REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0743.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: chemoprophlaxis; calves; cryptosporidiosis; diarrhea; dairy
Online: 31 July 2020 (10:32:09 CEST)
Cryptosporidiosis is a common illness in young cattle that causes high morbidity and some mortality. A common prophylactic treatment are halofuginone products but it seems likely disease could be reduced by other other pharmacological products or some management strategies. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analyses on key outcomes for treatment of calves before and after 5 days of age with any management strategy, any nutritional strategy or any non-halofuginone product. A systematic literature search was undertaken with data extracted for outcomes = oocyst shedding, diarrhea, mortality and weight gain. Experiments had to describe results for same age animals in contemporary arms. Control animals had to be observed concurrently in planned experiments (pre-post and case-control studies were not eligible). Both randomized and other clinically controlled trials were eligible. Results were subgrouped by study design and outcomes were described in detail where at least two articles described the same treatment strategy. 55 articles were found. Significantly lower incidence of oocyst shedding, diarrhea burden and mortality was reported in many experimental arms, especially when animals started treatment before 5 days old. Weight gain was not mostly affected by treatment, however, by three weeks of age. The evidence base is at least encouraging but insufficient about paromomycin, bumped kinase inhibitors and azithromycin treatment, especially for diarrhea and oocyst shedding, given late or early. Azithromycin is the most promising of these.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0466.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: antibiotic; diarrhea; prevalence, shigella; shigellosis
Online: 27 August 2018 (15:08:52 CEST)
Infectious diarrhoea such as shigellosis causes considerable morbidity and mortality, especially in infants, immune-compromised individuals and those living with HIV/AIDS. It is endemic in developing countries and in Sub-Saharan Africa, including South Africa, where diarrhoeal disease remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. This study was undertaken to establish incidences of Shigella, its serotype and resistant pattern of isolates from human faeces from residence of Johannesburg, South Africa. All stools received between January to April from the private healthcare system were cultured on Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate and MacConkey Agar and Shigella was confirmed by standard biochemical reactions and a serological method. An antimicrobial sensitivity test was used. A total of 11 009 samples from patients between 22 days to 94 years old yielded 110 Shigella isolates, of which 47 (43%) were S. flexneri, 61 (55%) were S. sonnei, 1 (1%) was S. dysenteriae and 1 (1 %) was S. boydii. The majority of patients were children between < 1 to 5 years, 76 (69%), followed by those between 6 to 10 years 13 (12%). In children up to 10 years, S. sonnei was confirmed in 52 cases (59%) and S. flexneri in 36 cases (41%). Overall, 53 (48%) males and 57 (52%) females were infected.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1669.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD); Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD); Probiotic; Tube-fed elderly; Infectious disease
Online: 27 November 2023 (10:22:14 CET)
This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of probiotics in elderly hospitalized tube-fed patients undergoing antibiotic therapy for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD). Probiotics were administered to 29 patients, with twice-daily doses for 7 days following the completion of antibiotic treatment. In the probiotic group, while stool form showed no significant change, there was a significant decrease in stool frequency. Conversely, the control group exhibited improved stool form but not frequency. The probiotic group maintained a significant difference in stool form during the follow-up period. Additionally, the control group showed a positive correlation between stool form, frequency, antibiotic therapy, and intensive care unit admission, which was not observed in the probiotic group. These findings suggest that supplementing with probiotics can effectively normalize stool form in elderly hospitalized tube-fed patients undergoing antibiotic treatment for CDAD, highlighting the potential benefits of probiotic intervention in this specific population.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: diarrhea; wood creosote; Seirogan; retrospective study; capsule
Online: 6 November 2019 (11:49:10 CET)
Seirogan, a wood creosote, is a nonprescription drug used to treat diarrhea. However, reports of its clinical use are rare. Here, we report on the efficacy of wood creosote (3 capsules daily) for the alleviation of diarrheal symptoms in 148 patients from 10 clinics in Japan. The wood creosote capsules were classified as remarkably effective (44 patients), effective (71 patients), and partially effective (13 patients) based on the degree of alleviation of diarrheal symptoms that were induced by a variety of causes. The antidiarrheal efficacy of the capsules did not differ between males and females, and young patients (21–30 years) showed greater improvement in diarrheal symptoms than did old patients (> 61 years). Although this report is based on the re-evaluation of old data that had been preserved by our company, the effectiveness and range of symptoms that were treatable with wood creosote has likely remained unchanged. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first public report on the clinical effectiveness of wood creosote capsules for the treatment of a wide range of diarrheal symptoms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0355.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: assay; diarrhea; isolate; hydrolysis; proteins; inhibition zone
Online: 16 October 2018 (11:26:59 CEST)
The study compared antibacterial potential of hydrolysates of casein and alpha-lactalbumin from cow and goat milk on diarrhea-causing Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Milk samples were aseptically obtained from lactating cows and goats. The samples were skimmed; casein was isolated using acetic acid and alpha-lactalbumin by filtrate thermoprecipitation at 75 °C. 50% of each isolate was reconstituted in a buffer and hydrolyzed with papain at 55 °C for 2 hours. The hydrolysates were heated to 75 °C to inactivate papain, cooled and their antibacterial activity determined by disc diffusion method. Results showed alpha-lactalbumins had higher degrees of hydrolysis and antibacterial activity than caseins; goat alpha-lactalbumin had the highest antibacterial activity with mean inhibition zones of 19.60 mm and 19.50 mm on E. coli and S. aureus. Cow alpha-lactalbumin inhibited E. coli more than S. aureus with inhibition zones of 16.80 mm and 12.50 mm. Cow and goat milk casein hydrolysates inhibited E. coli with mean inhibition zones of 8.00 mm and 10.90 mm and inhibited S. aureus with inhibition zones of 4.13 mm and 1.90 mm respectively. The research showed that the milk hydrolysates can be a source of antibiotics for diarrhea treatment. Research should be done to establish the peptide fractions associated with the observed bioactivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0493.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Chronic diarrhea, idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease, microbiota, dysbiosis
Online: 21 June 2021 (08:56:30 CEST)
The long-term impact of treatment of dogs with steroid-responsive enteropathy (SRE) on the fe-cal microbiome and metabolome has not been investigated. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the fecal microbiome and metabolome of dogs with SRE before, during, and following treatment with standard immunosuppressive therapy and an elimination diet. We retrospec-tively selected samples from 9 dogs with SRE enrolled in a previous clinical trial, which received treatment for 8 weeks, and had achieved remission as indicated by the post-treatment clinical scores. Long-term (1 year) samples were obtained from a subset (5/9) of dogs. Samples from 13 healthy dogs were included as controls (HC). We evaluated the microbiome using 16S rRNA sequencing and qPCR. To evaluate the recovery of gut function, we measured fecal metabolites using an untargeted approach. While improvement was observed for some bacterial taxa after 8 weeks of treatment, several bacterial taxa remained significantly different from HC. Seven-ty-five metabolites were altered in dogs with SRE, including increased fecal amino acids and vitamins, suggesting malabsorption as a component of SRE. One year after treatment, however, all bacterial species evaluated by qPCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and all but thirteen me-tabolites were no longer different from healthy controls.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1761.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: checkpoint inhibitors; colitis; immune-related adverse events; enterocolitis; diarrhea
Online: 25 May 2023 (08:03:37 CEST)
The advent of immunotherapy and specifically of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) for the treatment of solid tumors has deeply transformed therapeutic algorithms in medical oncology. Approximately one third of patients treated with ICIs may develop immune-related adverse events, being the gastrointestinal tract often affected with different grades of mucosal inflammation. Checkpoint inhibitors colitis (CIC) presents with watery or bloody diarrhoea and in case of severe activity requires ICIs discontinuation. The pathogenesis of CIC is multifactorial and still partially unknow: anti-tumor activity that collaterally effects the colonic tissue and the upregulation of specific systemic inflammatory pathways (i.e., CD8+ cytotoxic and CD4+ T lymphocytes) are mainly involved. Many open issues remain on treatment timing and options, and biological treatment, above all with anti-TNF alpha, can be offered to these patients aiming to rapidly resume the oncological therapies. This review aims to summarize the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying CIC and to discuss evidenced-based management including the role of biological therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0094.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: nutrition; pediatrics; geographic information systems; acute respiratory infections; diarrhea; growth
Online: 6 October 2021 (09:00:12 CEST)
Infectious disease is the leading cause of mortality in children under five. This study has investigated environmental factors related to the morbidity of acute respiratory infections (ARIs), diarrhea, and growth using geographical information systems (GIS) technology. Anthropometric, address and disease prevalence data were collected through the SEEM study in Matiari, Pakistan. Publicly available map data was used to compile coordinates of healthcare facilities. A Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was used to calculate the correlation between distance from healthcare facilities and participant growth and morbidity. Other continuous variables influencing these outcomes were analyzed using a random forest regression model. In this study of 416 children, we found participants living closer to secondary hospitals had lower prevalence of ARI (r=0.154, p<0.010) and diarrhea (r=0.228, p<0.001) as well as participants living closer to Maternal Health Centers (MHCs): ARI (r=0.185, p<0.002) and diarrhea (r=0.223, p<0.001) compared to those living near primary facilities. Our random forest model showed distance to have high variable importance in the context of disease prevalence. Our results indicated that participants closer to more basic healthcare facilities reported a higher prevalence of both diarrhea and ARI than those near more urban facilities, highlighting potential public policy gaps in ameliorating rural health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0108.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: ginseng stem-leaf saponins; nanoparticles; mucosal adjuvant; porcine epidemic diarrhea virus
Online: 9 October 2022 (05:40:18 CEST)
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes severe enteric disease in pigs, particularly neonatal piglets. Attempts to develop a safe and effective vaccine have been unsuccessful. Ginseng stem-leaf saponins (GSLS), a promising oral adjuvant candidate, can improve intestinal immune responses in poultry and mice. However, the low stability limits the further use. Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA), a biocompatible and biodegradable nanoparticle, have been widely used in biomedicine for stable and targeted drug delivery. In this study, we developed GSLS-PLGA nanoparticles (GSLS-NPs) and evaluated the mucosal adjuvant efficacy in vitro and in vivo. GSLS-NPs significantly enhanced antigen internalization and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion by DC2.4 cells. Mice orally administered GSLS-NPs before intramuscular inoculation generated CD11b+CD8α- and CD11b-CD103+ dendritic cells in the spleen and draining mesenteric lymph nodes, respectively, which are the types mainly responsible for antigen presentation. Additionally, enhanced neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibody responses and expanded activities of specific effector and memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were also observed in mice immunized with PEDV vaccines plus GSLS-NPs compared to mice receiving the vaccines alone. Furthermore, GSLS-NPs showed a good safety profile and presented great advantages over GSLS aqueous solution. Collectively, our results highlight the potential of GSLS-NPs as a mucosal adjuvant and provide an attractive vaccination strategy for combatting PEDV. Further study is required to evaluate the efficacy of this mucosal adjuvant in swine.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0706.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: fecal incontinence; unconscious elderly; irritable bowel syndrome; gastrointestinal symptoms; constipation; diarrhea
Online: 28 December 2020 (13:24:54 CET)
The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is functional gastrointestinal tract disease, include abnormal defecation and abdominal pain. The Rome IV criteria define fecal incontinence as "recurrent and uncontrolled stool leakage that lasts more than 3 months." Fecal incontinence is common in patients with IBS and can have a significant negative impact on daily life and reduce the patient's quality of life. Diet and lifestyle guidance are needed to prevent fecal incontinence. Fecal incontinence can be reduced by ingesting dietary fiber, which can improve stool properties, and avoiding foods with stool-softening properties. Additionally, defecation habit guidance is important for preventing fecal incontinence. If rectal sensation is normal, it is recommended to go to the bathroom as soon as there is a desire to defecate. In elderly people, if there is stool in the rectum due to decreased rectal sensation and it continues to accumulate in the rectum without triggering the urge to defecate, overflowing leaky fecal incontinence may occur. For such patients, defecation habit training teaching them to defecate even if they do not have the desire to defecate may be effective. Education and advice on defecation reduces fecal incontinence and is beneficial to caregivers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0534.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: syndemic; El Niño; infectious disease; diarrhea; malaria; respiratory; cholera; spatial cluster; GIS
Online: 27 September 2018 (06:04:08 CEST)
El Niño is a quasi-periodic pattern of climate variability and extremes often associated with hazards and disease. While El Niño links to individual diseases have been examined, less is known about the cluster of multi-disease risk referred to as an ecosyndemic, which emerges during extreme events. The objective of this study was to explore a mapping approach to represent the spatial distribution of ecosyndemics in Piura, Peru at the district-level during the first few months of 1998. Using geographic information systems and multivariate analysis, two methodologies were employed to map disease overlap of 7 climate-sensitive diseases and construct an ecosyndemic index, which was then mapped and applied to another El Niño period as proof of concept. The main findings showed that many districts across Piura faced multi-disease risk over several weeks in the austral summer of 1998. The distribution of ecosyndemics were spatially clustered in western Piura among 11 districts. Furthermore, the ecosydemic index in 1998 when compared to 1983 showed a strong positive correlation, demonstrating the utility of the index. The study supports PAHO efforts to develop multi-disease based and interprogrammatic approaches to control and prevention, particularly for climate and poverty-related infections in Latin America and the Caribbean.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0529.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: orcine epidemic diarrhea virus; coronavirus; spike protein; virulence; gnotobiotic piglets; reverse genetics
Online: 30 August 2018 (14:35:03 CEST)
Base on the sequence of S genes, which encode spike proteins, we previously identified three different types (North American, S INDEL and S large-DEL types) of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) that have re-emerged in Japan since 2013. Base on experimental infections with the North American and S large-DEL types, we also hypothesized that PEDV virulence may be linked to the S1 subunit of the S protein. To test this hypothesis, we have now assayed in gnotobiotic piglets various recombinant PEDVs generated by reverse genetics. Piglets inoculated with CV777 maintained in National Institute of Animal Health, along with piglets infected with a recombinant form of the same virus, developed subclinical to mild diarrhea. In contrast, severe watery diarrhea, dehydration, weight loss, astasia, and high mortality were observed in piglets inoculated with recombinant strains in which the S gene was partially or fully replaced with corresponding sequences from the highly virulent Japanese PEDV isolate OKN-1/JPN/2013. Indeed, symptoms resembled those in piglets inoculated with the OKN-1/JPN/2013, and were especially pronounced in younger piglets. Collectively, the data demonstrate that the S1 subunit of the S protein is an important determinant of PEDV virulence, and advance development of new vaccine candidate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0454.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Enteroaggregative E. coli; infant diarrhea; genetic diversity; severity; multidrug-resistance E. coli; Bolivia
Online: 17 November 2020 (14:10:29 CET)
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is an emerging pathogen frequently associated with acute diarrhea in children and travelers to endemic regions. EAEC was found the most prevalent bacterial diarrheal pathogen from hospitalized Bolivian children less than five years of age with acute diarrhea from 2007 to 2010. Here, we further characterized the epidemiology of EAEC infection, virulence genes, and antimicrobial susceptibility of EAEC isolated from 414 diarrheal and 74 non-diarrheal cases. EAEC isolates were collected and subjected to a PCR-based virulence gene screening of seven virulence genes and a phenotypic resistance test to nine different antimicrobials. Our results showed that atypical EAEC (a-EAEC, AggR-negative) was significantly associated with diarrhea (OR, 1.62, 95% CI, 1.25 to 2.09, P < 0.001) in contrast to typical EAEC (t-EAEC, AggR-positive). EAEC infection was most prevalent among children between 7 - 12 months of age. The number of cases exhibited a biannual cycle with a major peak during the transition from warm to cold season (April – June). Both typical and a-EAEC infections were graded as equally severe; however, t-EAEC harbored more virulence genes. aap, irp2, and pic were the most prevalent genes. Surprisingly, we detected 60% and 52.6% of multidrug resistance (MDR) EAEC among diarrheal and non-diarrheal cases. Resistance to ampicillin, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines was most common, being the corresponding antibiotics, the ones that are frequently used in Bolivia. Our work is the first study that provides comprehensive information on the high heterogenicity of virulence genes in t-EAEC and a- EAEC and the large prevalence of MDR EAEC in Bolivia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0231.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: cyanotoxin; cyanobacterial bloom; cylindrospermopsin; microcystin; inflammation; diarrhea; gastrointestinal illness; lipopolysaccharide; innate immune system
Online: 26 March 2019 (09:31:44 CET)
Cyanobacterial blooms occur with increasing frequency in freshwater ecosystems, posing a hazard to human and environmental health. Exposure of human to cyanobacterial metabolites occurs mostly via accidental ingestion through contaminated drinking water or during recreational activities and, most frequently, results in gastrointestinal symptoms. Despite the clinical manifestation, cyanobacterial metabolites are rather investigated for their toxicity towards specific organs or tissues, especially hepato-, nephro- and neurotoxicity, then for effects on the gastrointestinal tract and the associated lymphoid tissue. The aim of this review was to systematically summarize available literature on the effects on the gastrointestinal tract and the mucosal innate immune system and compile the data from both, in vitro and in vivo studies, focusing on human-health relevant models. Our systematic literature review revealed significant data gaps in the understanding on metabolites breaching the gastrointestinal barrier and the role of the immune system in the establishment of clinical symptoms. Microcystins and cylindrospermopsin were linked to gastrointestinal symptoms, immune system effects or both. Furthermore, implications for cyanobacterial bloom lipopolysaccharides in gastrointestinal inflammation were reported in several cases, while other metabolites received only minor attention. The collected data indicate the need for a reassessment of potential enterotoxicity of microcystins and cylindrospermopsin. Additionally, the carcinogenic potential of cyanotoxins, especially microcystins, has to be clarified, as an increasing amount of epidemiological studies show correlations between cyanobacterial blooms and gastrointestinal cancer incidence. Furthermore, other, often highly abundant bioactive metabolites like aeruginosins, have to be toxicologically evaluated at levels also accounting for (sub-)chronic exposure to low concentrations and in combination with naturally co-occurring metabolites, as can be expected in drinking water supplies. studies, focusing on human-health relevant models. Our systematic literature review revealed significant data gaps in the understanding on metabolites breaching the gastrointestinal barrier and the role of the immune system in the establishment of clinical symptoms. Microcystins and cylindrospermopsin were linked to gastrointestinal symptoms, immune system effects or both. Furthermore, implications for cyanobacterial bloom lipopolysaccharides in gastrointestinal inflammation were reported in several cases, while other metabolites received only minor attention. The collected data indicate the need for a reassessment of potential enterotoxicity of microcystins and cylindrospermopsin. Additionally, the carcinogenic potential of cyanotoxins, especially microcystins, has to be clarified, as an increasing amount of epidemiological studies show correlations between cyanobacterial blooms and gastrointestinal cancer incidence. Furthermore, other, often highly abundant bioactive metabolites like aeruginosins, have to be toxicologically evaluated at levels also accounting for (sub-)chronic exposure to low concentrations and in combination with naturally co-occurring metabolites, as can be expected in drinking water supplies.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0323.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: cyanoHAB exposure; pediatric case series; menstruation; macular rash; fever; vomiting; diarrhea; respiratory distress; leukocytosis
Online: 16 November 2023 (14:30:35 CET)
Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHABs) are increasing in prevalence and severity globally and locally in the Great Lakes region. CyanoHABs have the potential to produce serious adverse human health effects due to the production of cyanotoxins from cyanobacteria. Common routes of exposure include recreational exposure (swimming, skiing, and boating), ingestion, and aerosolization of contaminated water sources. Cyanotoxins have been shown to adversely affect several major organ systems contributing to hepatotoxicity, gastrointestinal distress, and pulmonary inflammation. We present three pediatric case-reports that coincided with CyanoHABs exposure with a focus on presentation of illness, diagnostic work-up, and treatment of CyanoHAB-related illnesses. Potential cyanotoxin exposure occurred while swimming in the Maumee River and Maumee State Park in Northwest OH during the Summer months which coincide with peak CyanoHAB activity. Primary symptoms included generalized macular rash, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and severe respiratory distress. Significant labs included leukocytosis and elevated C-reactive protein. All patients ultimately recovered with supportive care. Symptoms following potential cyanotoxin exposure coincide with multiple disease states representing an urgent need to develop specific diagnostic tests of exposure.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0328.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Probiotics; gut flora; gastrointestinal diseases; Lactobacillus; Bifidobacteria; placebo; Diarrhea; microbiota; composite; sin-gle-organisms; Ulcerative Colitis
Online: 17 November 2022 (08:53:58 CET)
Probiotics are namely yeast and bacteria which are regarded as dietary supplements and food. Many probiotics are being commonly used now, the most frequently used, lactic acid bacteria are called Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Many of the diseases associated with GIT are related to microbiota found in GIT, an imbalance of which causes gastrointestinal diseases. Probiotics, in light of scientific literature, are thought to play an important role in relieving symptoms of many diseases associated with GIT, i.e. beneficially regulating the microbiota composition. In the present review, we aimed to highlight the main considerations for main probiotic formulations to date. This study reviews the role of different probiotic formulations introduced so far in treating GI diseases in cohort ageing ≤18 years. We searched PubMed and Clinicaltrials.gov without any restrictions. This study comprises the descriptive and comparative analysis between Single-organism and Composite probiotics. These GI diseases include NEC, FAP, AGE, Acute Diarrhea, Ulcerative Colitis and etc. The results have been categorized according to title and outcomes. The positive outcomes emphasize the drug’s effectiveness in improving health and the negative outcome elaborates on the adverse effects the drug may have shown. Conclusively, discussed practices will assist in reducing GI disorders and strengthening the gut. Further insight into the various gut microbes and microbiomes with specific demographic is recommended.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0438.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Enteric Virus, Non-Human Primate, Virome, Macaque, Dysbiosis, Enteritis, Diarrhea, Animal Model, Rotavirus, Calicivirus, Gut Microbiome
Online: 27 August 2018 (00:17:27 CEST)
There is an important role non-human primates (NHP) play in biomedical research. Phylogenetic proximity of any of the NHP species to Homo sapiens assures that much better translatability of research outcomes from model studies involving human diseases can be achieved than from those generated with other pre-clinical systems. Our group and others used during past two decades NHPs in research directed towards viral and autoimmune disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. This review summarizes progress made in the area of enteric viral infections and its applicability to human disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0408.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: feline coronavirus; feline infectious peritonitis; FIP prevention; GS-441524; chronic enteritis; inflammatory bowel disease; IBD; antiviral; diarrhea; itraconazole.
Online: 23 January 2023 (09:43:21 CET)
After an incubation period of weeks to months up to 14% of cats infected with feline coronavirus (FCoV) develop feline infectious peritonitis (FIP): a potentially lethal pyogranulomatous perivasculitis. The aim of this study was to find out if stopping FCoV faecal shedding with antivirals prevents FIP. Guardians of cats from which FCoV had been eliminated at least 6 months earlier were contacted to find out the outcome of their cats: 27 households were identified containing 147 cats; 13 cats were treated for FIP and 109 others shed FCoV. A 4-7 day course of oral GS-441524 antiviral stopped faecal virus shedding. Follow-up was from 6 months to 3.5 years: 11 of 147 cats died, but none developed FIP. No FIP-recovered cat relapsed. Cats from 8 households recovered from chronic FCoV enteropathy. A previous field study of 820 FCoV-exposed cats was used as a retrospective control group: 37 of 820 cats developed FIP: the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.0038). Conclusions: early treatment of FCoV-infected cats with oral antivirals prevented FIP. Nevertheless, should FCoV be re-introduced into a household then FIP can result. Further work is required to establish the role of FCoV in cats with inflammatory bowel disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0109.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: child; diarrhea; water sanitation and hygiene; rehydration solution; zinc; case management; antibacterial agents; drug utilization; community participation; India
Online: 14 May 2019 (11:46:53 CEST)
Childhood diarrhea continues to be a major cause of under-five (U-5) mortality globally and in India. In this study, 1571 U-5 children residing in nine rural villages and four urban slums in Ujjain, India were included with the objective to use community participation and drug utilization research to improve diarrheal case management. The mean age was 2.08 years, with 297 (19%), children living in high diarrheal index households. Most mothers (70%) considered stale food, teething (62%), and hot weather (55%) as causes of diarrhea. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH)-related characteristics revealed that most (93%) households had toilets, but only 23% of the children used them. The study identified ineffective household water treatment by filtration through cloth by most (93%) households and dumping of household waste on the streets (89%). The results revealed low community awareness of correct causes of diarrhea (poor hand hygiene, 21%; littering around the household, 15%) and of correct diarrhea treatment (oral rehydration solution (ORS) and zinc use, 29% and 11%, respectively) and a high antibiotic prescription rate by healthcare providers (83%). Based on the results of the present study, context-specific house-to-house interventions will be designed and implemented.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1299.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: guanidene,metformin, diabetes mellitus type 2, vomit, diarrhea acidosis loss of body weight laxatives, malabsorption,anemia, dehydration,kidney injury
Online: 19 July 2023 (08:39:14 CEST)
After the first release of synthalin B (dodecamethylenbiguanide) in 1928 and its later retraction in the 1940s in Germany and the retraction of phenformin (N-Phenethylbiguanide) because of the letal complication of acidosiss,metformin (1-1-dimethylbiguanide) was first released in France in 1959 and then in the USA in 1995 for oral treatment of diabetes type 2. Acute gastrointestinal side effects often lead to dose reduction and strongly limit adherence to therapy.Main long-term consequences are deficency of vitamin B12 and of iron and sometimes also acidosis development. Intravenously injected F18-labelled glucose in metformin-treated type 2 diabetics accumulates in the the small and even more in the large intestine.The densitometry picture observed in metformin-treated diabetics is similar to that observed in patients after bowel-cleansing or chronically taking different types of laxatives where the accumulated radioactivity can even reach values observed in colon cancer. The glucose-lowering mechanism of action of metformin is therefore not only due to inhibition of glucose uptake in the small intestine but also to „attraction“ of glucose from the hepatocyte to the intestine,possibly through its secretion into the bile.Metformin is not different from the other biguanides ,synthalin B and phenformin.The mechanism of action,and the side effects are comparable to those of laxatives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2136.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Virus diagnosis; RNA; recombinant virus; alphacoronavirus; deltacoronavirus; porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV); transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV); swine enteric coronavirus (SeCoV); porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV)
Online: 29 June 2023 (13:22:32 CEST)
It is important to be able to detect and differentiate between distinct porcine enteric coronaviruses that can cause similar diseases. However, the existence of naturally occurring recombinant coronaviruses such as swine enteric coronavirus (SeCoV) can give misleading results with currently used diagnostic methods. Therefore, we have developed and validated three duplex real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays for the simultaneous detection of, and differentiation between, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and SeCoV. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is also detected by two out of these three assays. In addition, a novel triplex assay was set up that was able to detect and differentiate between these alphacoronaviruses and the porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV). The validated assays have low limits of detection, close to 100% efficiency and were able to correctly identify the presence of PEDV and SeCoV in 55 field samples, while 20 samples of other pathogens did not give a positive result. Implementing one or more of these multiplex assays into the routine diagnostic surveillance for PEDV will ensure that the presence of SeCoV, TGEV and PDCoV will not go unnoticed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0438.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: bovine respiratory disease; virome; bovine nidovirus; bovine coronavirus; bovine herpesvirus 1; bovine viral diarrhea virus 1; bovine respiratory syncytial virus; case control; odds ratio
Online: 23 December 2022 (03:30:02 CET)
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is a major health problem within the global cattle industry. This disease has a complex aetiology, with viruses playing an integral role. In this study, metagenomics was used to sequence viral nucleic acids in the nasal swabs of BRD affected cattle. Viruses detected included those well known for their association with BRD in Australia (bovine viral diarrhea virus 1), as well as viruses known to be present but not fully characterised (bovine coronavirus) and viruses that have not been reported in BRD affect cattle in Australia (bovine rhinitis, bovine influenza D, and bovine nidovirus). Nasal swabs from a case control study were subsequently tested for 10 viruses and the presence of at least one virus was found to be significantly associated with BRD. Some of the more recently detected viruses had inconsistent association with BRD. Full genome sequences for bovine coronavirus, a virus increasingly associated with BRD, and bovine nidovirus were complete. Both viruses belong to the Coronaviridae family, which are frequently associated with disease in mammals. This study has provided greater insights into the viral pathogens associated with BRD and highlighted the need for further studies to elucidate more precisely the roles viruses play in BRD.