Online: 25 April 2019 (15:09:38 CEST)
The subject of the research is to Development of laser ablation method for Fabrication of surface acoustic wave sensors on quartz wafer, the target of the GQW – is to design Acoustic wave sensor by using laser ablation method. By using the surface acoustic wave theory to sense by the signal and using this physical phenomenon, We will design the sensor which transduce an input electrical signal into a mechanical wave which unlike an electrical signal, can be easily influenced by physical phenomena. The device then transducers this wave back into an electrical signal on the secondary terminal of the sensor. Changes in amplitude, phase, frequency, or time-delay between the input and output electrical signals can be used to measure the presence of the desired Our work in this part, especially the practical part like temperature, vibration ,etc. we design a combs on the waver of quartz to make like an electrode primary electrode & secondary electrode by putting coats of cuppers & vanadium on the waver and then using the fiber optic laser regime to design this combs to can able transfer the signal by ablation the most important here to use the regime of fiber optic laser then we using this sensor in any electronic circuit How we will select the suitable kind of laser to design, this is the most important part, and what it will be the diameter of that combs of secondary and primary , how much the value of the wave length to select the micro distant combs to avoid any inductance and interference for transferred signal , also take the benefit of using MEMS theory in our project.
Thu, 28 March 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0261.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: thermodynamics-economics dictionary; economic Einstein 4D PDEs; economic Schwarzschild type metric; economic 3D black holes; economic entropy
Online: 28 March 2019 (09:43:56 CET)
The subject of this paper is to analyse the Math Principia of Economic 3D Black Holes in Roegenian economics. This idea is totally new in the related literature, excepting our papers. In details, we study two special problems: (i) math origin of economic 3D black holes, (ii) entropy and internal political stability depending on national income and the total investment, for economic RN 3D black hole. To solve these problems, it was necessary to jump from macroeconomic side to microeconomic side (a substantial approach so different), to complete the thermodynamics-economics dictionary with new entities, to introduce the flow between two macroeconomic systems, to study the Schwarzschild type metric properties on an economic 4D system, together with Rindler coordinates, Einstein 4D PDEs, and economic RN 3D black hole. In addition, we introduce some economic Ricci type flows or waves, for further research.
Thu, 24 January 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0248.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: sound absorption; microperforated panels; multilayer systems
Online: 24 January 2019 (08:43:22 CET)
Sound absorbing materials are used in building to dissipate sound energy into heat by viscous and thermal processes. Sound absorbers increase the transmission loss of walls, decrease the reverberation time of rooms and attenuate the noise generated by internal sound sources. Porous absorbers (fibrous, cellular or granular) are the most used materials in noise control applications, since their high performance-to-cost ratio in the frequency band of interest. However, when cleaning and health reasons are of concern, microperforated panel (MPP) absorbers can be preferred. MPPs, consisting of many minute (sub-millimetric) holes in a panel, are tunable absorbers in a prescribed frequency band, which main shortcomings are high manufacturing cost and limited absorption frequency band. Production cost of MPP can nowadays be drastically cut down by means of modern techniques. Absorption frequency band can be considerably enlarged by designing multiple-layer MPPs (ML-MPPs). The aim of this article is to review the high potential of ML-MPPs as a modern, clean and healthy alternative of porous materials for sound absorption.
Fri, 26 October 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0622.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: alloys; nondestructive testing; dislocation density; plasticity; ultrasound; nonlinear acoustics
Online: 26 October 2018 (08:17:02 CEST)
The relative dislocation density of aluminum and copper samples is quantitatively measured using linear Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS). For each metallic group, four samples were prepared with different thermomechanical treatments in order to induce changes in their dislocation densities. The RUS results are compared with Nonlinear Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (NRUS) as well as Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) measurements. NRUS has a higher sensitivity by a factor of two to six and SHG by 14% to 62%. The latter technique is, however, faster and simpler. As main a result we obtain a quantitative relation between the changes in the nonlinear parameters and the dislocation density variations, which in a first approximation is a linear relation between these differences. We also present a simple theoretical expression that explains the better sensitivity to dislocation content of the nonlinear parameters with respect to the linear ones. X-Ray diffraction measurements, although intrusive and less accurate, support the acoustics results.
Tue, 11 September 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0181.v1
Online: 11 September 2018 (04:40:19 CEST)
The image performance of acoustic and ultrasound sensors depends on several fundamental parameters such as depth of focus or spatial resolution. There are currently two different type of acoustic diffractive lenses: those which form a diffraction-limited spot with a shallow depth of focus (zone plates) and lenses which form an extended focus (quasi-Bessel beams). In this paper, we investigate a pupil-masked Soret zone plate which allows the tunability of a normalized angular spectrum. It is shown that the depth of focus and the spatial resolution can be modified, without changing the lens structure, by choosing the size of the amplitude pupil mask. This effect is based on the transformation of spherically converging waves into quasi-conical waves, due to the apodization of the central part of the zone plate. The theoretical analysis is verified with both numerical simulations and experimental measurements. A Soret zone plate immersed in water with D/2F=2.5 and F=4.5$\lambda$, changes its depth of focus from 2.84$\lambda$ to 5.9$\lambda$ and the spatial resolution increases from 0.81$\lambda$ to 0.64$\lambda$ at a frequency of 250 kHz, by modifying the pupil mask dimensions of the Soret zone plate.
Mon, 28 May 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0392.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: underwater acoustic communication; parametric technique; self-demodulation
Online: 28 May 2018 (09:42:15 CEST)
This paper presents a study of different types of parametric signals with application to underwater acoustic communications. In all the signals, the carrier frequency is 200 kHz, which corresponds to the resonance frequency of the transducer under study and different modulations are presented and compared. In this sense, we study modulations with parametric sine sweeps (4 to 40 kHz) that represent binary codes (zeros and ones), getting closer to the application in acoustic communications. The different properties of the transmitting signals in terms of bit rate, directivity, efficiency and power needed are discussed as well.
Wed, 11 April 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0148.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: modal wave-number spectrum; match mode; horizontal line array; moving source
Online: 11 April 2018 (12:42:57 CEST)
In this study, a matched-mode autoregressive source depth estimation method (MMAR) based on autoregressive (AR) wavenumber estimation is proposed for a moving source in shallow water waveguides. The signal original frequency and the environmental parameters, namely, the sound speed profile and bottom properties are known as a prior knowledge. The mode wavenumbers are estimated by the AR modal wavenumber spectrum. On the basis of the mode wavenumber estimation, the mode amplitudes can be estimated by the wavenumber spectrum that is obtained by generalized Hankel transform. The source depth estimation is determined by the peak of source depth function wherein the data mode best matches the replica mode that is calculated using a propagation model. Compared with other methods of moving source depth estimation, the proposed method exhibits a better performance in source depth estimation under low signal-to-noise ratio or the small range span. The selection of horizontal line array depth is illustrated by simulation and normal mode theory in details.
Mon, 5 February 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0032.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: inverse acoustic problem; helicopter rotor; Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation; aerodynamic constraint; Thikhonov method
Online: 5 February 2018 (11:34:30 CET)
An inverse aeroacoustic problem for a helicopter rotor combined with aerodynamic constraint is proposed based on Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation in subsonic. The rotor noise includes thickness noise and loading noise when quadrupole noise is neglected. Thickness noise is related to geometry and motion conditions. Loading noise is related to the pressure on the wall. Therefore, the equation between pressure on the wall and far-field noise can be established, thus the pressure on the wall can be obtained by solving this equation. Since this equation is an ill-posed, the singular value decomposition combined with the regulation method is applied and the aerodynamic constraint is taken into account. The direct noise prediction is verify firstly and then the inverse problem is solved. The reconstruction pressure is compared to the input data. The result is in good agreement with the input value. At the same time, the influence of interference noise is also considered. Under low signal-to-noise ratio, the reconstruction result is also reasonable.
Fri, 1 December 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0011.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Verbal communication; Lombard effect; Cocktail party effect; Noise; Acoustic capacity; Universal design
Online: 1 December 2017 (18:22:36 CET)
A well-known but also very complicated problem in room acoustics is the ambient noise when many people are gathered for a reception or in a restaurant, a bar, a canteen or a similar place. In such social gatherings, people want to speak with each other, but for the same reason the place can be very noisy, and verbal communication can be difficult or even impossible, especially for people with reduced hearing capacity. The noise depends on at least the following parameters; the volume, the reverberation time, the number of people, and the type gathering. Verbal communication in a noisy environment is a complicated feed-back situation, which implies two interesting phenomena; the Lombard effect and the cocktail-party effect. Solutions are presented both as a simplified model assuming a diffuse sound field and as an advanced computer simulation model. The concept ‘Acoustic Capacity’ of a facility is introduced, defined as the maximum number of persons in order to achieve a sufficient quality of verbal communication. In order to avoid poor acoustics in restaurants and similar places, it is necessary to design with bigger volume and more absorption material than usual in current building design practice.
Fri, 13 October 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0089.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: ultrasonic; cure monitoring; resonant ultrasonic spectroscopy
Online: 13 October 2017 (10:37:45 CEST)
With an ever broadening use of composite materials manufacturers are in high demand of efficient curing cycles to reduce costs and speed up production cycles. One method to to archive this goal is active cure monitoring to determine the exact time of curing needed. This article provides a novel method to measure the cure inside of closed tools by using ultrasonic spectroscopy. For this a simple experiment is used to show the change of the ultrasonic spectrum during the cure of an epoxy. The results clearly show a direct correlation of amplitude and state of cure where the amplitude reaches a global minimum at the glass point.
Thu, 10 August 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0037.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: meshfree method; particle-based computational acoustics; smoothed particle hydrodynamics; corrective smoothed particle method; boundary conditions; Lagrangian approach
Online: 10 August 2017 (05:20:33 CEST)
Meshfree particle method, which is always regarded as a pure Lagrangian approach, is easily represented complicated domain topologies, moving boundaries, and multiphase media. Solving acoustic problems with the mesfree particle method forms a branch of the acoustic wave modeling field, namely, particle-based computational acoustics (PCA). The aim of this paper is to improve the accuracy of using the PCA method to solve two-dimensional acoustic problems, and realize the particle representation with a hybrid meshfree and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for acoustic boundary conditions at both the plane and curved surface. As a widely used Lagrangian meshfree method, the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) based on the support domain and the kernel function has developed rapidly in recent years. The traditional SPH method is easily implements parallel processing and has been applied in sound wave simulation. As a corrective method with higher accuracy than SPH, the acoustic propagation and scattering in the time domain is simulated with the corrective smoothed particle method (CSPM). Moreover, a hybrid meshfree-FDTD boundary treatment technique is utilized to represent different acoustic boundaries in the Lagrangian approach. In this boundary treatment technique, the parameter value of virtual particles is obtained with the FDTD method, which concerns truncation errors based on the Tayler series expansion. Soft, rigid, and Mur’s absorbing boundary conditions are developed to simulate sound waves in finite and infinite domain. Results of modeling acoustic propagation and scattering show that CSPM is accurate and convergence with exact solutions, and different acoustic boundaries are validated to be effective in the computation.
Tue, 18 July 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0048.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: expansion of the universe; vacuum energy; dark energy; time energy uncertainty principle; radius of the universe
Online: 18 July 2017 (12:18:16 CEST)
According to the current understanding, the recently observed accelerated expansion of the universe is caused by the dark or the vacuum energy. Attempts to calculate the magnitude of this energy using the standard model of particle physics led to values which are 59 – 120 orders of magnitude larger than the experimentally estimated one. Even though the expanding space has positive internal energy, in a flat universe it is completely balanced by the negative energy of gravitational field making the net energy equal to zero. However, the current physical theories may breakdown for times less than or on the order of Planck time and one cannot assume that the above assertion concerning the balance of two energies is valid also in this time scale. In this note it is assumed that this balance of the two energies during the creation of new space as the universe expands takes place only for times larger than the Planck time. If this assumption is correct, the net energy of the newly created space remains positive for times on the order of Planck time and the positive vacuum energy has to be burrowed from empty space before it is being balanced by gravity. This can happen only within the restrictions of the time-energy uncertainty principle. In this note it is shown that such considerations lead to a vacuum energy density of about 0.3 Nanojoules per cubic meter which has to be compared with the measured value of 0.6 Nanojoules per cubic meter.
Wed, 25 January 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0115.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Lagrangian approach; Lagrangian acoustic perturbation equations; computational acoustics; meshfree method; smoothed particle hydrodynamics; generalized finite difference method
Online: 25 January 2017 (11:42:54 CET)
Although Eulerian approaches are standard in computational acoustics, they are less effective for certain classes of problems like bubble acoustics and combustion noise. A different approach for solving acoustic problems is to compute with individual particles following particle motion. In this paper, a Lagrangian approach to model sound propagation in moving fluid is presented and implemented numerically, using three meshfree methods to solve the Lagrangian acoustic perturbation equations (LAPE) in the time domain. The LAPE split the fluid dynamic equations into a set of hydrodynamic equations for the motion of fluid particles and perturbation equations for the acoustic quantities corresponding to each fluid particle. Then, three meshfree methods, the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method, the corrective smoothed particle (CSP) method, and the generalized finite difference (GFD) method, are introduced to solve the LAPE and the linearized LAPE (LLAPE). The SPH and CSP methods are widely used meshfree methods, while the GFD method based on the Taylor series expansion can be easily extended to higher orders. Applications to modeling sound propagation in steady or unsteady fluids in motion are outlined, treating a number of different cases in one and two space dimensions. A comparison of the LAPE and the LLAPE using the three meshfree methods is also presented. The Lagrangian approach shows good agreement with exact solutions. The comparison indicates that the CSP and GFD method exhibit convergence in cases with different background flow. The GFD method is more accurate, while the CSP method can handle higher Courant numbers.
Wed, 9 November 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0052.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: empirical mode decomposition; intrinsic mode function; permutation entropy; multi-scale permutation entropy; feature extraction
Online: 9 November 2016 (10:24:35 CET)
In order to solve the problem of feature extraction of underwater acoustic signals in complex ocean environment, a new method for feature extraction from ship radiated noise is presented based on empirical mode decomposition theory and permutation entropy. It analyzes the separability for permutation entropies of the intrinsic mode functions of three types of ship radiated noise signals, and discusses the permutation entropy of the intrinsic mode function with the highest energy. In this study, ship radiated noise signals measured from three types of ships are decomposed into a set of intrinsic mode functions with empirical mode decomposition method. Then, the permutation entropies of all intrinsic mode functions are calculated with appropriate parameters. The permutation entropies are obviously different in the intrinsic mode functions with the highest energy, thus, the permutation entropy of the intrinsic mode function with the highest energy is regarded as a new characteristic parameter to extract the feature of ship radiated noise. After that, the characteristic parameters, namely, the energy difference between high and low frequency, permutation entropy, and multi-scale permutation entropy, are compared with the permutation entropy of the intrinsic mode function with the highest energy. It is discovered that the four characteristic parameters are at the same level for similar ships, however, there are differences in the parameters for different types of ships. The results demonstrate that the permutation entropy of the intrinsic mode function with the highest energy is better in separability as the characteristic parameter than the other three parameters by comparing their fluctuation ranges and the average values of the four characteristic parameters. Hence, the feature of ship radiated noise can be extracted efficiently with the method.