooled proportion of self-medication of drugs was 53.6% (95% CI: 0.93% - 1.08%), with low heterogeneity and the P-value of the whole population tasted was found to be = 1.000 (df = 12). Seven out of the 13 studies reported data on self-medication for antibiotics without prescription. The records ranged from 15.3% (95% CI 0.61–1.65) in Misurata to 76.6% (95% CI 0.80–1.25) in Tripoli. Conclusion: Self-medication use of medicines among Libyan population is a common phenomenon involving a high proportion use of antibiotics. This misuse of medications could enhance the development and spread of antibiotic resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0281.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Covid-19; Medicine; Practice; Bedelle city; Self-Medication
Online: 19 October 2022 (10:09:14 CEST)
Abstract Introduction There is a clear link between self-medication practice and ongoing pandemic diseases like COVID-19, According to studies conducted globally and the general Ethiopian population turned to self-medication and symptomatic treatment as a result of inadequate COVID-19 treatment and also about 80% of the population amassed drugs for pandemic use. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess self-medication practice for treatment of Covid-19 and reason to use self- medication among residents in Bedelle city and its surrounding, Southwest Oromia, Ethiopia. Methodology: A cross sectional study design was employed and the standardized questionnaire was developed by reviewing relevant literatures then the data was collected using face to face interview. Final data was analyzed by using SPSS version 23. Result: The final study contained 415 respondents in total, with a response rate of 98.5%. The majority of responses were females and between the ages of 18 - 25 Category. In this study population, the use of self-medication since the onset of the Covid-19 epidemic was reported by participants were around 50.6%. Analgesics (42.4%) and cold medicines (29.5%) were the most frequently used medications for treatment of COVID-19. Also the reported uses of these drugs included treatment of Covid-19 symptoms like the Headache (22.2%), Fever (13.2%), respiratory infective (14.3%), and cold (21.4%) were the most frequently reported symptoms for self-medication. Self-medication methods were used more frequently by women than Men. Conclusion: According to this study, analgesics and cold medications are commonly self- medicated drugs used for Covid-19 therapy. It is a serious health concern, particularly when COVID-19 symptoms are present, and high consumption of self-medication has been linked to COVID-19 prevention or treatment. Key words: Covid-19, Medicine, Practice, Bedelle city, Self-Medication
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0025.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Medication adherence, definition, disorder, perspective, healthcare professional, disorder
Online: 3 June 2019 (14:11:22 CEST)
It is not new in medical history to propose a global concern to be classified as a disease. Defining a concern into disease allows to assign ethical responsibilities to develop powerful and effective interventions. It also allow to appropriate distribute the resources uniformly economically and morally. In 2003, World Health Organization report stated that 30-50 % of patients do not take their medications as prescribed associated with morbidity, mortality and health cost. It was considered a global concern, however, irrespective of decades of researches conducted on medication adherence, we are still unable to state that medication adherence issues are being resolved. In this review, we have described few apprehensions in current understandings of medication adherence that have limited its research. We have also proposed medication adherence as disorder and provided its’ definition and classification
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0411.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Glucosamine, intraocular pressure, glaucoma, osteoarthritis, medication side effects.
Online: 23 August 2018 (10:20:47 CEST)
Glucosamine is the most common nutrition supplement used in the United States. It is promoted not only as a pain reliever but also a therapy to slow osteoarthritis. Although studies with 3,800 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee or hip found that glucosamine was no better than placebo, it continues to be used for these two indications due to its perceived safety. However, reports of an increased intraocular pressure are alarming, especially in glaucoma. Glycosaminoglycans play a key role in the physiology of the cornea, conventional outflow of aqueous humor and the retina. In theory, long-term treatment with glucosamine could reach a concentration that impacts the morphology and function of ocular tissues. We recommend ophthalmologists counsel glaucoma patients about the potential risks of glucosamine and encourage cessation in uncontrolled intraocular pressure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0392.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Medication-related burden; Questionnaire; chronic disease conditions; adherence
Online: 25 June 2018 (14:35:31 CEST)
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the perceived medication-related burden among patients with multiple non-communicable diseases (NCDs), and to investigate the association between perceived burden and adherence to medication therapy. Medication-related burden was measured in three primary care clinics in Qatar using the Living with Medicines Questionnaire (LMQ) among adults with diabetes, with or without other comorbidities. Adherence was measured using the Adherence to Refills and Medications Scale (ARMS). Two hundred ninety-three eligible patients participated in the study. Majority of participants reported experiencing minimum (66.6%) to moderate (24.1%) medication-related burden. There was a significant positive correlation between the medication-related burden (measured by the LWQ) and medication adherence (measured by ARMS) (rs (253) = 0.317, p <0.0005). The duration of diabetes diagnosis, adherence score, marital status, employment status, and presence diagnosis of hypertension were significant predictors of medication burden. A considerable proportion of the patients in this study have reported experiencing medication-related burden. Healthcare providers should seek strategies to address this burden especially among patients with risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, non-adherent to their medication therapy, living alone, or non-employed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0500.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Alzheimer; blood brain barrier; CD4+ T cells; migration; medication
Online: 24 August 2020 (03:08:41 CEST)
The effect of Alzheimer's disease (AD) medications on CD4+ T cells homing has not been thoroughly investigated. Alzheimer's disturbs the life of at least five million persons in the USA. CD4+ T cells could both exacerbate and reduce AD symptoms. Regulating CD4+ T cells homing to the leaky blood-brain barrier (BBB) constitutes a new hope for enhancing AD prognosis. Alzheimer's drugs such as Donepezil (Aricept), Rivastigmine (Exelon), Galantamine (Razadyne) and memantine are known to play an important part in regulating the neurotransmitters mechanisms. However, little is known about the effect of these drugs on CD4+ T cells homing. In this review, we focus on current and new drugs that could modulate CD4+ T cells interactions with the BBB in AD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0204.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: computer vision; image processing; medication adherence; object detection; pill detection
Online: 17 February 2022 (08:45:14 CET)
Objective tools to track medication adherence are lacking. A tool to monitor pill intake that can be implemented in mHealth apps without the need for additional devices was developed. We propose a pill intake detection tool that uses digital image processing to analyze images of a blister to detect the presence of pills. The tool uses the circular Hough transform as a feature extraction technique and is therefore primarily useful for the detection of pills with a round shape. This pill detection tool is composed of two steps. First, the registration of a full blister and storing of reference values in a local database. Second, the detection and classification of taken and remaining pills in similar blisters, to determine the actual number of untaken pills. In the registration of round pills in full blisters, 100% of pills in gray blisters or blisters with a transparent cover were successfully detected. In counting of untaken pills in partially opened blisters, 95.2% of remaining and 95.1% of taken pills were detected in gray blisters, while 88.2% of remaining and 80.8% of taken pills were detected in blisters with a transparent cover. The proposed tool provides promising results for the detection of round pills. However, the classification of taken and remaining pills need to be further improved, in particular for the detection of pills with non-oval shapes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0398.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: statistical significance; confidence; medication tests; central limit theorem; fat tail
Online: 15 March 2021 (15:55:33 CET)
Statistical significance measures the reliability of a result obtained from a random experiment. We investigate the number of repetitions needed for a statistical result to have a certain significance. In the first step, we consider binomially distributed variables in the example of medication testing with fixed placebo efficacy, asking how many experiments are needed in order to achieve a significance of 95 %. In the next step, we take the probability distribution of the placebo efficacy into account, which to the best of our knowledge has not been done so far. Depending on the specifics, we show that in order to obtain identical significance, it may be necessary to perform twice as many experiments than in a setting where the placebo distribution is neglected. We proceed by considering more general probability distributions and close with comments on some erroneous assumptions on probability distributions which lead, for instance, to a trivial explanation of the fat tail.
Subject: Keywords: barcode medication administration (BCMA); nurses’ workflow; inpatient setting; drug round
Online: 28 July 2020 (05:07:23 CEST)
Barcode medication administration (BCMA) is advocated as a technology that reduces medication errors relating to incorrect patient identity, drug or dose. Little is known, however, about the impact it has on nursing workflow. Our aim was to investigate the impact of BCMA on nursing activity and workflow. A comparative study was conducted on two similar surgical wards within an acute UK hospital. We observed nurses during drug rounds on a non-BCMA ward and a BCMA ward. Data were collected on drug round duration, timeliness of medication administration, patient identification, medication verification and general workflow patterns. BCMA appears not to alter drug round duration, although it may reduce the administration time per dose. Workflow was streamlined, with a reduction in use of the medicines room. The rate of patient identification increased from 74% (of 47) patients to 100% (of 43), with 95% of 255 scannable medication doses verified using the system. This study suggests that BCMA does not affect drug round duration; further research is required to determine the impact it has on timeliness of medication administration. There was reduced variability in the medication administration workflow of nurses, along with an increased patient identification rate and high medication scan rate, representing potential benefits to patient safety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0426.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE); antipsychotic medication; polymorphism, insertion/deletion; treatment response
Online: 28 September 2022 (03:12:20 CEST)
We investigated whether a functional insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) influenced antipsychotic treatment. At baseline, and after 8 weeks of treatment with various antipsychotic medications, we assessed patients’ Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores, PANSS factors, and metabolic syndrome-related parameters (fasting plasma lipid and glucose levels, and body mass index). A total of 186 antipsychotic-naïve first-episode psychosis patients or nonadherent chronic psychosis individuals (99 males and 87 females) were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction analysis. The ACE-I/D polymorphism was significantly associated with changes in PANSS psychopathology only (p < 0.05). Compared to ACE-II homozygous males, ACE-DD homozygous and ACE-ID heterozygous males manifested significantly greater decreases in PANSS positive score, PANSS excitement factor, and PANSS cognitive factor. ACE-DD homozygous females manifested higher decreases in PANSS depression factor compared to ACE-II homozygous and ACE-ID heterozygous females. The polymorphism’s effect size was estimated as moderate to strong, while its contribution to the PANSS psychopathology ranged from ~5.4–8.7%, with the lowest contribution observed for PANSS positive score changes and the highest for PANSS depressive factor changes. Our results indicated that ACE-I/D polymorphism had a statistically significant but weak gender-specific impact on psychopathology data and showed no association between ACE-I/D polymorphism and metabolic syndrome-related parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0314.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: metabolomics; antiseizure medication; ¹H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance; focal epilepsy; response to treatment
Online: 23 March 2022 (09:11:52 CET)
A major challenge in the clinical management of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is identifying those who do not respond to antiseizure medication (ASM), allowing for the timely pursuit of alternative treatments, such as epilepsy surgery. Here, we investigated changes in plasma metabolites as biomarkers of pharmacoresistance in patients with MTLE. Furthermore, we used the metabolomics data to gain insights into the mechanisms underlying MTLE and response to ASM. We performed an untargeted metabolomic method using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and multi- and univariate statistical analyses to compare data obtained from plasma samples of 28 patients with MTLE compared to 28 controls. The patients were further divided according to response to ASM: 20 patients were refractory to treatment, and eight were responsive to ASM. We only included patients using carbamazepine in combination with clobazam. We compared the group of patients with controls and found that the profiles of glucose (p = 0.01), saturated lipids (p = 0.0002), isoleucine (p = 0.0001), β-hydroxybutyrate (p = 0.0003), and proline (p = 0.02) were different in patients compared to controls (p < 0.05). In addition, lipoproteins (p = 0.05), lactate (p = 0.05), glucose (p = 0.05), unsaturated lipids (p = 0.05), isoleucine (p = 0.05), and proline (p = 0.05), could discriminate between the two groups of patients classified according to response to ASM. The identified metabolites were linked to different biological pathways related to cell energy metabolism, and pathways linked to inflammatory processes and the modulation of neurotransmitter release and activity in MTLE. In contrast, we found that pyruvate metabolism may be linked to resistance to ASM. In conclusion, in addition to insights into the mechanisms underlying MTLE and the response to treatment with ASM, our results suggest that plasma metabolites may be used as biomarkers of disease and response to ASM in patients with MTLE. These findings warrant further studies exploring the clinical use of metabolites to assist in decision-making when treating patients with MTLE.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0196.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: CSHCN; CMC; care coordination; case series; collaboration; medical complexity; medication management; methodology; pediatrics
Online: 10 November 2022 (10:04:10 CET)
Care coordination (CC) for children with special healthcare needs and medical complexity (CSHCN-CMC) is challenging, and medication management is especially difficult for providers, parents/caregivers, and patients alike. While numerous strategies for CC have been suggested and implemented, barriers to medication optimization remain. The report describes the creation of a pediatric clinical pharmacotherapy practice, related standard operating procedures to assure consistent application of screening tools and care provision through comprehensive medication management (CMM), and establishment of a collaborative practice agreement (CPA) to guide drug therapy delegation, monitoring, and modification. The methodology of a prospective case series is also presented to highlight drug therapy problems and their resolution in CSHCN-CMC. Future opportunities to expand the practice for engagement in population health management as well as prior authorization activities on behalf of physicians will be discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0117.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: active pharmaceutical ingredient; compounded drug; compounding; extemporaneous formulation; manufactured material; medication; monograph; pediatric; reference standards
Online: 5 April 2022 (10:17:10 CEST)
The purpose of this work was to evaluate the suitability of recent US Food and Drug Administration (US-FDA) approved and marketed oral liquid, powder, or granule products for children in North America, to identify the next group of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) that have high potential for development as commercially available FDA-approved finished liquid dosage forms , and to propose lists of compounded nonsterile preparations (CNSPs) that should developed as commercially available FDA-approved finished liquid dosage forms as well as those that pharmacists should continue to compound extemporaneously. Through this identification and categorization process, the pharmaceutical industry, government, and the professions are encouraged to continue to work together to improve the likelihood that patients will receive high quality standardized extemporaneous CNSPs and US-FDA-approved products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0120.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: Sever oligospermia; Medication and cancer treatment influence on oligozoospermia; ICSI for men with sever oligozoospermia
Online: 7 October 2021 (14:13:32 CEST)
Assisted reproductive technology has been developed significantly throughout the past few years, particularly diagnosing and treating male infertility. Many studies have been performed showing that Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) is a successful method to attain clinical pregnancy and live birth through impaired spermatozoa characteristics or low sperm count, such as severe oligospermia. Severe oligospermia indicates low sperm count, which in some cases leads to azoospermia. Severe oligospermia can be caused by several factors such as genetics or medication. In search of efficient treatment for couples with Severe oligospermia, numerous retrospective and prospective researches have reported high pregnancy and live birth rates through testicular sperm for men with severe oligospermia and cryptozoospermia with or without high sperm DNA damage. The research showed that the use of testicular sperm in combination with ICSI yielded a high pregnancy rate and live births over another source of sperm, such as ejaculated sperms. Moreover, the use of ICSI in severe oligospermia has shown successful fertilization and pregnancy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0509.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: education; medication-overuse headache (MOH); migraine; online; prevention; rational analgesic-use for headache; social networking services; social media
Online: 28 January 2023 (02:47:04 CET)
Introduction Headache is a common public health problem, but its burden could be avoided by raising headache awareness and the appropriate use of acute medication and prophylactic medication. Few reports on raising headache awareness in the general public have been reported, and there are no reports on headache awareness campaigns through social networking services (SNS), or social media, in Japan. We prospectively performed a headache awareness campaign from March 2022 through 2 SNS, targeting nurse and wind instrumental musicians, because they are with high headache prevalence. Methods Through the 2 SNS, the article and video were distributed, respectively. The article and video described the 6 important topics for the general public about headaches, which were described in the Clinical Practice Guideline for Headache Disorders 2021. Just after reading or watching them as e-learning, we performed online questionnaire sheets to investigate the awareness of the 6 topics through the 2 SNS. The awareness of the 6 topics before and after the campaign was evaluated. Results In the SNS nurse-senka, we obtained 1191 responses. Women comprised 94.4%, and the median (range) age was 45 (20 to 71) years old. Headache sufferers were 63.8%, but only 35.1% had consulted doctors. In the SNS Creatone, we got the response from 134 professional musicians, with 77.3% of women. The largest number of respondents were in their 20s (range 18-60 years old). Headache sufferers were 87.9%. Of them, 36.4% had consulted doctors, 24.2% were medication-overuse headache. The ratios of individuals who were aware of the 6 topics significantly increased from 15.2%-47.0% to 80.4-98.7% after the online questionnaire in both SNS (p < 0.001, all). Conclusions We conducted this headache awareness campaign through e-learning and an online survey via 2 SNS. The ratios of individuals who were aware of the 6 topics about headaches significantly increased 1 month after e-learning. Our results suggest that e-learning and online survey can improve headache awareness. The materials in this campaign can be installed into smartphone applications and further spread on SNS, leading to strong influence. With rapid digital transformations such as online telemedicine and artificial intelligence diagnosis, raising awareness will be more efficient and effective and should be important.
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Stress; fear; anxiety; aggression; veterinary visit; low-stress handling; counterconditioning; behaviour modification; anxiolytic medication; psychoactive drugs; dogs; cats
Online: 8 January 2021 (14:37:01 CET)
A high proportion of dogs and cats are fearful during veterinary visits, which in some cases may escalate into aggression. Here, we discuss factors that contribute to negative emotions in a veterinary setting and how these can be addressed. The set-up of the waiting area (e.g. spatial dividers; elevated places for cat carriers), tailoring the examination and the treatment to the individual, considerate handling (minimal restraint when possible, avoiding leaning over or cornering animals) and offering high-value food or toys throughout the visit can promote security and, ideally, positive associations. Desensitisation and counterconditioning are highly recommended both to prevent and address existing negative emotions. Some negative experiences such as short-term pain from injections can be minimised by using tactile and cognitive distractions. Preemptive analgesia is recommended for known painful procedures. Recommendations for handling fearful animals to minimise aggressive responses are discussed. However, anxiolytics or sedation should be used whenever there is a risk of traumatising an animal or for safety reasons. Stress-reducing measures can decrease stress and fear in patients and consequently their owners – thus strengthening the relationship with the clients as well as increasing the professional satisfaction of veterinary staff.
INTERESTING IMAGES | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0439.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: parental health literacy; necessary health education; understanding treatment guidelines; medication non-adherence; healthcare; avoidable medical costs; global health burden; COVID-19 vaccine negligence
Online: 25 January 2023 (03:43:57 CET)
People must have particular personality traits and social resources, also known as health literacy, in order to access, comprehend, and use information to make decisions about their health. Patients' ability to engage in complex disease management and self-care is strongly related to their level of health literacy. It can help us stay healthy by preventing illness and effectively managing existing illnesses. People with low health literacy (LHL) may find it difficult to manage their condition and prevent illness, which may lead to increased use of healthcare services. Furthermore, LHL is associated with increased hospitalizations, increased use of emergency care, decreased use of preventative services, and a worsened ability to understand labels and health messages, a worsened state of health, higher mortality, and more expensive medical care.