ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0709.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: ALS; ALS rehabilitation; myomiRs; circulating miRNAs; muscle; motor neuron
Online: 30 October 2018 (07:15:24 CET)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rare, progressive, neurodegenerative disorder caused by degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons. The disease process leads from lower motor neuron involvement to progressive muscle atrophy, weakness, fasciculations for the upper motor neuron involvement to spasticity. Muscle atrophy in ALS is caused by a dysregulation in the molecular network controlling fast and slow muscle fibres. Denervation and reinnervation processes in skeletal muscle occur in the course of ALS and are modulated by rehabilitation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that modulate a wide range of biological functions under various pathophysiological conditions. MiRNAs can be secreted by various cell types and they are markedly stable in body fluids. MiR-1, miR-133 a, miR-133b, and miR-206 are called “myomiRs” and are considered markers of myogenesis during muscle regeneration and neuromuscular junction stabilization or sprouting. We observed a positive effect of a standard aerobic exercise rehabilitative protocol conducted for six weeks in 18 ALS patients during hospitalization in our center. We correlated clinical scales with molecular data on myomiRs. After six weeks of moderate aerobic exercise, myomiRNAs were down-regulated, suggesting an active proliferation of satellite cells in muscle and increased neuromuscular junctions. Our data suggest that circulating miRNAs modulate during skeletal muscle recovery in response to physical rehabilitation in ALS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0297.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: ALS; frontotemporal dementia; insulin; diabetes
Online: 24 January 2023 (10:25:55 CET)
Background. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating disease involving motor neuron degeneration. The few drugs approved for treatment have at most a marginal benefit, and death usually occurs 2-5 years after diagnosis. Methods. A thorough manual examination of the relevant literature, covering over 35,000 papers. Results. Two major phenomena that are generally not known to clinicians were found. First, insulin signaling is impaired in ALS even in patients not diagnosed with diabetes (DB). Almost all studies that have explicitly tested insulin function in non-DB ALS patients using glucose tolerance tests (18 out of 20, 1964-2022, different groups) have found it to be impaired. Second, there is strong evidence for excessive insulin-independent glucose uptake (IIGU) in ALS. In addition, (i) early/late diabetes are associated with increased/decreased risk, respectively; (ii) insulin-based diabetes drugs are protective in ALS in large retrospective human studies; and (iii) strong animal and human evidence shows that insulin opposes all of the major pathological processes in ALS. Conclusion. Most ALS patients have insulin impairment, yet this is commonly not diagnosed, likely because excessive IIGU normalizes glucose levels. The impairment promotes disease progression. Late diabetes is associated with decreased risk because high glucose levels indicate non-excessive IIGU, and because diabetes drugs are protective. Insulin-based treatment (e.g., GLP1 agonists, insulin) is beneficial and can be disease-modifying in ALS and in frontotemporal dementia variants comorbid with ALS. ALS patients should be routinely tested for insulin function and treated if test results are positive.
Online: 8 July 2020 (11:00:04 CEST)
The Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (RGNEF) protein encoded by the ARHGEF28 gene has been implicated in the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Biochemical and pathological studies have shown that RGNEF is a component of the hallmark neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions in ALS-affected neurons. Additionally, a heterozygous mutation in ARHGEF28 has been identified in a number of familial ALS (fALS) cases that may give rise to one of two truncated variants of the protein. Little is known about the normal biological function of RGNEF or how it contributes to ALS pathogenesis. To further explore RGNEF biology we have established and characterized a yeast model and characterized RGNEF expression in several mammalian cell lines. We demonstrate that RGNEF is toxic when overexpressed and forms inclusions. We also found that the fALS-associated mutation in ARGHEF28 gives rise to an inclusion-forming and toxic protein. Additionally, through unbiased screening using the split-ubiquitin system, we have identified RGNEF interacting proteins, including two ALS-associated proteins. Functional characterization of other RGNEF interactors identified in our screen suggest that RGNEF functions as a microtubule regulator. Our findings indicate that RGNEF misfolding and toxicity may cause impairment of the microtubule network and contribute to ALS pathogenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0059.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Machine learning; ALS; Classification; Interpretation; Target Identification
Online: 4 October 2021 (12:50:04 CEST)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a prototypical neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons to severely effect the functionality to control voluntary muscle movement. Most of the non additive genetic aberrations responsible for ALS make its molecular classification very challenging along with limited sample size, curse of dimensionality, class imbalance and noise in the data. Deep learning methods have been successful in many other related areas but have low minority class accuracy and suffer from the lack of explainailbilty when used directly with RNA expression features for ALS molecular classification. In this paper we propose a deep learning based molecular ALS classification and interpretation framework. Our framework is based on training a convolution neural network (CNN) on images obtained from converting RNA expression values into pixels based on DeepInsight similarity technique. Then we employed Shapley Additive Explanations (SHAP) to extract pixels with higher relevance to ALS classifications. These pixels were mapped back to the genes which made them up. This enabled us to classify ALS samples with high accuracy for a minority class along with identifying genes that might be playing an important role in ALS molecular classifications. Taken together with RNA expression images classified with CNN, our preliminary analysis of the genes identified by SHAP interpretation demonstrate the value of utilising Machine Learning to perform molecular classification of ALS and uncover disease-associated genes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0199.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: ALS-inhibitors; horseweed; multiple-resistance; alternative chemical control
Online: 11 July 2018 (11:56:59 CEST)
Conyza canadensis is a species invading large agricultural areas throughout the world, mainly to its ability to evolve herbicide resistance. Specifically, in Hungary, extensive areas have been infested by this species due to the difficulty in controlling it with glyphosate. To corroborate this fact as resistance and not as an incorrect herbicide application, eight suspicious glyphosate-resistant C. canadensis populations from different Hungarian regions were studied. In dose-response assays with glyphosate, the LD50 and GR50 values indicated that populations 1 to 5 were resistant to this herbicide (H-5 population the most resistant). Besides, the shikimic acid accumulation tests corroborated the results observed in the dose-response assays. 11 alternative herbicides from 6 different mode of action (MOA) were applied at field doses as control alternatives on populations H-5 and H-6 (both in the same regions). The H-5 population showed an unexpected resistance to flazasulfuron (ALS-inhibitor). The ALS enzyme activity studies indicated that the I50 for H-5 was 63.3 fold higher compared to its correspondent susceptible population (H-6). Therefore, the H-5 population exhibited multiple-resistance to flazasulfuron and glyphosate, being the first case reported in Europe for this two MOA. For that reason, the other herbicides with different MOA have to be tested here.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0339.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: ALS; forest ecology; forest structure; NEON; macrosystems biology; TLS
Online: 23 March 2020 (06:42:29 CET)
Structural diversity is a key feature of forest ecosystems that influences ecosystem functions from local to macroscales. The ability to measure structural diversity in forests with varying ecological composition and management history can improve the understanding of linkages between forest structure and ecosystem functioning. Terrestrial LiDAR has often been used to provide a detailed characterization of structural diversity at local scales, but it is largely unknown whether these same structural features are detectable using aerial LiDAR data that are available across larger spatial scales. We used univariate and multivariate analyses to quantify cross-compatibility of structural diversity metrics from terrestrial versus aerial LiDAR in seven National Ecological Observatory Network sites across the eastern USA. We found strong univariate agreement between terrestrial and aerial LiDAR metrics of canopy height, openness, internal heterogeneity, and leaf area, but found marginal agreement between metrics that describe heterogeneity of the outer most layer of the canopy. Terrestrial and aerial LiDAR both demonstrated the ability to distinguish forest sites from structural diversity metrics in multivariate space, but terrestrial LiDAR was able to resolve finer-scale detail within sites. Our findings indicate that aerial LiDAR can be of use in quantifying broad-scale variation in structural diversity across macroscales.
Subject: Keywords: hybridization; gene flow; different sunflower forms; imazamox; tribenuron-methyl; ALS gene
Online: 29 June 2021 (11:41:09 CEST)
Weedy sunflower is an invasive plant on the territory of the Republic of Serbia, which causes high yield losses in many crops. During the harvesting of the sunflower crops the dispersal of the seeds occurs, and as a result- the volunteer plants appear next year. Weedy sunflowers originate from volunteer plants that live through a longer period in one place. Spontaneous hybridization of weedy sunflower with other sunflower forms makes them more aggressive. If the volunteer plants originate from the hybrids tolerant to ALS inhibiting herbicides, they can be the carriers of herbicide tolerance genes and thus will not be sensitive to these herbicides. The exchange of the genetic material also enables the transfer of the ALS (AHAS) gene (responsible for the tolerance to the ALS inhibiting herbicides) to the progeny. In this study we have examined the spontaneous hybridization between different sunflower forms (volunteer sunflowers, weedy sunflowers, susceptible and tolerant sunflower hybrids to ALS inhibiting herbicides) in field conditions during three years. The progeny (F1 generation), which was assumed to possess the ALS gene, was tested with the application of the recommended doses of the Express (a.i. tribenuron-methyl) and Pulsar 40 herbicides (a.i. imazamox). The significant percent of the progeny of different forms of sunflowers, survived the herbicide treatment (6-31%). Molecular analysis of the ALS gene sequence in weedy sunflower progeny confirmed gene transfer in two cases at a distance of 30 and 120 m from the gene donor, i.e. tolerant hybrid Sumo 1 PR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0078.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Protein Oligomerization; Angiogenin (h-ANG); tRNA; ALS; stress granules; NMR spectroscopy
Online: 5 January 2021 (10:58:21 CET)
Protein oligomerzation is key to countless physiological processes, but also to abnormal amyloid conformations implicated in over 25 mortal human diseases. Angiogenin (h-ANG), a ribonuclease A family member, produces RNA fragments that regulate ribosome formation, the creation of new blood vessels and stress granule function. Too little h-ANG activity leads abnormal protein oligomerization resulting in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) or Parkinson’s disease. While a score of disease linked h-ANG mutants has been studied by X-ray diffraction, some elude crystallization. There is also debate regarding the structure that RNA fragments adopt after cleavage by h-ANG. Here, to better understand the beginning of the process that leads to aberrant protein oligomerization, the solution secondary structure and residue-level dynamics of WT h-ANG and two mutants: H13A and R121C, are characterized by multidimensional heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy under near physiological conditions. All three variants are found to adopt well folded and highly rigid structures in solution, although the elements of secondary structure are somewhat shorter than those observed in cystallography studies. R121C alters the environment of nearby residues only. By constrast, the mutation H13A affects local residues as well as nearby active site residues residues K41 and H119. The conformation characterization by CD and 1D 1H NMR spectroscopies of tRNAAla before and after h-ANG cleavage reveals a retention of most duplex structure and little or no G-quadruplex formation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0041.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Leptin; Metabolism; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS); TAR DNA binding protein (TDP-43).
Online: 2 April 2021 (11:09:21 CEST)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is an irreversible neurodegenerative disease with no known cure. Recent studies suggest a strong metabolic component in ALS pathogenesis and have shown an inverse relationship between leptin levels and ALS progression, although the effects of leptin as a treatment have not yet been studied. Therefore, we aim to examine whether the acute treatment with leptin has beneficial effects on brain pathology and cognitive function in the transgenic TDP43A315T line of ALS. Mice were treated intranasally (IN) with 0.03mg/kg of leptin or vehicle (VH) daily for 7 days. Data showed a progressive decline in body weight and motor coordination in TDP43A315T mice. Moreover, Lep-treated TDP43A315T mice showed an earlier disease onset, along with an improvement in motor performance. Altered levels of some of the adipokines and metabolic proteins studied were found in TDP43A315T mice, which were differently expressed among Lep-treated and VH-treated animals. Furthermore, some correlations were found among the serum levels of this proteins in WT and TDP43A315T mice. As far as we know, this is the first pilot study to provide evidence of the therapeutic effect of leptin treatment in a mice model of ALS, although further studies are needed to expound on the underlying mechanisms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0227.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); neurodegeneration; neuroinflammation; neuromuscular disease; autoimmunity; the clonotypic immune system
Online: 15 September 2022 (08:51:54 CEST)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neuromuscular disease, characterized by progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons in the cortex and spinal cord. Although the pathogenesis of ALS remains unclear, evidence on the role of the clonotypic immune system is growing. Adaptive immunity cells often appear changed in number or activation profile peripherally and centrally. However, their role in ALS appears conflicting. Data, from human and animal model studies, currently reported in literature show that each subset of lymphocytes and their mediators may mediate a protective or toxic mechanism in ALS, affecting both its progression and risk of death. In the present review article and attempt is made to shed light on the actual role of the cellular clonotypic immunity in ALS by integrating recent clinical studies and experimental observations.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0507.v1
Subject: Keywords: neurodegeneration; protein misfolding; Western Pacific; Guam; montmorillonite; bentonite; clay; mineral; ALS; Parkinson’s disease
Online: 31 May 2020 (20:43:13 CEST)
Neurodegenerative diseases of protein misfolding affect humans and animals. In humans, these diseases include Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Western Pacific amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinsonism-dementia complex (ALS/PDC). Mineral exposure may be important in the pathogenesis of protein misfolding cascades. The possible association of bentonite, montmorillonite, and mineral risk factors with Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, ALS, and Western Pacific ALS/PDC is analyzed and discussed.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0100.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; ALS; glacial; lake; clay; mineral; United States; Canada; Finland; Vermont; New Hampshire; Maine; Ohio; Wisconsin; Indiana; Minnesota; North Dakota; Montana, Idaho; Washington; Oregon; Colorado; Iowa; Utah
Online: 15 December 2020 (10:21:51 CET)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) disease clusters are found in several countries worldwide. In the United States, ALS clusters are found in many states, largely within the northern United States. The cause of the increased rates of ALS in these areas remains indefinite. It is reported here that many ALS clusters are associated with sites of current or prior glacial lakes, or regions containing an abundance of silts and clay minerals. The potential significance of these findings in ALS is discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0079.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: ALS; HSP; chitinases; biomarker; differential diagnosis; early diagnosis; cognitive impairment; MND mimics; red blood cells; haemoglobin
Online: 4 January 2023 (11:02:27 CET)
(1) Background: Motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are fatal neurodegenerative diseases. Biomarkers could help in defining patients’ prognosis and stratification. Beyond neurofilaments, chitinases are a promising family of possible biomarker, which correlate with neuroinflammatory status. We evaluated plasmatic levels of CHI3L1 in MNDs, MND mimics and healthy controls (HCs); (2) Methods: We used Sandwich ELISA to quantify CHI3L1 in plasma samples from 44 MNDs, 7 HSP, 9 MND mimics and 19 HCs. We collect also ALSFRSr scale, MRC scale, spirometry, mutational status, progression rate (PR), blood sampling, neuropsychological evaluation; (3) Results: Plasma levels of CHI3L1 resulted to be different among groups (p= 0.005). Particularly, MND mimics showed higher CHI3L1 levels compared to MNDs and HCs. CHI3LI levels did not differ among PMA, PLS and ALS and we do not find correlation among CHI3L1 levels and clinical scores, spirometry parameters, PR, and neuropsychological features. Of note, red blood cells count and haemoglobin correlated with CHI3L1 levels (respectively, p<0.001, r=0.63; p= 0.022, r=0.52); (4) Conclusions: CHI3L1 plasma levels resulted to be increased in the MND mimics cohort when compared to MNDs. The increase of CHI3L1 in neuroinflammatory processes could explain our findings. We confirmed that CHI3L1 plasma levels did not differentiate between ALS and HCs and nor correlate with neuropsychological impairment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0013.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: ALS; motor neuron disease (MND); metabolism; muscle; TP53; TDP43; immunomodulatory therapies; neuromuscular junction; mitochondria; epigenetic regulation
Online: 1 February 2022 (12:49:48 CET)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is also called "motor neuron disease”. In this review, we propose that ALS is not just a neuromotor disorder, but begins as a disorder of P53-modulated skeletal muscle metabolism, leading to failures at the energy state of the cells, incorrect redox states, motor denervation, and a loss of muscle fibers. Motoneurons die as a consequence of the lack of muscular feedback, and the oligomeric TDP43 aggregates progressively and relentlessly lead to mistakes in peripheral immune self-tolerance sustained over time. An effective treatment has not been found for this devastating pathology, as for 152 years the target has not been accurately defined. Scientists and doctors should consider new knowledge regarding ALS and consider immunomodulatory therapies that, based on genetic analysis and symptoms, can be combined with compounds that regulate metabolism and promote the elimination of useless organelles and cells. What if ALS could be cured as a result of seeing motor neuron disease differently? This review aims to develop that goal and change the paradigm of our understanding of ALS.
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: D-Glutamate and D-Glutamate racemase; Mitochondria; evolutionary approach; gut microbiota; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS); Motor neurone disease (MND)
Online: 30 September 2019 (03:13:27 CEST)
Three different fields intersect in search of an understanding of the point-of-origin of modern-age diseases: 1) D-amino acids and their role under stress conditions; 2) evolutionary origin of the mitochondrion organelle in the eukaryotic cell; and 3) gut microbiota and human healthHere it is first suggested that D-amino acids function as universal signaling agents, after having evolved as prokaryotic communication, part of an organic communication process that governs the basic activities of all the cells and coordinates cell action.Mitochondria (symbiotic prokaryotic organelles), are creative source of D-amino acids as signaling agents in the central nervous system and in the neuroendocrine systems.Amino acids racemases catalyzes the conversion between the L-enantiomers ( protein building blocks) into D-enantiomers (signaling agents).It is suggested that hectic modern life may affect human health by causing stress to the gut microbiota. These affected, gut microbiota then secrete D-amino acids that enter the blood stream, as signaling agents, causing communication errors in the central nervous system, and in the neuroendocrine systems due to excessive quantity of D-amino acids.Treating gut microbiota with inhibitors of amino acids racemases or finding D-amino acid scavengers may be used in developing novel therapeutic strategies for diseases related to the central nervous system and neuroendocrine systems caused by stressed gut microbiota.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0470.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS); Fronto-Temporal-Lobar-Dementia; Tauopathies; synaptic plasticity; long-term potentiation; spatial learning; inositol signaling; neurexin; K-homology RNA-binding domain; Fragile-X-associated Tremor-Ataxia syndrome
Online: 21 August 2020 (04:39:19 CEST)
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is caused by polyglutamine expansion in Ataxin-2 (ATXN2). This factor binds RNA/proteins to modify metabolism after stress, and to control calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis after stimuli, thus exerting crucial neuroprotection for cerebellar ataxias and corticospinal motor neuron degeneration. Our Atxn2-CAG100-Knock-In mouse faithfully models features observed in patients at pre-onset, early and terminal stages. Here, its cerebellar global RNA profiling revealed downregulation of signaling cascades to precede motor deficits. Validation work at mRNA/protein level defined alterations that were independent of constant physiological ATXN2 functions, but specific for RNA/aggregation toxicity, and progressive across the short lifespan. Earliest changes were detected at 3 months among Ca2+ channels/transporters (Itpr1, Ryr3, Atp2a2, Atp2a3, Trpc3), IP3 metabolism (Plcg1, Inpp5a, Itpka), and Ca2+-Calmodulin dependent kinases (Camk2a, Camk4). CaMKIV–Sam68 control over alternative splicing of Nrxn1, an adhesion component of glutamatergic synapses between granule and Purkinje neurons, was found affected. Systematic screening of pre/post-synapse components, with dendrite morphology assessment, suggested early impairment of CamKIIα abundance together with weakening of parallel fiber connectivity. These data reveal molecular changes due to ATXN2 pathology, impacting communication and excitability of cerebellar neurons. Discovery of such risk versus progression markers improves the assessment of pre-symptomatic treatments in SCA2 and related disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0042.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy (OPCA); amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); tauopathy; leukodystrophy; mass spectrometry; RT-qPCR; Ceramide Synthase (CERS2/CERS1); Serine Palmitoyltransferase 2 (Sptlc2); neutral Sphingomyelinase (Smpd3); neutral Ceramidase (Asah2); Fatty Acid Elongase (Elovl1/4/5); SCA34; SCA38; acid Sphingomyelinase (ASMase, Smpd1)
Online: 5 November 2019 (03:04:02 CET)
Ataxin-2 (ATXN2) acts during stress-responses, modulating mRNA translation and nutrient metabolism. Atxn2 knockout mice exhibit progressive obesity, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Conversely, the progressive ATXN2 gain-of-function due to polyGlutamine (polyQ) expansions leads to a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative process named spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2), with early adipose tissue loss and late muscle atrophy. We tried to understand lipid dysregulation in a SCA2 patient brain and in an authentic mouse model. Thin layer chromatography of a patient cerebellum was compared to the lipid metabolome of Atxn2-CAG100-KnockIn (KIN) mouse spinocerebellar tissue. The human pathology caused deficits of sulfatide, galactosylceramide, cholesterol, C22/24-sphingomyelin and gangliosides GM1a/GD1b, despite quite normal levels of C18-sphingomyelin. Cerebellum and spinal cord from the KIN mouse showed a consistent decrease of various ceramides, with a significant elevation of sphingosine in the more severely affected spinal cord. Deficiency of C24/26-sphingomyelins contrasted with excess C18/20-sphingomyelin. Spinocerebellar expression profiling revealed consistent reductions of CERS protein isoforms, of Sptlc2 and Smpd3, but upregulation of Cers2 mRNA, as prominent anomalies in the ceramide-sphingosine metabolism. Reduction of Asah2 mRNA correlated to deficient S1P levels. In addition, downregulations for the elongase Elovl1, Elovl4, Elovl5 mRNAs and ELOVL4 protein explain the deficit of very-long-chain sphingomyelin. Reduced ASMase protein levels correlated to the accumulation of long-chain sphingomyelin. Overall, a deficit of myelin lipids was prominent in SCA2 nervous tissue at prefinal stage, not compensated by transcriptional adaptation of several metabolic enzymes. Myelination is controlled by mTORC1 signals, so our human and murine observations are in agreement with the known role of ATXN2 yeast, nematode and mouse orthologs as mTORC1 inhibitors and autophagy promoters.