ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0501.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Breast Neoplasm; Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy (NAC); pathologic Complete Response (pCR); Risk Factor; recurrence
Online: 29 March 2023 (03:52:14 CEST)
Background: Pathologic complete response (pCR) of breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is highly related to molecular subtypes. Patients who achieved tumor pCR after NAC have a better prognosis. However, despite of better prognosis, pCR patients have a potential for recurrence. There is little evidence of risk factors of recurrence in patients with pCR. We aim to analyze factors associated with tumor recurrence in patients who achieved pCR. Methods: This study retrospectively reviewed the data of patients diagnosed with breast cancer who achieved pCR after receiving NAC between January 2009 and December 2018 in Samsung Medical Center. pCR was defined as no residual invasive cancer in the breast and axillary nodes even if there is residual ductal carcinoma in situ (ypT0 or ypTis with ypN0). Breast cancers are classified into 4 subtypes based on hormone receptors (HR) and human epithelial growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status. Patients who had bilateral breast cancer, inflammatory breast cancer, distant metastasis, unknown subtype, and histologically unique case were excluded from the study. Results: In total 483 patients were included in this study except for patients who corresponded to the exclusion criteria. The median follow-up duration was 59.0 months (range, 0.5-153.3 months). Breast cancer recurred in 4.1% of patients (20 of 483). There was a significant difference in clinical T (p = .004) and clinical N (p = .034) stage in the Kaplan-Meier curve for disease-free survival. Molecular subtypes (p = .573), Ki67 (p = 1.000), and breast surgery type (p = .574) were not associated with tumor recurrence in patients who achieved pCR after NAC. In the clinical T stage and clinical N stage, there was a significant difference between recurrence and no-recurrence groups (clinical T stage; p = .045, clinical N stage; p = .002). Univariable Cox regression revealed statistical significance in the clinical T stage (p = .049) and clinical N stage (p = .010), while multivariable Cox regression demonstrated non-significance in the clinical T stage (p = .320) and clinical N stage (p = .073). Conclusion: Results in this study showed that clinical T, clinical N stage, and molecular subtypes were not statistically significant predictors of recurrence in patients who achieved pCR after NAC. It is hypothesized that a multicenter-based study would lead to the identification of factors as predictors of recurrence after achieving pCR.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI); neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC); breast cancer; Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); residual tumor size
Online: 6 July 2021 (12:40:31 CEST)
Background: The present retrospective study was designed to evaluate the relative diagnostic utility of breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI) and breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as means of evaluating female breast cancer patients in China. Methods: A total of 229 malignant breast cancer patients underwent ultrasound, mammography, BSGI, and MRI between January 2015 and December 2018 for initial tumor staging. Of these patients, 73 were subsequently treated via definitive breast surgery following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), of whom 17 exhibited a complete pathologic response (pCR) to NAC. Results: BSGI and MRI were associated with respective 76.8% and 69.6% sensitivity values as a means of detecting residual tumors following NAC, while both of these approaches exhibited comparable specificity in this diagnostic context (58.8% vs 70.6%, P=0.473). Conclusion: These results demonstrate that BSGI is a useful auxiliary approach to evaluating pCR to NAC treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0441.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: HER2; neoadjuvant; pathologic complete response; trastuzumab
Online: 28 December 2021 (09:58:26 CET)
Background: We aimed to identify overexpressed genes or related pathways associated with good responses to anti-HER2 therapy and to suggest a model for predicting drug response in neoadjuvant therapy with trastuzumab in HER2-positive breast cancer patients. Methods: We recruited 64 women with breast cancer and categorized them into three groups according to anti-HER2 therapy response. RNA from twenty core needle biopsy paraffin-embedded tissues and four cultured cell was extracted, reverse transcribed, and subjected to microarray. The obtained data were analyzed using Gene Ontology, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, and database for annotation, visualization, and integrated discovery. Results: In total, 6,656 genes differentially expressed between trastuzumab-susceptible and trastuzumab-resistant cell lines (3,224 upregulated and 3,432 downregulated). Expression changes in 34 genes in several pathways were found to be related to the response to trastuzumab-containing treatment, interfering with adhesion to other cells or tissues (focal adhesion) and regulating extracellular matrix interactions and phagosome action. Thus, decreased tumor invasiveness and enhanced drug effects might be the mechanisms explaining the better drug response in complete response group. Conclusions: This multigene assay-based study provides insights into breast cancer signal transduction and the possible prediction of treatment response to targeted therapies such as trastuzumab.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer; endocrine therapy; neoadjuvant; resistance
Online: 12 April 2021 (13:55:10 CEST)
Endocrine therapy (ET) has established itself as an efficacious treatment for estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancers, with a reduction in recurrence rates and increased survival rates. The pre-surgical approach with chemotherapy (NCT) has become a common form of management for large, locally advanced or high-risk tumors. However, a good response to NCT is not usually expected in ER+ tumors. Good results with primary ET, mainly in elderly women, have encouraged studies in other stages of life, and nowadays neoadjuvant endocrine treatment (NET) has become a useful approach to many ER+ breast cancers. The aim of this review is to provide an update on the current state of art regarding the present and the future role of NET.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0745.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Pancreatic Cancer; Adjuvant therapy; neoadjuvant therapy; biomarkers; Precision medicine; timing
Online: 30 November 2020 (16:45:30 CET)
Adjuvant chemotherapy is currently used in all patients with resected pancreatic cancer who are able to begin treatment within 3 months after surgery. Since the recent publication of the PRODIGE 24 trial results, modified FOLFIRINOX has become the standard-of-care in the non-Asian population with localized pancreatic adenocarcinoma following surgery. Nevertheless, there is still a risk of toxicity, and feasibility may be limited in heavily pre-treated patients. In more frail patients, gemcitabine-based chemotherapy remains a suitable option, for example gemcitabine or 5FU in monotherapy. In Asia, although S1-based chemotherapy is the standard of care it is not readily available outside Asia and data are lacking in non-Asiatic patients. In patients in whom resection is not initially possible, intensified schemes such as FOLFIRINOX or Gemcitabine-Nabpaclitaxel have been confirmed as options to enhance the response rate and resectability, promoting research in adjuvant therapy. In particular, should oncologists prescribe adjuvant treatment after a long sequence of chemotherapy +/- chemoradiotherapy and surgery? Should oncologists consider the response rate, the R0 resection rate alone, or the initial chemotherapy regimen? And finally, should they take into consideration the duration of the entire sequence, or the presence of limited toxicities of induction treatment? The aim of this review is to summarize adjuvant management of resected pancreatic cancer and to raise current and future concerns, especially the need for biomarkers and the best holistic care for patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0488.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: chemoradiation; preoperative; neoadjuvant; TN/HER-2+ phenotype; pathological response; breast cancer
Online: 29 August 2022 (10:47:34 CEST)
Primary systemic treatment (PST) downsizes the tumor and improves pathological response. The aim of this study is to analyze the feasibility and tolerance of primary concurrent radio-chemotherapy (PCRT) in breast cancer patients. Patients with localized TN/HER2+ tumors were enrolled in this prospective study. Radiation is delivered concomitantly during the first 3 weeks of chemotherapy, and it is based on a 15 fractions scheme (40.5Gy/2.7Gy per fraction to whole breast and nodal levels I-IV. Chemotherapy is based on Pertuzumab-Trastuzumab-Paclitaxel followed by anthracyclines in HER2+ and CBDCA-Paclitaxel followed by anthracyclines in TN breast cancers patients. 58 patients were enrolled, 25 patients (43%) were TN and 33 patients HER2+ (57%). With a median follow-up of 24.2 months, 56 patients completed PCRT and surgery. A total of 35 patients (87.5%) achieved >90% loss of invasive carcinoma cell in the surgical specimen. The 70.8% and the 53.1% of patients with TN and HER-2+ subtype respectively achieved complete pathological response (pCR). This is the first study of concurrent neoadjuvant treatment in breast cancer in which three strategies are applied simultaneously: fractionation of RT in 15 sessions, adjustment of CT to tumor phenotype and local planning by PET. The pCR rates are encouraging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0164.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer,; neoadjuvant chemotherapy; elederly; HER2- positive; pathological complete response; safety
Online: 12 January 2022 (13:31:16 CET)
Neoadjuvant systemic therapy has now become the the standard in early breast cancer management. Chemotherapy in combination with trastuzumab +/- pertuzumab targeted therapy can improve rates of pathologic complete response (pCR) in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer. Achieving a pCR is considered a good prognostic factor, in particular in patients with more aggressive breast cancer subtypes such as TNBC or HER2 positive cancers. Furthermore, most studies demonstrate that chemotherapy in combination with trastuzumab and pertuzumab is well tolerated. The retrospective analysis presented here concentrates on neoadjuvant therapy with the TCbH-P regimen, with a particular emphasis on patients over 60 years of age. We analysed the factors affecting the achievement of pCR and presented adverse effects of the applied therapies, which opened a discussion about optimizing the therapy of older patients with HER-2 positive breast cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0497.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: lung cancer; immune checkpoint inhibitor; perioperative therapy; neoadjuvant therapy; adjuvant therapy
Online: 21 July 2021 (14:58:36 CEST)
The emergence of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has dramatically changed the treatment landscape for patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). These achievements inspired investigators and pharmaceutical companies to conduct clinical trials in patients with early-stage NSCLC because both adjuvant and neoadju-vant platinum-based doublet chemotherapies (PT-DCs) showed only a 5% improve-ment in the 5-year overall survival. IMpower010, a phase 3 trial (P3), showed that ad-juvant PT-DC followed by maintenance atezolitumab significantly prolonged dis-ease-free survival than adjuvant PT-DC alone (hazard ratio, 0.79; stage II to IIIA). Since conventional therapies, including chemotherapy and radiotherapy, can promote im-munogenic cell death, which releases tumour antigens from dead tumour cells, ICI combination therapies with conventional therapies are widely proposed. Checkmate 816 trial (P3) indicated a significantly higher pathological complete response rate of neoadjuvant nivolumab/PT-DC combination therapy than neoadjuvant PT-DC alone (odds ratio, 13.9, for stage IB to IIIA). Detection of circulating tumour DNA is highly anticipated for the evaluation of minimal residual disease. Multimodal approaches and new ICI agents are being attempted to improve the efficacy of ICI treatment in phase 2 trials. This review presents the development of perioperative treatment using ICIs in patients with NSCLC while discussing problems and perspectives.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: liquid biopsy; ctDNA; cell free DNA; non-operative management; neoadjuvant therapy
Online: 10 December 2020 (12:52:27 CET)
As non-operative management (NOM) of esophageal and rectal cancer is becoming more prevalent, blood-biomarkers such as circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) may provide clinical information in addition to endoscopy and imaging to aid in treatment decisions following chemotherapy and radiation therapy. In this feasibility study, we prospectively collected plasma samples from locally advanced esophageal (n=3) and rectal cancer (n=2) patients undergoing multimodal neoadjuvant therapy to assess the feasibility of serial ctDNA monitoring throughout neoadjuvant therapy. Using the DIDA-Seq error-correction method, we serially interrogated plasma cell-free DNA at 28-41 tumor-specific genomic loci throughout therapy and in surveillance with an average limit of detection of 0.016% mutant allele frequency. In both rectal cancer patients, ctDNA levels were persistently elevated following total neoadjuvant therapy with eventual detection of clinical recurrence prior to salvage surgery. Among the esophageal cancer patients, ctDNA levels closely correlated with tumor burden throughout and following neoadjuvant therapy, which was associated with a pathologic complete response in one patient. In this feasibility study, patient and tumor-specific ctDNA levels correlated with clinical outcomes throughout multi-modality therapy suggesting that serial monitoring of patient ctDNA has the potential to serve as a highly sensitive and specific biomarker to risk-stratify esophageal and rectal cancer patients eligible for NOM. Further prospective investigation is warranted.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0654.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: breast cancer; BARD1; surveillance; management; genetic testing; predisposition; susceptibility; neoadjuvant; chemotherapy
Online: 26 September 2020 (17:32:52 CEST)
Current oncological developments are based on improved understanding of genetics, and especially the discovery of genes whose alterations affect cell functions with consequences for the whole body. Our work is focused on the one of these genes, the BARD1 and its oncogenic role in breast cancer. Most importantly, the study points to new avenues in the treatment and prevention of the most frequent female cancer based on BARD1 research. The BARD1 and BRCA1 proteins have similar structures and functions, and they combine to form the new molecule BARD1-BRCA1 heterodimer. The BARD1-BRCA1 complex is involved in genetic stabilization at the cellular level. It allows to mark abnormal DNA fragments by attaching ubiquitin to them. In addition, it blocks (by ubiquitination of RNA polymerase II) the transcription of damaged DNA. Ubiquitination, as well as stabilizing chromatin, or regulating the number of centrosomes, confirms the protective cooperation of BARD1 and BRCA1 in the stabilization of the genome. The overexpression of the oncogenic isoforms BARD1β and BARD1δ permit cancer development. The introduction of routine tests, for instance, to identify the presence of the BARD1β isoform, would make it possible to detect patients at high risk of developing cancer. On the other hand, introducing BARD1δ isoform blocking therapy, which would reduce estrogen sensitivity, may be a new line of cancer therapy with potential to modulate responses to existing treatments. It is possible that the BARD 1 gene offers new hope for improving breast cancer therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0371.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer; BARD1; surveillance; management; genetic testing; predisposition; susceptibility; neoadjuvant; chemotherapy
Online: 18 August 2020 (03:08:11 CEST)
Current oncological developments are based on improved understanding of genetics, and especially the discovery of genes whose alterations affect cell functions with consequences for the whole body. Our work is focused on the most important of these genes, the BARD1 and its oncogenic role in breast cancer. Most importantly, the study points to new avenues in the treatment and prevention of the most frequent female cancer based on BARD1 research. The BARD1 and BRCA1 proteins have similar structures and functions, and they combine to form the new molecule BARD1-BRCA1 heterodimer. Through ubiquitination, this heterodimer has significant effects on individual proteins, enabling, among others, the destruction of damaged DNA fragments. Ubiquitination, as well as stabilizing chromatin, or regulating the number of centrosomes, confirms the protective cooperation of BARD1 and BRCA1 in the stabilization of the genome. The overexpression of the oncogenic isoforms BARD1β and BARD1δ permit cancer development. The introduction of routine tests, for instance, to identify the presence of the BARD1β isoform, would make it possible to detect patients at high risk of developing cancer. On the other hand, introducing BARD1δ isoform blocking therapy, which would reduce estrogen sensitivity, may be a new line of cancer therapy with potential to modulate responses to existing treatments. It is possible that the BARD 1 gene offers new hope for improving breast cancer therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0297.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: regulatory T cell; tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte; neoadjuvant chemotherapy; triple-negative breast cancer
Online: 22 March 2022 (07:50:45 CET)
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by an active immune response. We evalu-ated intratumoral interrelation between FOXP3+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and other cy-tokines in TNBC. Network analysis refined cytokines significantly correlate with FOPX3 in TNBC. Treatment response and prognosis imformation of patients and survival data from the TGCA and METABRIC databases were analyzed according to refined cytokines. Interleukin (IL)-33 was sig-nificantly expressed by TNBC cell lines than luminal cell lines (log2 fold change: 5.31, p <0.001) and IL-33 and TGFB2 showed a strong correlation with FOXP3 in the TNBC cell line. Immunohisto-chemistry demonstrated IL-33 high group was a significant predictor of complete response of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (odds ratio (OR) 4.12, p<0.05) and a favorable survival compared to IL-33 low group (OR 6.48, p<0.05) in TNBC. Survival data from TGCA and METABRIC revealed that FOXP3 was a significantly favorable marker in IL-33 high group com-pared to the low IL-33 low group (hazard ratio (HR) 2.1, p=0.02), and IL-33 high/TGFB2 high subgroup showed significant favorable prognosis in the FOXP3 high group compared to the FOPX3 low group in TNBC (HR 3.5, p=0.01). IL-33 and TGFB2 were key cytokines of intratumoral interrelation among FOXP3 in TNBC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0133.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Neoadjuvant therapy; Soft tissue tumor; Sarcoma; Tail sign; Radiotherapy; Chemotherapy; Hyperthermia; Surgery
Online: 6 July 2021 (11:25:42 CEST)
Several types of soft tissue sarcomas have peripheral infiltrative growth characteristics called tail-like lesions. The efficacy of neoadjuvant therapy for tumors with tail-like lesions has not been elucidated. From 2012 to 2019, we analyzed 36 patients with soft tissue sarcoma with tail-like lesions treated with neoadjuvant therapy, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or both. The ef-fect of neoadjuvant therapy on the tail sign was investigated by analyzing the change in tail-like lesions during neoadjuvant therapy and histological responses. The median length of the tail-like lesion reduced from 29.5 mm at initiation to 19.5 mm after neoadjuvant therapy. The extent of shrinkage in tail-like lesion was related to the histopathological responses in the main part. Com-plete disappearance of the tail-like lesion was observed in 12 patients; however, it was not related to achieving a microscopically negative margin. The oncologic outcomes did not significantly differ between cases with complete disappearance of tail-like lesions or not. This study indicated the shrinkage of tail-like lesions did not have significant effect on complete resection or improve-ment of clinical outcomes. A more comprehensive evaluation is needed to elaborate on the surgi-cal strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0144.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: luminal breast cancer; neoadjuvant therapy; neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR); platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR); predictive/prognostic biomarkers
Online: 7 May 2021 (12:26:14 CEST)
Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a promising predictive and prognostic factor in breast cancer. We investigated its ability to predict disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with luminal A or luminal B-HER2-negative breast cancer who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). Pre-treatment complete blood cell counts from 168 consecutive patients with luminal breast cancer were evaluated to assess NLR. The study population was stratified into NLRlow or NLRhigh according to a cut-off value established by receiving operator curve (ROC) analysis. Data on additional pre- and post-treatment clinical-pathological characteristics were also collected. Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank tests, and Cox proportional hazards models were used for statistical analyses. Patients with pre-treatment NLRlow showed a significantly shorter DFS (HR 6.97, 95% CI 1.65-10.55, p= 0.002) and OS (HR 7.79, 95% CI 1.25-15.07, p= 0.021) compared to those with NLRhigh. Non-ductal histology, luminal B subtype, and post-treatment Ki67≥ 14% were also associated with worse DFS (p= 0.016, p= 0.002, and p= 0.001, respectively). In multivariate analysis, luminal B subtype, post-treatment Ki67≥ 14%, and NLRlow remained independent prognostic factors for DFS, while only post-treatment Ki67≥ 14% and NLRlow affected OS. The present study provides evidence that pre-treatment NLRlow helps identify women at higher risk of recurrence and death among patients affected by luminal breast cancer treated with NACT.