REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0463.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Palaeontology Keywords: taxonomy; biogeography; evolution; domestication; dispersal; pollen; archaeology; hemp; drugs
Online: 25 November 2021 (08:29:49 CET)
Cannabis is among the oldest human domesticates and has been subjected to intensive artificial (human-mediated) selection through history, to create a wide array of varieties and biotypes for a diversity or uses, including fiber, food, biofuel, medicine and drugs, among others. This paper briefly reviews the available literature on the taxonomy, the evolutionary origin and the domestication of this plant, as well as its worldwide dispersal, either in its wild and cultivated forms. Emphasis is placed on Europe and especially on the Iberian Peninsula, which is the main target of this study. Today it is accepted that Cannabis is a monospecific genus with two subspecies, C. sativa subsp. sativa and C. sativa subsp. indica, originated in Europe and Asia, respectively, by allopatric differentiation after geographical isolation fostered by Pleistocene glacial-interglacial cycles. Palynological and phylogeographical evidence situate the Cannabis ancestor in the NE Tibetan Plateau during the Oligocene (ca. 28 Ma). The timing and place of domestication is still a matter of debate between contrasting views that defend single or multiple domestication centers, situated in different parts of the Eurasian supercontinent, notably central/southeastern China and the Caucasus region. Recent meta-analyses suggest that wild Cannabis may have been spread across Europe already in the Pleistocene (ca. 1 Ma), and its domestication could have been occurred during the European Copper/Bronze ages (7-5 kyr BP). According to the available reviews and meta-analyses, pre-anthropic dispersal of Cannabis into the Iberian Peninsula seems to have been occurred only in post-glacial times (18.5-15 kyr BP) and the earlier signs of cultivation date to the Early Medieval Ages (ca. 600 CE). However, the palynological and archaeological evidence used to date is insufficient for a sound assessment and the development of thorough Iberian databases to address further meta-analysis are essential for more robust conclusions. Some clues are provided for these achievements to be fulfilled.
Wed, 30 September 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0749.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Palaeontology Keywords: Cave, hydrothermal, Landsat, Pawon, remote sensing
Online: 30 September 2020 (14:19:27 CEST)
Relationship between caveman prehistoric life in terms of heat induced food processing and its geological ecosystems have received many attentions. Previous studies have investigated the sources of heat included using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and biomarker approaches. Here this study proposes the use of remote sensing to identify the relationship of 9500 year old (9.5 ka) prehistoric mongoloid occupancy with hydrothermal manifestations at Pawon cave of West Java. The hydrothermal manifestations around Pawon cave were identified using Landsat 8 band combinations, land surface temperature, and sedimentary lithology. The results showed the hydrothermal manifestations surrounding Pawon cave were within a distance of 0.5-2 km. The results also showed bones representing 12 animal taxon groups with high abundance of rodents. To conclude this study sheds the light of proximity and preferences of mongoloid prehistoric occupancy towards hydrothermal landscape due to its advantage as heat sources for food processing purposes.
Sat, 26 September 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0617.v1
Online: 26 September 2020 (06:50:16 CEST)
In the late Pleistocene, a prehistoric hippo species was distributed from Africa to the Asia including Pakistan, India, and Java island. This study aims to model habitat suitability of Asian hippo known as a Hippopotamus sivalensis spp. in east Java. The measured parameters included the fossil locality, vegetation cover, elevation, and distance to the river in a forest river basin sizing 6652 Ha. Those parameters using GIS were weighted, overlaid, and interpolated to determine the most suitable habitats. The model projected that the suitable habitats of H. sivalensis spp. were in the central of the basin near the river. The largest suitable habitats were located in the eastern parts of basin which were dominated by forests
Tue, 22 September 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0522.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Palaeontology Keywords: astragalus; body mass; Bovid; Pleistocene; population density
Online: 22 September 2020 (11:37:26 CEST)
Astragalus bone is one of the most important fossil records as it can reconstruct the prehistoric life. Respectively, this study aims to model the body mass, habitat preference, and population density of prehistoric bovid Duboisia santeng (Dubois 1891) in eastern Java island in the early Pleistocene. The astragali from 9 specimens were used to estimate the body mass and population density. Likewise regression models are used to analyze the relationship between astragalus lateral length, width, and body mass compared to the astragalus of extant Bovid species. The result revealed the body mass average was 60.3 kg (95%CI: 58.9-61.7) and this indicates the D. santeng belongs to large herbivores. While the population density was estimated at about 5.39 individuals per km2 (95% CI: 3.18-7.6).
Wed, 16 September 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0355.v1
Online: 16 September 2020 (08:33:49 CEST)
The migration routes have facilitated the distribution of mammals from south east Asian mainland to the Sundaland including Java island in the early Pleistocene. One of species that has migrated through that route is antelope-like bovid Duboisia santeng. In the present study, the potential distribution areas and the suitable habitats of D. santeng have been projected and modeled. The modeled habitat was a forest river basin sizing 302.91 Ha in the central of Java island. The model has classified and reconstructed the habitat suitability ranged from low to high back to Pleistocene. The surrounding areas of forest were mostly classified as medium and low related to the limited tree covers. Most suitable habitats were identified in the middle of forest river basin where the tree covers were presented
Thu, 10 September 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0222.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Palaeontology Keywords: planktonic foraminifera; shell weight; climate variability; sea surface density; carbonate production; X-ray microscopy (μCT); δ18O and Mg/Ca analyses
Online: 10 September 2020 (04:48:27 CEST)
Planktonic foraminiferal biomineralization intensity, reflected by their shell calcite mass, affects global carbonate deposition and is known to follow the climate cycles by being increased during glacial stages and decreased during interglacial ones. Here we measure the dissolution state and the mass of the shells of the planktonic foraminifera species Globigerina bulloides from a Tropical Eastern North Atlantic site over the last two glacial-interglacial climatic transitions and we report no major changes in plankton calcite production with the atmospheric pCO2 variations. We attribute this consistency in foraminifera calcification to the climatic and hydrological stability of the tropical regions. We however recorded increased shell masses midway through the penultimate deglaciation (Termination II). In order to elucidate the cause of the increased shell weights we performed δ18O, Mg/Ca and μCT measurements on the same shells from a number of samples surrounding this event. We find that shells of increased mass are internally contaminated by sediment infilling and that shell weights are responding to local hydrographic changes.
Sat, 25 July 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0624.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Palaeontology Keywords: Urbanization; Gulf of Trieste; Ostracods; Nutrients; Environmental stress; Marine Nature Reserve
Online: 25 July 2020 (19:00:43 CEST)
For the first time the distribution and modifications of living ostracod associations present in the Gulf of Trieste (GoT) in relation to the alterations caused by human activity in the last 20 years were investigated. The results were compared with the main chemico-physical parameters (especially nitrogen and phosphorus) measured over the same period, which can lead to a general decrease in environmental quality. For a more in-depth analysis of the changes recorded by ostracods in the last 50 years, a period in which eutrophication and anoxia increased, we revisited the study carried out by Masoli in the GoT in 1967. The results obtained made it possible to verify how over the last 20 years, ostracod assemblages have suffered a decrease both qualitatively and quantitatively. Most of the species recovered show characteristics of opportunism and tolerance to environmentally stressful conditions, high organic matter concentrations and oxygen deficiency. The ostracods analyzed in 1967 showed similar results with few dominant opportunistic species. We verified how ostracods recorded in GoT, similar to Mollusks and Foraminifera, the possible environmental crisis linked to the recurrence of mucilage and hypoxic events documented for the Gulf of Trieste in the last 50 years. Finally, a comparison with the best environmental conditions found in the Marine Nature Reserve of Miramare (MPA) allowed us to emphasize the important role of protected areas to avoid the loss of biodiversity due to urbanization.
Wed, 12 February 2020
Subject: Earth Sciences, Palaeontology Keywords: protein/RNA world: plasma membrane; cytoplasm; gene regulation; virus world; pre-retro virus; emergence of DNA; transcription and replication; first cells; hyperthermophiles; LUCA; Bacteria and Archaea; anoxygenic bacteria; oxygenic bacteria; global distribution of cyanobacteria
Online: 12 February 2020 (03:25:07 CET)
The emergence of proteins in the prebiotic world was a watershed event at the origin of life. With their astonishing versatility, the protein enzymes catalyzed crucial biochemical reactions within protocells into more complex biomolecules in diverse metabolic pathways, whereas structural proteins provided strength and permeability in the cell membrane. Five major biochemical innovations followed in succession after availability of various kinds of protein molecules during decoding and translation of mRNAs. These are: (1) the modification of the phospholipid membrane into the plasma membrane; (2) the origin of primitive cytoplasm; (3) primitive gene regulation; (4) the beginnings of the virus world; and (5) the advent of DNA. The creative role of viruses during prebiotic synthesis led to the origin of the DNA world, when DNA replaced mRNA as the major genome of the protocells. With the advent of DNA, replication of information was entirely dissociated from its expression. Because DNA is much more stable than mRNA with more storage capacity, it is a superb archive for information systems in the form of base sequences. DNA progressively took over the replicative storage function of mRNA, leaving the latter for protein synthesis. Genetic information began to flow from DNA to mRNA to protein in a two-step process involving transcription and translation. In the biological stage, DNA replication was central to the binary fission of the first cell, orchestrated by the duplication of genomes and then the division of the parent cell into two identical daughter cells. With the onset of binary fission, the population of primitive cells grew rapidly in the hydrothermal vent environment, undergoing Darwinian evolution and diversification by mutation. The habitat of the earliest fossil record (≥ 3.5 Ga) from the Archean sedimentary rocks of Canada, Greenland, Australia, South Africa, and India offers a new window on the early radiation of microbial life. The development of anoxygenic and then oxygenic photosynthesis from early hyperthermophiles would have allowed life to escape the hydrothermal setting to the mesophilic global ocean.
Wed, 9 October 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0094.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Palaeontology Keywords: aquatic reptiles; plesiosaurs; pliosaurs; swim kinematics; Strouhal numbers
Online: 9 October 2019 (08:05:38 CEST)
Analysis of plesiosaur swim dynamics by means of a digital 3D armature (wireframe “skeleton”) of a pliosauromorph (“Ava”) demonstrates that: 1, plesiosaurs used all four flippers for primary propulsion; 2, plesiosaurs utilized all four flippers simultaneously; 3, respective pairs of flippers of Plesiosauridae, front and rear, traveled through distinctive, separate planes of motion, and; 4, the ability to utilize all four paddles simultaneously allowed these largely predatory marine reptiles to achieve a significant increase in acceleration and speed, which, in turn, contributed to their sustained dominance during the Mesozoic.
Thu, 26 September 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0287.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Palaeontology Keywords: Gunflint Chert; stromatolites; black chert; origin of eukaryotes; evolution of fungi; Precambrian microfossils
Online: 26 September 2019 (00:48:56 CEST)
We report here a giant microfossil resembling the conidium of an ascomycete fungus (cf. Alternaria alternata). The specimen is preserved in stromatolitic black chert of the Gunflint Iron Formation (Paleoproterozoic Eon, Orosirian Period, ca. 1.9-2.0 Ga) of southern Ontario, Canada, and the rock that provided the thin section may have been collected by Elso Barghoorn as part of the original discovery of the Gunflint microbiota. The large size of the fossil sets it apart from other, tiny by comparison, Gunflint microfossils. The fossil is 200 microns in length and has cross walls. Individual cells are 30-46 microns in greatest dimension. The apical ‘spore’ is cap-shaped, and has partly separated from the rest of the structure. Cloulicaria gunflintensis gen. nov. sp. nov. may provide early evidence for eukaryotes (fungi) in the fossil record, and may also represent the earliest evidence for asexual reproduction in a eukaryote by means of mitospores.
Mon, 5 August 2019
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0033.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Palaeontology Keywords: aquatic reptiles; parareptiles; procolophonids; neodiapsids; Permian; Barasaurus; mesosaurs; Hovasaurus; Tangasauridae; Claudiosaurus; neuroanatomy; swim kinematics; neural canal; caudal vertebrae; transverse process
Online: 5 August 2019 (00:35:21 CEST)
Eight amniote genera (representing four clades) became aquatic during the Permian. The four clades were mesosaurids, tangasaurids, the neodiapsid Claudiosaurus, and the procolophonid Barasaurus. Two of eight genera survived the end-Permian mass extinction, but did not last long into the Mesozoic. A previously undescribed specimen of Claudiosaurus germaini, preserved in a lacustrine concretion from the Sakamena Formation, Madagascar, bears seventeen vertebrae that has been split along an approximate horizontal plane to reveal sections of neural canal casted in white calcite. Enlargement of the neural canal in the sacral region of this specimen of Claudiosaurus (vertebral segments 22-26) is more similar to that of Tupinambis (segments 24-28) than it is to Testudo (segments 16-23). Claudiosaurus skeletal anatomy provides evidence for swim propulsion by both hind limbs and by undulation of a dorsal-ventrally flattened tail. Evidence for the latter includes elongate transverse processes on distal tail vertebrae. Other Permian aquatic reptile genera (Mesosaurus, Hovasaurus, Barasaurus) used snake-like side-to-side tail undulation, whereas Claudiosaurus used cetacean-like up-down tail undulation in the vertical plane. It seems unlikely that any of these animals were particularly fast swimmers.
Wed, 3 July 2019
Subject: Earth Sciences, Palaeontology Keywords: chordates; vetulicolians; cephalochordates; vertebrates; tunicates; Cambrian; Chenjiang Biota; Burgess Shale; Banffia; Vetulicolia; Myllokunmingia; Metaspriggina; agnathans; deuterostomes; all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA); morphogen gradients
Online: 3 July 2019 (11:01:11 CEST)
Deuterostomes make a sudden appearance in the fossil record during the Early Cambrian. Two deuterostome groups, the chordates and the vetulicolians, are of particular interest for understanding the evolutionary dynamics of the Cambrian evolutionary event. Lagerstätten in China and elsewhere have dramatically improved our understanding of the range of variation in these ancient animals. Cephalochordate and vertebrate body plans are well established at least by Cambrian Series 2. Taken together, roughly a dozen chordate genera and fifteen vetulicolian genera document an explosive radiation of deuterostomes at the base of the Cambrian. A new vetulicolian (••• nov. gen. nov. sp.) with a polygonal anterior section and a narrow, unsegmented posterior region (‘tail’) bearing possible myotomes provides new insight into the affinities of the various body plans that emerged during the Early Cambrian. It seems clear that the advent of deuterostomes near the Cambrian boundary involved both a reversal of gut polarity and a two-sided retinoic acid gradient, with a gradient discontinuity at the midpoint of the organism that is reflected in the sharp division of vetulicolians into anterior and posterior sections.
Mon, 6 August 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0102.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Palaeontology Keywords: global warming and environmental change; Late Quaternary paleoenvironments; Termination I; sea-water paleotemperature; marine microfossils; North Atlantic; stable isotopes
Online: 6 August 2018 (08:56:58 CEST)
The micropaleontological study (radiolarians and foraminifera) of the sediment core AMK-340, Reykjanes Ridge, North Atlantic, combined with the radiocarbon dating and Oxygen/Carbon isotopic record, provided data for the reconstruction of the summer paleotemperature on the water depth of 100 m, and paleoenvironments during the Termination I in the age interval of 14.5–8 ka. The response of the main microfossil species on the paleoceanographic changes within the Bølling-Allerød (BA) warming, the Younger Dryas (YD) cold event, and final transition to the warm Holocene was different. The BA warming was well reflected in the radiolarian and benthic but not planktic foraminiferal record. The high abundances of the cold-water radiolarian species Amphimelissa setosa as the Greenland/Iceland Sea indicator marked a cooling at the end of the BA and within the start of the YD at 13.2–12.3 ka. The micropaleontological and isotopic data together with the paleotemperature estimates for the Reykjanes Ridge at 60° N document that, after the warm BA, the middle YD ca. 12.5–12.2 ka was the next significant step toward the Holocene warming. Start of the Holocene interglacial conditions was reflected in abundant occurrence of the microfossils being indicators of the open boreal North Atlantic environments and lower oxygen isotope values indicating increasing warmth.
Tue, 31 July 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0610.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Palaeontology Keywords: ichnite; Skye; Yorkshire; footprints; dinosaur; sauropod; theropod; ornithopod
Online: 31 July 2018 (06:40:24 CEST)
Despite the Hebrides and Cleveland basins being geographically close, research has not previously been carried out to determine faunal similarities and assess the possibility of links between the dinosaur populations. The palaeogeography of both areas during the Middle Jurassic shows that there were no elevated landmasses being eroded to produce conglomeratic material in the basins at that time. The low-lying landscape and connected shorelines may have provided connectivity between the two dinosaur populations. The dinosaur fauna of the Hebrides and Cleveland basins has been assessed based primarily on the abundant ichnites found in both areas as well as their skeletal remains. In the two basins the dinosaur faunas are very similar, consisting of non-neosauropod eusauropods, a possible basal titanosauriform, large and small theropods and ornithopods and europodan thyreophorans. The main difference in the faunas is in the sizes. In the Cleveland Basin the ichnites suggest that there were medium and large theropods alongside small to medium sized ornithopods whereas in the Hebrides Basin the theropods were from small to large and the ornithopods were medium to large. It is suggested that migrations could have taken place between the two areas during the Middle Jurassic. A tentative food chain from the herbivorous dinosaurs to the top predators can be inferred from the footprints.
Wed, 24 January 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0229.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Palaeontology Keywords: Mid Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO); nannoplankton; temperature changes; Cibulakan Formation
Online: 24 January 2018 (18:50:42 CET)
Global climatic event on Middle Miocene triggered by geology activity is called by Mid- Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO). This event was widely distributed and associated with increasing temperature and CO2 content in the atmosphere. The effect of MMCO was widely known the mid-latitude region, but still limited information in low latitude sediments. This study try to perform the effect of MMCO at Cibulakan Formation in which deposited in the low latitude basin, Bogor Basin. Fifty eights samples from Cileungsi River were taken at Cibulakan Formation and quantitative nannoplankton analysis was carried out for this study. Nannoplankton shows the sensitive response with sea surface temperature changes. Increasing of total population nannoplankton indicates the rising of temperature and dropping temperature is marked by decreasing population. The effect of sea surface temperature changes relates with salinity changes as the effect of evaporation. Helicosphaera carteri and Umbilicosphaera jafari were counted to know the salinity trend at Cibulakan Formation. Sea surfaces temperature changes was observed on Early Miocene which was influenced by small scale Early Miocene glaciation and active tectonic during this period. Warming temperature taken place on Middle Miocene as the effect of warm and open sea during Mid Miocene Climatic Optimum. Afterwards, hot temperature continued on Late Miocene triggered by global increasing temperature at Pacific Ocean and widely distribution of clean water at North West Java Basin.
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