ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0683.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: school; security; police officer; trust; perception; sustainable; development; serbia
Online: 12 September 2023 (02:35:52 CEST)
The study aims to determine the trust and presence of police officers in schools in Serbia, as well as the perception of the principals and secretaries, teachers and staff, parents and students on how successful the certain police units dedicated to schools were in fulfilling their tasks. The ex–post analysis was conducted through PEST/SWAT analysis, mapping of the key actors and using batteries of online questionnaires. Besides interviews with the MOI representatives, there were conducted: Survey with personal interviewing, Computer–aided surveying and Desk analysis and content analysis. The survey was conducted in the period from September 2021 to June 2022. The research methods were implemented in 1140 schools in Serbia and 8,617 people were included in surveys: police officers (308); principals and secretaries (1085); the team for protection against discrimination (982); teachers and staff (2988); parents (938) and students (2316). The relationships between the covariates and perception were investigated using the t–test, one–way ANOVA, multivariate linear regression, and binary regression. The results showed that a project of school police officers was not fully recognized as one of the strategically important instruments for safe schools, trust is low but presence is high. Besides that, the results suggest that the entire public believe that a police is needed in schools and that it has a very positive effect on school safety. Regarding school safety policy, it is necessary to undertake three types of measures for sustainable development of trust and presence of police in school: regulatory, informa-tive-educational and institutional-organizational.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0216.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: resistance; physical resistance; crisis preparedness; anticipation ability; security measures; critical infrastructure resilience
Online: 5 September 2023 (03:43:19 CEST)
Technical sectors are an inseparable and elementary part of a critical infrastructure (CI) complex system. The services they provide are essential to the functioning of all the dependent sectors of CI on whose services society depends, especially in areas with high levels of urbanisation. The starting point for effective CI elements protection of is permanent assessing and strengthening their resilience to the negative effects of internal and external threats. Current perceptions of resilience focus primarily on repressive components responsive to incident (i.e., robustness, recoverability, and adaptability), while little attention is paid to preventative components. Therefore, the benefit of the article is to define resistance which could be seen as the CI element ability or characteristic to prevent the occurrence of incidents. Based on that, the article defines 1) the individual factors (variables and parameters) determining the CI resistance and 2) the methodological procedure for infrastructure elements resistance assessment in order to identify weak points and subsequently strengthen them. The essence of the article is defining the starting points for extending the CIERA method by a component strengthening the critical infrastructure resilience in the prevention phase. A practical example of resistance assessment for a selected critical energy infrastructure element is presented at the end of the article.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1533.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: Risk Assessment; Conformation Bias; Loss Aversion; Conflicting Goals; Renewable Energy; Offshore; Compliance; Systems; Determinism; Linearity; Causation; Cognitive Dissonance; Quantum theory; Total Re
Online: 7 August 2023 (12:24:56 CEST)
The epistemology of the traditional risk assessment examined has a taxonomy based upon deterministic, behaviouristic and compatibilist methodologies which are likely driven by neo-liberal market related requirements for bigger, faster cheaper wind-turbines. Analysis of available risk assessments suggested that there is no conscious effort to deceive the reader although the intended audience is unclear. The language, and scoring mechanisms utilized indicates the presence of conformity bias, confirmation bias, and numerical inconsistency leading to data ossification. By reverse engineering risk assessment content, Pragmatic and Social Psychological aspects can be investigated, and the adequacy of the document can be evaluated using evidence-based models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1201.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: COVID-19 Pandemic; vocabulary; online media; function; implication
Online: 18 July 2023 (09:36:29 CEST)
The occurrence of the COVID-19 pandemic has affected all aspects of our routine life. Here, we briefly reveal the less paid attention aspect, vocabulary. We extracted words from online news outlets during the first three months of the pandemic. The extracted words included many aspects, which we categorised into eight classes according to their functions and implications. We found out the top three dominant classes of vocabularies with the highest frequency compared to others, namely medical, economic and governance. The temporality in the pandemic timeline was vital in making sense of the predominant vocabulary. This paper is a rare preliminary report which provides a valuable insight into future articles with much more comprehensive data and analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1144.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: smallholders; palm oil; characterisation; environmental degradation; sustainability; Cameroon
Online: 18 July 2023 (09:16:16 CEST)
During the extraction of palm oil by smallholders in Cameroon, the use of enormous quantities of water results in palm oil mill effluent (POME), which contains substances that are deleterious to the environment at concentrations above the threshold values. A detailed description of the various processes involved is imperative so as to develop methods of reducing loss and minimising the environmental effect caused by the wastes produced. In this study, we characterise the small-holders’ palm oil production sector in Cameroon, along its entire production chain. The main demographics of smallholder farmers are adult males (64.4%) and married (46.7%) with low levels of formal education (51.1% attained only primary education). Plantation establishment involves deforestation of pristine vegetation (46.7%) as well as replacing other farming systems. Processing is carried out by the farmers with their own mills (48.9%) bought at exorbitant prices. Access to finances (51.1%) remains a key limitation to plantation expansion and the adoption of innovations in this sector. Workers’ health issues abound (75.6%) and are treated mainly using ethnomedicine (31.1%), and there is little or no social security; thus, sick workers generally pay their own bills (64.4%). Issues of environmental pollution from production to waste processing abound with solid waste mainly burnt (57.8%) and POME directed into open pits and streams (37.8%) where they become a nuisance and serve as breeding grounds for mosquitoes (51.1%); these issues will require greater state involvement for mitigation. Our findings suggest that farmers in the palm oil sector have deep knowledge base and competence, but government intervention are needed to stimulate further growth in this important sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0714.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: Organizational climate; Safety climate; Multiple mediation; Construction personnel; Random sample
Online: 12 July 2023 (03:06:04 CEST)
Organizational climate is the ascribed psychological meanings and significance associated with the procedures, policies and practices that are recognized and rewarded in the workplace, and hence mediates the effects of environmental stimuli on individuals’ response. Safety climate is a specific organizational climate, i.e., organizational climate for safety. Previous research claimed that organizational climate provides foundation for safety climate, but without elaboration on the foundational mechanisms. This paper attempts to fill up this knowledge gap. As organizational climate is a multi-dimensional phenomenon, this paper chooses two dimensions, i.e., perceived organizational support (POS) and participative decision-making (PaDM), for illustrative purposes. Drawing on an interactive approach to forming climate perceptions, this paper introduces two interactive constructs, i.e., leader-member exchange (LMX) and team member exchange (TMX), and establishes a multiple mediation model depicting the foundational effect of organizational climate on safety climate. A random sample of Hong Kong based construction personnel is used to validate the model. The results show that both POS and PaDM are positively associated with perceived safety climate, both LMX and TMX fully mediate the effect of PaDM on safety climate, and only LMX partially mediates the effect of POS on safety climate. This study sheds light on the foundational effects of organizational climate on safety climate. POS can improve the quality of reciprocal exchange about safety matters between construction personnel and their supervisors, and hence raise construction personnel’s awareness of the priority of safety. PaDM can improve the quality of reciprocal exchange about safety matters vertically and horizontally, and hence have construction personnel aware the importance of safety. In practice, this paper suggests that project managers timely recognize and reward construction personnel’s contribution, genuinely cares about their well-being, and take their suggestions seriously in making decisions. In this way, the quality of both vertical and horizontal exchange about safety matters improves, and a sound and positive safety climate ensues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2190.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: Natural disaster; anticipation; crisis management strategy; return on experience
Online: 30 June 2023 (09:40:12 CEST)
This paper sheds light on how crisis management affects post-disaster re-covery. Based on the study of the management of a major environmental disaster, hurricane IRMA, we consider how post-disaster recovery is impacted by crisis management strategies. The perspectives of local stakeholders from the islands of St Martin and St Barthélémy will be shared. We analyze how territories exposed to the same natural phenomena have different outcomes and consider some of the possible reasons. This study reveals underlying risk drivers, to address governance reorganization with a view to better managing socio-economic recovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0968.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: Disaster Risk Reduction; Risk Management; Human Factors; Safety Culture Metrics; Resiliency; Preparedness; Citizens; Public Servants; Practitioners
Online: 14 June 2023 (03:29:14 CEST)
This article offers a theoretical framework to contextualise the concept of "Safety Culture" in the field of public safety and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), with the aim of supporting its understanding and measurement in our communities and finally attaining more disaster resilient societies. The work discusses the role of cultural dimensions in risk management and DRR and highlights the relevance of building knowledge and practices based on the consideration of culture and cultural variability in all phases of the risk management process. After an overview of the Safety Culture concept, including its origins, developments and applications, the text explores the transferability of this concept to the context of public safety. Then, based on the existing Safety Culture models, metrics and indicators from other sectors, the paper proposes an original definition of Safety Culture for the DRR context, shaped on a series of elements and dimensions specifically outlined for this context. Finally, the expected benefits of the application of Safety Culture concepts and techniques for further advances in DRR is discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0022.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: Turner; Perrow; Reason; Pidgeon; Hopkins; accident and disaster preventability; system thinking; history of ideas; ethical citation
Online: 1 June 2023 (04:00:58 CEST)
Barry Turner’s 1978 Man-made Disasters and Charles Perrow’s 1984 Normal Accidents were seminal books but a detailed comparison has yet to be undertaken. Doing so is important to establish content and priority of key ideas underpinning contemporary safety science. Turner’s research found socio-technical and systemic patterns that meant that major organisational disasters could be foreseen and were preventable. Perrow’s macro-structuralist industry focus was on technologically deterministic but unpredictable and unpreventable ‘system’ accidents, particularly rare catastrophes. Andrew Hopkins and Nick Pidgeon respectively suggested that some prominent writers who wrote after Turner may not have been aware of, or didn’t properly acknowledge, Turner’s work. Normal Accidents didn’t cite Turner in 1984 or 1999. Using a methodology involving systematic reading and historical, biographical and thematic theory analysis, a detailed review of Turner’s and Perrow’s backgrounds and publications sheds new light on Turner’s priority and accomplishment, highlighting substantial similarities as well as clear differences. In a previously unpublished letter, Perrow confirmed reading Man-made Disasters while writing Normal Accidents. Turner became better known after a 1997 second edition but under-acknowledgment issues continued. Ethical citation and potential reasons for under-acknowledgment are discussed. It is concluded that Turner’s foundational importance for safety science should be better recognised.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1030.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: collision risk; trajectory data; toll plaza diverging area; random parameters ordered logit model
Online: 15 May 2023 (10:47:17 CEST)
Different toll collection types of vehicles and different distribution of tollbooths lead to the toll plaza diverging area becoming a typical vehicle weaving area with frequent crossing behaviors and conflicts on highways. This study aims to identify contributing factors to conflict risks of four vehicle-following patterns in a toll plaza diverging area by developing random parameters ordered logit models with heterogeneity in means and variances. The model can flexibly capture the unobserved heterogeneity of the contributing factors in different vehicle-following patterns. Real-world vehicle trajectory data obtained from the toll plaza diverging area in Nanjing, China, are used for model estimation. The results show that vehicle-following patterns with the same toll collection types have higher percentage of severe conflict risks. The average acceleration of the following vehicles, lane marking indicator, the initial lanes and lane-changes of vehicles are significantly associated with the collision risk levels. The standard deviation of surrogate safety measures of all vehicles in sub-segments are found differ significantly between vehicle-following patterns. Furthermore, a series of likelihood ratio tests are adopted to test the spatial dependence in sub-segments of the diverging area. The findings of this study could provide valuable information for safety improvement in toll plazas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1023.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: vehicle crash data; collision risk; ordinal logistic regression; multinomial logistic regression; proportional odds model (POM); partial proportional odds model (PPOM)
Online: 27 April 2023 (04:02:49 CEST)
The use of logistic regression models in data analysis and machine learning has expanded in recent years and has become the primary preference of researchers in risk assessment studies across a wide range of scientific fields. From the assessment of credit risk in financial institutions to the estimation of risk factors for traffic accidents or the identification of etiological factors for chronic diseases. All logistic models are natural extensions of the simple binary model, and their interpretation is based on it. Using the data of a cross-sectional study on the risk factors of traffic collisions, the two main extended models of logistic techniques, multinomial and ordinal logistic regression, are presented in the article in detail. Emphasis is placed on the use of ordinal regression since the outcome variable of the collision data is defined as ordinal measurement reflecting a latent continuous scale.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0637.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: Lightning; lightning casualties; Casualty mechanism; First aid; medical treatment
Online: 20 April 2023 (09:34:54 CEST)
Currently, the number of lightning casualties and casualty rates have significantly reduced in developed countries, but there has been no significant reduction in developing countries. On the one hand, this is due to the high frequency of lightning; on the other hand, the vulnerability of people in developing countries is also an influencing factor. Through case analysis and summary, this paper expounds on lightning injury’s mechanism and clinical manifestations. It points out that lightning injury is mainly related to heart problems and the impact on the nervous system, rather than burns, which usually cause fewer consequences. Medical treatment needs to pay attention to the order and principles of treatment. Implementing CPR and auxiliary AED is the most effective way to save lives. Attention should be paid to the practical and effective treatment and nursing of lightning stroke sequelae. Finally, combined with the situation of lightning casualties in china, the existing problems are put forward during the process of early treatment, post-hospital treatment, and nursing observation, which provides an objective basis for the cognition of the scientific nature of the lightning injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0478.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: Nanotechnology; Risk assessment and management; safety and health; Nano worker; DOSH guideline; IRGC framework; policy advice; Malaysia
Online: 26 January 2023 (10:41:49 CET)
In its 8th Malaysia Plan (MP*), the Malaysian government has given nanotechnology development a high priority and has been made a Strategic Research (SR) programme. Consequently, an exhaustive and long-term approach is essential. Additionally, specific laws are required to provide an optimal health and safety environment for workers. Consequently, the current study intends to assist Malaysian policymakers in promoting improved safety, risk assessment, and management for nanotechnology workplaces, as well as drafting a comprehensive policy for the recently released DOSH guideline in 2018. Utilizing a unique methodology, this study evaluated the assessment and management of nanotechnology health and safety risks in Malaysia using the international risk governance council (IRGC) framework. In addition to document analysis, n = 20 semi-structured interviews were conducted with representatives of several nanotechnology platforms to collect data that was then analyzed thematically. The research evaluated current workplace safety regulations and laws. Consequently, we propose a future dynamic strategy for Malaysian nanotechnology with more favourable upgrades supported by increased concentrations in the following areas: I policy creation, ii) comprehensive management system, iii) knowledge transfer, and iv) infrastructure management. In addition, the findings highlight the need of cross-sectional communication in bridging existing gaps. This study laid the groundwork for a more systematic and comprehensive health and safety strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0430.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: disasters; social media; informing; public; disaster; risks; Serbia
Online: 24 January 2023 (10:29:14 CET)
Social media informs the public about the most important events and conveys important information. Before, during and after disasters, social media are used to disseminate information about disasters and to collect data relevant to the implementation of preparedness, response and recovery activities and measures. Social networks are effective in disseminating information and warnings, as well as in educating the public. The subject of the research is examining the influence of demographic factors on the effectiveness of social media in informing the public about the risks of disasters. Using an online survey questionnaire, and according to the snowball principle, a survey of 247 respondents was conducted in 2022. The research results show no statistically significant relationship between the level of education of the respondents and the assessment of the effectiveness of social media reporting on disasters. The use of social media can improve communication between stakeholders in disaster management and facilitate coordination of efforts, fostering communication and allocation of resources. To effectively use social media in disaster management, decision-makers in the disaster management system must be aware of new technologies, their disadvantages and advantages, as well as ways in which data from social networks can be collected and analyzed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0180.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: Sustainable Development; Sustainable Development Goals; Sustainability; Postdevelopment; Degrowth; Disaster Risk Reduction; United Nations; Permacrisis; Metadisaster.
Online: 13 May 2022 (07:48:45 CEST)
This transdisciplinary review of research about international cooperation on social and environmental change builds the case for replacing Sustainable Development as the dominant framework for an era of increasing crises and disasters. The review is the output of an intentional exploration of recent studies in multiple subject areas, based on the authors’ decades of work in related fields since the Rio Earth Summit 30 years ago (rather than a keyword search of databases). It summarizes the research which documents failure to progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Consequently, the extensive scholarship critiquing the conceptual framework behind those ‘Global Goals’, and the economic ideology they arose from and support, is used to explain that failure. Although the pandemic set back the SDGs, it further revealed the inappropriate strategy behind those goals. This suggests the Global Goals constitute an ‘own-goal’ scored against people and nature. From this conclusion, alternative frameworks for organizing action on social and environmental issues become more important and are therefore briefly reviewed. It is argued that such a future framework must relate a new eco-social contract between citizen and state, and engage existing organizations and capabilities that are relevant to an increasingly disrupted world. Therefore, the case is made for considering an upgraded form of Disaster Risk Management (DRM) as an overarching framework. The proposed upgrades include detaching from economic ideologies, and recognizing that a wider metadisaster from climate chaos may reduce the future availability of external support. Therefore, self-reliant resilience and locally-led adaptation are identified as important to the future of DRM. Some options for professionals continuing to use the term sustainability, such as this journal, are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0247.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: Security practice; Healthcare; Questionnaire design; Questionnaire pretesting
Online: 17 March 2022 (08:47:36 CET)
Recent reports have it that over 85\% of data breaches are still caused by the human element, of which healthcare is one of the suitable organizations mostly targeted by cybercriminals. The work of healthcare staff is often associated with high workloads, high emergency cases, and a broad range of psychological, social, and cultural factors. The significance of these factors could undermine conscious care information security (IS) practice leading to serious violations. This study comprehensively examined the correlation between the psycho-social-cultural factors, work factors with IS and privacy behaviour in a hospital that has fully adopted electronic health records (EHR) management system. The findings are to facilitate the decision-making process towards improving the cyber-security practice in healthcare. A quantitative approach was adopted where we collected responses from 212 healthcare staff through an online questionnaire survey. A broad range of constructs was selected from psychological, social, cultural perception and work factors based on earlier review work. These were therefore related to some security practices, to assess the IS knowledge, attitude and behaviour gaps among healthcare staff in a comprehensive way. From the study, IS self-reported conscious care behaviour (ISCCB) risk was relatively higher as compared to information security knowledge (ISK) risks and information security attitude (ISA) risk. Furthermore, the study revealed that work emergency has a positive correlation with ISCCB (r=1.95, p-value =0.001) risk. Conscientiousness also had positive correlation with ISCCB risk (r=0.157, p-value=0.05) however agreeableness negatively correlated with ISK risk (r=-0.166, p-value =0.05), and ISA risk (r=-0.140, p-value =0.05). Based on these findings, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation methods combined with cutting-edge technologies can be explored to discourage IS risks behaviours while enhancing conscious care security practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0163.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: Optimal Forager Theory; Near-Repeat Theory; Burglary; Crime; Policing
Online: 11 March 2022 (08:31:34 CET)
The use of crime mapping has been used by the police to inform deployment of resources for many decades. Such approaches are commonly used to underpin crime control strategies designed to prevent or reduce acquisitive crimes such as domestic burglary. In recent decades there has been a shift away from simple hot spot identification to more complex geospatial mapping methodologies, such as near repeat analysis which was developed through research regarding burglary victimisation. One of these newly emerging methodologies is built upon the ecological, optimal forager theory (OFT). Research using this theory to examine domestic burglary offending intimated potential for positive results in predicting areas at risk of future crime. This led to a number of police services using crime analysis methodologies built upon OFT to underpin their deployment of resources in an effort to prevent or reduce domestic burglary through increased capable guardianship. However, to date, there has been no detailed examination of how the police services implemented such approaches. As such, this study seeks to fill this gap by examining OFT strategies implemented within 5 police services. By interviewing participants directly involved in the programs the study gathers views and perspectives of its relative success. As a result, we identify that participants felt the strategies produced limited impact on recorded burglary crime. We discuss how despite some positive by-products of the strategies, failure to comprehensively apply the theoretical foundations of OFT, and a variety of implementation failures have undermined the various programs, ultimately impacting their effectiveness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0231.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: Behavior-Based safety; Critical behavior checklist; Behavioral definition; Intervention; Safe behavior
Online: 18 February 2022 (09:53:30 CET)
Background: It is necessary to apply a behavior-based safety (BBS) program to prevent at-risk behavior. An effective BBS program requires the implementation of not only behavioral definitions and a customized critical behavior checklist (CBC) but also observations of behavior, coupled with customized interventions at power plants. Method: In this study, a customized CBC and behavioral definition were developed through a review of five different sites that previously used a CBC. The rules of observation, flow, and target were established to initiate the observations. Customized interventions were selected to increase safe behaviors. CBC scoring was used to evaluate observed safe behaviors for three years. Recognized safe behaviors were evaluated with a questionnaire that included four items each for conformity and participation behaviors and were then analyzed through a factor analysis and a t-test. The questionnaires were conducted three months before and after the implementation of the BBS program. Results: The customized CBC, behavioral definition, and interventions were effective, such that observed safe behaviors and the levels of workers’ recognized safe behaviors increased. Conclusion: The application of the BBS program was found to increase the observed and recognized safe behaviors. Therefore, the program applied to this site can help increase safe behaviors at other identical or similar sites, as well as prevent an accident, which also corresponds with the results of prior studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0429.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: Agri-Food; Food Supply Chain; Blockchain; IoT; Big Data; Sustainability; Food Security; COVID-19; Food Safety; Digitalization
Online: 23 November 2021 (14:52:59 CET)
Technological advances such as blockchain, artificial intelligence, big data, social media, geographic information systems represent a building block of the digital transformation that supports the resilience of the food supply chain (FSC) and increases its efficiency. This paper reviews the literature surrounding digitalization in FSCs. A bibliometric and key-route main path analysis was carried out to objectively and analytically uncover the knowledge development in digitalization within the context of sustainable FSCs. The research began with the selection of 2140 articles published nearly over five decades. Then, the articles were examined according to several bibliometric metrics such as year of publication, countries, institutions, sources, authors, and keywords frequency. A keyword co-occurrence network was generated to cluster the relevant literature. Findings of the review and bibliometric analysis indicate that research at the intersection of technology and the FSC has gained substantial interest from scholars. On the basis of keyword co-occurrence network, the literature is focused on the role of information communication technology for agriculture and food security, food waste and circular economy, and the merge of the Internet of Things and blockchain in the FSC. The analysis of the key-route main path uncovers three critical periods marking the development of technology-enabled FSCs. The study offers scholars a better understanding of digitalization within the agri-food industry and the current knowledge gaps for future research. Practitioners may find the review useful to remain ahead of the latest discussions of technology-enabled FSCs. To the authors’ best knowledge, the current study is one of the few endeavors to explore technology-enabled FSCs using a comprehensive sample of journals articles published during the past five decades.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0192.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: rural village; earthquake; vulnerability index; vulnerability analysis; damage matrix
Online: 10 November 2021 (08:26:28 CET)
This study investigated and classified typical structures in rural village and analyzed the vulnerability of various typical types of structures. Based on the statistics of earthquake damages with magnitudes above 5 from 1996 to 2013 in China, the damage matrixes of different types of structures in rural village are obtained. And The vulnerability index and the vulnerability equation of structure are crucial to assess the earthquake losses of typical structures under different magnitudes earthquakes. According to the seismic loss of different types of structures under different earthquake magnitudes, there are possible to improve the seismic resilience of the buildings in rural village. Moreover, the regional vulnerability is analyzed by β probability distribution function, and the comprehensive seismic performance index of different types of agricultural buildings in the region is obtained. The main research is to predict the loss of different types of structures under different earthquake magnitudes in the future, and to provide technical support for different types of building in rural village reinforcement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0417.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: Safety Performance; Safety Culture; Resilience Culture; Paramedic; Training Institute; IPMA; PLS-SEM.
Online: 20 August 2021 (13:44:19 CEST)
An increasing number of studies have shown that safety culture factors have a substantial influence on safety performance in a variety of industrial sectors. These factors' impact on safety performance is unclear, especially at the public service and statutory authorities. On the other hand, the understanding of indicators for safety performance in every working sector in Malaysia is on the continuing progress. Hence, this study's contribution is to explore the influence of safety culture factors (i.e., management commitment and supervision in safety, safety system) and safety competence on safety performance in government paramedic training institutes. IPMA (importance-performance map analysis) is a technique used in Smart PLS to determine the significance and performance of each of these factors. The study was conducted via an online survey and involved 258 safety and health committee members in Ministry of Health paramedic training institute. As a matter of relevance, the IPMA's empirical data study revealed that management commitment and supervision in safety were the predominant factors in determining safety performance. Meanwhile, for performance, the findings showed that worker involvement, safety system, and safety competence perform well in determining the safety performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0192.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: errors; culture; quality improvement; patient safety; management; clinics; outpatient
Online: 8 July 2021 (10:44:33 CEST)
As many as 20-25% of the population experiences harm in outpatient settings, yet these locations are underrepresented in the literature compared to hospitals. We examined results from the Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture designed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The survey administered in 2012 gathered perceptions from 23,679 individuals in 934 unique medical offices. We examined associations of organizational patient safety climate composites on frequency of safety and quality issues, overall quality score, and safety rating. We found organizational patient safety composites are all positively and significantly associated with a higher overall quality score and patient safety rating, and fewer safety and quality issues. Office processes and standardization appeared to have the most consistent influence on perceived quality outcomes. Our results indicate it may be advantageous for medical offices to improve on the factors that contribute to positive safety climate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0527.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: safety knowledge; safety attitude; safety behaviour; SME; Malaysia; manufacturing; PLS-SEM
Online: 22 June 2021 (07:38:15 CEST)
.Most of the accident cases at work are caused by unsafe behaviour. Scholars have thus extensively researched factors of safe behavior.Safety leadership is stated as the most effective factor in safety behaviour. Besides, safety knowledge and safety attitudes are also found to influence safety behaviour. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the nature of the relationship between safety leadership, safety knowledge, safety attitude, and safety behavior, which has been found to be limited or rare in previous research.A self-administered questionnaire was applied and was distributed randomly to 140 SME manufacturing workers and they were analysed using the structural equation modelling partial least squares (PLS-SEM). The results prove that safety leadership has a significant effect on safety knowledge, safety attitude, and safety behaviour, with safety knowledge and safety attitude mediating the safety leadership-safety behaviour relationship. Consequently, the results provide a more in-depth view of the relationship between safety leadership and safety knowledge-attitude-behaviour via adapting social-cognitive theory and social learning theory in solving safety issues in SME. This study also provides a starting point for researchers to better understand how effective safety leadership is provided by supervisors in terms of improving worker safety and safety knowledge-attitude-behaviour.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0255.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; Care home; Long-term care; Social care; Preparedness; Contingency plan; Safety culture; Workforce; Survey
Online: 9 June 2021 (10:52:34 CEST)
(1) Background: Nursing homes’ preparedness in managing a public health crisis has been fragile, with effects on safety culture. The objective of this study was to assess nursing homes’ COVID-19 preparedness in Southern Portugal, including personnel’s work experiences during the pandemic. (2) Methods: We used a COVID-19 preparedness checklist to be completed by management teams, followed by follow-up calls to nursing homes. Thereafter, a survey to personnel was applied. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis, and thematic analysis of open-end questions. (3) Results: In total, 71% (138/195) of eligible nursing homes returned the preparedness checklist. We conducted 83 follow-up calls and received 720 replies to the personnel survey. On average, 25% of nursing homes did not have an adequate decision-making structure to respond to the pandemic. Outbreak capacity and training were fragile areas among nursing homes’ contingency plans. We identified compliance with procedures and nonpunitive response to mistakes as fragile areas of safety culture, and teamwork as a strong safety area. (4) Conclusions: To strengthen how nursing homes cope with upcoming phases of the COVID-19 pandemic or future public health emergencies, nursing homes’ preparedness and safety culture should be fostered and closely monitored.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0369.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: Cold supply chain; Meat Supply Chain; Food Safety; COVID-19; Blockchain; Hyperledger Fabric
Online: 14 April 2021 (12:18:24 CEST)
The world is facing an unprecedented socio-economic crisis caused by the novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19). It is also spreading through the import and export food supply chains. The Chinese authorities have discovered the COVID-19 virus in various imported frozen meat packages. Traceability plays a vital role in food quality and food safety. The Internet of Things (IoT) provides solutions to keep an eye on environmental conditions, product quality, and product traceability. These solutions are traditionally based on the centralized architecture, which does not guarantee tamper-proof data sharing. The blockchain is an emerging technology that provides tamper-proof data sharing in real-time. This article presents Hyperledger Fabric-based blockchain use case and a quick reference guide to develop the blockchain network for tracking and tracing the supply chain to minimize the risk of COVID-19 in the frozen meat supply chain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0159.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: Afghanistan; food security; cereal per capita production; cereal self-sufficiency.
Online: 6 April 2021 (09:56:39 CEST)
Afghanistan is overwhelmed with food insecurity that is a large percentage of the population lacks reliable access to food supplies. Grains play a vital role in the country's food security due to their importance in terms of consumption and production quantity. This paper estimates cereal self-sufficiency and then makes a food balance forecast of the three major food crops cultivated in Afghanistan over six-decades. Descriptive statistics and coarse metric techniques were employed to determine cereal self-sufficiency and food balance forecast. The econometric analysis demonstrated that (1) Afghanistan is not yet self-sufficient in meeting grain consumption, and the production and consumption ratio declined from 0.9 to 0.55 from 1979 to 2030. (2) The gap of theoretical food imbalance will increase, and by the year 2030, cereal production will likely be sufficient for only 49.8 percentage of inhabitants, leaving a high shortage equivalent to the amount required by 24.4 million people. By evaluating the quantitative food balance and the growing population change, this study presents an analysis of the emerging threat to Afghanistan's food security and suggests a solution for food security, should increase the size of public agricultural expenditure, improve the level of agriculture infrastructure, and continue to introduce a policy to achieve higher yield.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0498.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: Online Safety; Online Risk; Online Behaviors; Gender Disparities; High School Students; Social Media
Online: 19 March 2021 (11:15:59 CET)
In the last decade, readily available electronic devices have created unprecedented opportunities for teens to access a wide variety of information and media – both positive and negative – on the internet. Despite the increasing number of initiatives taking place worldwide intended to assess and mitigate the online risks encountered by children and adolescents, there is still a need for a better understanding of how adolescents use the internet and what consequences they may face. We conducted a cross sectional online survey of a convenience sample of 733 8th and 9th grade students in Utah. The survey contained eight questions regarding students’ exposure to three types of online risk scenarios: content risk, contact risk, and commercial risk. Independent variables included students’ online behaviors, use of social media and private messaging apps, and adult supervision of online activities. Logistic and negative binomial regression models indicated that female gender, social media use, and chatting with strangers were associated with exposure to multiple unsafe online scenarios. Our results provide critical information to practitioners involved in the development of educational initiatives by building a profile of potentially risky online behaviors and allow them to tailor their initiatives to meet the needs of more vulnerable populations.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0367.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: All-Hazard; Emergency Management; Mitigation; Preparedness; Recovery; Response
Online: 17 February 2021 (10:12:25 CET)
Emergency Management has not developed in a cohesive or comprehensive manner. Differing terms are used to name identical concepts. A standard comprehensive doctrine for the important development of emergency management is needed. In this paper I explain a doctrinal framework for emergency management. The paper states a clear identification of the five dimensions, and each of their components, necessary to the informed practice of Emergency Management. Although emergencies vary in cause and severity, the process of Emergency Management necessary for optimal handling of these emergencies varies little. The “All Hazards Approach” to emergency management establishes and reinforces commonality in processes, procedures, planning templates and organizational structure. The three types of agencies associated with emergency management activities are discussed, including the subject matter agency, coordinating agency, and supporting agency. The four critical functions of emergency management are detailed, and include mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery, often all carried out concurrently. The ten activities, and seven resources of emergency management are highlighted. There are many ways to represent the integration of these five dimensions, to ensure completeness, while ensuring clarity; the two most common are described. When experts in Emergency Management follow the doctrine, they can coordinate all those involved to be sure that all aspects of any hazard are considered, and that all organizations/agencies, functions, activities, and resources of Emergency Management are coordinated and optimally active. Following this process is the only way to ensure the best outcomes from any emergency.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0344.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: water supply; crisis situation; safety of water supply; flood; water decontamination; water filtration; flexible tanks
Online: 17 February 2021 (07:56:01 CET)
Various methods of water purification, the aim of which is to obtain such a purity class that makes it suitable for consumption are presented in the article. It is a review of solutions, ranging from methods known and used for over 100 years, through research and experiments underway, to those that are only a concept. Some of the solutions are so effective that they should also be combined with the possibility of safe storage of purified water. Flexible tanks are used for this, which significantly improve logistics and provide a supply of water in all places where it is needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0242.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: employer preparedness; health and safety; emergencies and disasters; planning; total worker health; human resources
Online: 13 January 2021 (12:10:45 CET)
Objectives: Our objective was to assess employer preparedness to protect their employees’ health and safety and promote their well-being in the face of potential disasters in a sample of Northeast United States employers. We developed survey instrument and index based on our model of Total Worker Health® (TWH) Employer Preparedness.Methods: We conducted a 40-question on-line survey with the membership of the Northeast Human Resources Association (US). Human resource managers reported their perceptions of their employers’ preparedness in seven domains: planning, human resources policies, hazard reduction, training, staffing, communications, and resources for resilience. Respondents were categorized by size, sector and reach and their responses scored.Results: Seventy-six individuals representing a diverse group of employers responded to the survey. Mean preparedness was “moderate,” with almost an equal number reporting a high level of preparedness as no preparedness. Employers were most prepared for severe weather events and least prepared for acts of violence. There were no significant differences by sector, size, or reach, although the healthcare sector was more prepared than others.Conclusions: There is a range of TWH® Employer Preparedness among Northeast US employers. The survey and model are important tools that can aid employers in the face of growing threats to “business as usual.”
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0586.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: politics; risks; emergencies; disasters; Southeast Europe
Online: 23 December 2020 (11:29:14 CET)
Using measures for sustainable development and reducing the risk of disasters in order to protect the population, goods and the environment, is the duty of every state in the fight against the security challenges that disasters bring. Disaster risk reduction is a multidisciplinary policy designed to implement various measures to strengthen community resilience and preparedness for disasters. The region of Southeast Europe is recognized as extremely endangered by natural disasters. The countries of the region, especially their national risk management policies, continue to be based in part on solutions from earlier times. The subject of the research is focused on the analysis of disaster risk management policies in the countries of Southeast Europe, their comparison and review of similarities and differences. The countries of this region base their policies on similar solutions aimed at reducing the risk of disasters. There are shortcomings in the full implementation of the adopted international frameworks in the national risk management policies and normative-legal frameworks in certain countries of this region.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0535.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: Employer Preparedness, health and safety, emergencies and disasters, planning, Total Worker Health
Online: 21 December 2020 (15:45:33 CET)
Background: Recent disasters have demonstrated gaps in employers’ preparedness to protect employees and promote their well-being in the face of emergencies and disasters affecting the workplace and their communities. Total Worker Health (TWH), a comprehensive perspective developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, is a helpful framework for addressing employer preparedness. It includes attention to health and safety at work, and the promotion of the health and well-being of the employee in the context of social determinants of health, such as work-life balance. Methods: TWH concepts, including the domains of TWH and the TWH Hierarchy of Controls, were investigated for their relevance to protecting employees and promoting their well-being during and after crises such as weather disasters, pandemics, and acts of terrorism. Building upon TWH concepts, an employer preparedness framework and model is proposed. Findings: The Model emphasizes upstream prevention, workplace-community linkages, social and economic impacts, and employer leadership through a cyclical planning process. Conclusions/Application to Practice: The Model can assist employers in advancing their preparedness for all hazards through self-assessment and planning agendas based upon the proposed domains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0099.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: COVID–19; combat; Inter–Agency Task Force (IATF); pandemic; safety and security; university
Online: 4 December 2020 (11:09:02 CET)
To define and evaluate the areas of consideration concerning in identifying the critical factors that top universities in Nueva Ecija, Philippines can be used for triangulating the courses of actions that can be applied to improve the current practices of universities towards its combat to the COVID–19 disease is the primary objective of this study. The researchers used a descriptive design of methodology by using questionnaire–checklist to scientifically describe the situation, problems, phenomenon, or program, or provide information about certain issues related to the virus outbreak. The respondents of the study were faculty and staff of five established universities in Nueva Ecija, Philippines wherein the researchers employed a non–probability sampling technique to be logically assumed as the representative of the entire population. The results of the study shown that the top universities in Nueva Ecija have made efforts to ensure the safety of university workers by complying with the Inter–Agency Task Force (IATF) protocols. It can be inferred, in reality, that there are some areas that must be improved especially when it comes to ensuring the welfare of the personnel who are still reporting to work even in this time of the pandemic. The researchers suggested an enhancement plan that can be adapted by these universities to resolve the concerns of the faculty and staff especially in reducing the spread of the virus without sacrificing the day–to–day transactions of the academic institutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0609.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: agriculture; farm-worker; hazard; perception; protective-materials; risks; safety
Online: 24 November 2020 (09:50:40 CET)
Safety and health issues are growing concerns in the agricultural sector among farm-workers in South Africa. The current health pandemic arising from the corona virus has thrown these issues into the spotlight, and this study explored the perceived usefulness and perceived ease of using personal protective materials among farm-workers in the banana sector. Using a case study of 10 large farms in the lower south coast of South Africa, we utilized descriptive and inferential analysis to identify the demographic composition of farm-workers in the study area, examine their perception of specific personal protective materials, and determine the relationship between demographic characteristics and perception of personal protective materials. Farm-workers in the study area were found to be predominantly single black males aged between 36-55years, with no more than a primary education, with work experience of between 6-10 years and employed as unskilled farm-labourers. Perceived usefulness (83%) and perceived ease of use (79%) for personal protective materials was high. Respondents gender (p=0.012), marital status (p=0.029), level of education (p=0.035) and farm-work experience (p=0.008) were significant, while their age (p=0.057), population group (p=0.160) and work classification (p=0.203) were not found significant in determining perceived usefulness or perceived ease of use. Our study makes valuable contribution to the existing body of knowledge regarding farm-worker safety issues by exploring perception of personal protective materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0557.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: Sundanese strait; tsunami; emergency response; climate change; resilience
Online: 22 November 2020 (11:42:21 CET)
The Tsunami disaster was the first and the biggest in Banten Province. However, in response to the health crisis, the preparedness was still lacking, even though in an emergency response situation, the management of disaster management carried out was quite good. The method of research is based on data reports that include quantitative and qualitative methods. Analyzing health facilities and the impacts that occurred in the field during the tsunami period is the basis for this article and, at the same time, a discussion of describing problems that can be anticipated in the future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0614.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: social capital; food security; hunger; knowledge sharing; social networks
Online: 29 October 2020 (13:24:11 CET)
Social capital creates a synergy that brings many benefits to members of a community. Thus, the main objective of this article was to examine whether social capital can improve a society's food security. If yes, how? To answer these questions, a systematic literature review was conducted using the Prisma approach. The output of this method led to finding 39 related articles. Precise studying these articles illustrated that social capital improves food security through two mechanisms of knowledge sharing and product sharing (i.e., sharing food products). It revealed that social capital through improving the food security pillars (i.e., food availability, food accessibility, food utilization, and food system stability) affects food security. In other words, the interaction among the members of the community results in sharing food products and information among community members, and this facilitates food availability and access to food. There are many shreds of evidence in the literature that sharing food and food product among the community member decreases household food security and provides the healthy nutrition to the vulnerable families and improve the food utilization pillar of food security. In addition, it is disclosed that belonging to the social networks increases the resilience of the community members and decreases the vulnerability of the community that subsequently strengthens the stability of a food system. This study contributes to the common literature on food security and social capital by providing a conceptual model based on the literature. In addition to researchers, policymakers can use the finding of this study to provide solutions to address food insecurity problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0342.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: online hate; hate speech; online disinhibition; online safety
Online: 16 October 2020 (08:27:29 CEST)
Today’s youth have almost universal access to the internet and frequently engage in social networking activities using various social media platforms and devices. This is a phenomenon that hate groups are exploiting when disseminating their propaganda. This study seeks to better understand youth exposure to hateful material in the online space by exploring predictors of such exposure including demographic characteristics (age, gender and race), academic performance, online behaviours, online disinhibition, risk perception, and parents/guardians’ supervision of online activities. We implemented a cross-sectional study design, using a paper questionnaire, in two high schools in Massachusetts (USA), focusing on students 14 to 19 years old. Logistic regression models were used to study the association between independent variables (demographics, online behaviours, risk perception, parental supervision) and exposure to hate online. Results revealed an association between exposure to hate messages in the online space and time spent online, academic performance, communicating with a stranger on social media, and benign online disinhibition. In our sample, benign online disinhibition was also associated with students’ risk of encountering someone online that tried to convince them of racist views. This study represents an important first step in understanding youth’s risk factors of exposure to hateful material online.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0021.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: diversity; inclusion; equity; fieldwork; research
Online: 2 August 2020 (11:55:47 CEST)
As a result of identity prejudice, certain individuals are at higher risk for conflict and violence when they are in the field. At-risk individuals include minority identities of the following: race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, disability, gender identity, and/or religion. Everyone deserves to conduct fieldwork as safely as possible; therefore, it is paramount for anyone conducting fieldwork to be informed of the increased risk certain populations face when conducting field research and to define informed strategies. Research groups should adhere to best practices to minimize risk for all individuals who go into the field. Here we provide strategies that 1) acknowledge that some individuals encounter dangerous situations in the field due to their identity(ies), and 2) minimize the chance of conflict between and among researchers and other communities present at field sites. The inclusion of this document as a key resource in a research lab, a university department, or any active research or work environment sends a positive signal to at-risk individuals that their professional community acknowledges their risk and is willing to implement actions to ensure their safety. We suggest that this document be made freely available to anyone who is directly or indirectly involved in fieldwork. Supervisors who support the information in this document should publicly commit to promote a diverse and inclusive environment in order to maintain the safety of their researchers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0017.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: synthetic biology; food security; biosafety; regulation; GMO
Online: 3 February 2020 (05:37:23 CET)
Synthetic biology (SynBio) is an interdisciplinary field that has developed rapidly in the last two decades. It involves the design and construction of new biological systems and processes from standardized biological components, networks and synthetic pathways. The goal of Synbio is to create logical forms of cellular control. Biological systems and their parts can be re-designed to carry out completely new functions. SynBio is poised to greatly impact human health, environment, biofuels and chemical production with huge economic benefits. SynBio presents opportunities for the highly agro-based African economies to overcome setbacks that threaten food security: The setbacks are brought about by climate change, land degradation, over-reliance on food imports, global competition, and water and energy security issues among others. With appropriate regulatory frameworks and systems in place, the benefits of harnessing SynBio to boost development in African economies by far potentially outweigh the risks. Countries that are already using GMOs such as South Africa and Kenya should find the application of SynBio seamless, as it would be a matter of expanding the already existing regulations and policies for GMO use.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0366.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: ontology; semantics; safety; security; risk; performance; definitions; concepts; safety science; ISO 31000
Online: 31 October 2019 (09:36:29 CET)
When discussing the concepts of risk, safety, and security, people have an intuitive understanding of what these concepts mean, and, to a certain level, this understanding is universal. However, when delving into the real meaning of these concepts, one is likely to fall into semantic debates and ontological discussions. In industrial parks, it is important that (risk) managers from dierent companies, belonging to one and the same park, have the same understanding of the concepts of risk, safety, and security. It is even important that all companies in all industrial parks share a common understanding regarding these issues. As such, this paper explores the similarities and dierences behind the perceptions of these concepts, to come to a fundamental understanding of risk, safety, and security, proposing a semantic and ontological ground for safety and security science, based on an etymological and etiological study of the concepts of risk and safety. The foundation has been induced by the semantics used in the ISO 31000 risk management guidance standard. Hence, this article proposes a coherent, standardized set of concepts and definitions with a focus on the notion “objectives” that can be used as an ontological foundation for safety and security science, linking “objectives” with the concepts of safety, security, risk, performance and also failure and success, theoretically allowing for an increasingly more precise understanding and measurement of (un)safety across the whole range of individuals, sectors and organizations, or even society as a whole.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0151.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: exploratory spatial data analysis; LISA; temporary assistance for needy families (TANF); tanf responsiveness to great recession; spatial clusters; TANF policy choices; TANF maximum aid
Online: 13 October 2019 (16:35:09 CEST)
During the 2008 Great Recession, many families with children relied on cash assistance from Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program. The present study applied Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA) tools to analyze geographically varying spatial clusters of states’ unemployment rates, TANF caseload growth rates, TANF policy choices such as benefit levels and TANF responsiveness rates to the recession. We analyzed 45 contiguous states and Washington D.C. A standardized TANF responsiveness index was developed to compare states’ TANF growth rates relative to their labor market conditions. The western states were found to be very responsive to the recession with ratios greater than one. In contrast, Texas and Arizona, with ratios below 1, were unresponsive to the recession. The presence of strong spatial clusters in unemployment rate and TANF maximum aid were found. In the case of maximum aid, there was a strong presence of Low-Low spatial clusters in Southern States and High-High clusters in Northeastern States. The findings suggest that several neighboring states in the northeast and some in the south had similar levels of financial commitment during the 2008 recessionary as the ones found by earlier research conducted during non-recessionary periods. The findings have implications for future federal actions and for state level collaboration.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0269.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: subjective paranormal experience, homeostasis, trauma, dissociation, depersonalisation, compartmentalisation, fantasy proneness, safety, control, survival
Online: 26 June 2019 (13:59:44 CEST)
Subjective paranormal experience (SPE) has been a notable part of the human historical narrative. Alleged miracles, telepathy, clairvoyance, precognition, witchcraft, spiritualism, monsters and ghosts have received a supernatural interpretation. The incidence and prevalence of reported SPE remains at high levels in all populations investigated to date. Previous research on SPE has focused on the cognitive and social factors that facilitate paranormal beliefs and experiences. I consider here developmental factors in the brain’s responses to trauma that appear to predispose certain individuals towards SPE. The theory draws upon the established mechanisms of dissociation and fantasy generation to describe and explain the origins of paranormal experience. The theory hypothesizes that childhood abuse and victimization trigger autonomic responses of dissociation, depersonalization and compartmentalization. Freezing and associated releases of fantasy serve as a survival strategy in the homeostatic regaining of safety and control. The predictions from the homeostasis theory are consistent with the findings of multiple studies and falsifying evidence has yet to be identified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci1030063
Online: 16 April 2019 (00:00:00 CEST)
As there is lack of understanding about the effect of transitioning between different flooring materials on the gait of older adults, this study investigated the effect of transitioning between a carpeted floor and a vinyl floor on the gait characteristics of older adults. Fourteen older (65 years old and over) and 14 younger (18 to 35 years old) adults walked on different transitional floors by measuring various gait parameters. While the older participants had greater toe clearance than their younger counterparts, the older participants had smaller toe clearance on a carpeted floor than on a vinyl floor, which would increase the probability of a trip-induced fall. Further, the study found the slower transitional acceleration of the whole body COM and the increased friction demand, especially during the toe-off phase, rather than heel contact phase, which will lead to a slip-induced fall on a vinyl floor shortly after transitioning from a carpeted floor to a vinyl floor. Although the increased likelihood of a slip or trip accident was found throughout the changes in gait parameters, the older participants did not perceive of slipping and tripping much. Therefore, older adults are recommended to be made aware of the danger of slipping and tripping while transitioning between different flooring materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0558.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: road safety education; RSE; children; adolescents; risky road behaviors; road safety; traffic crashes
Online: 23 November 2018 (09:43:19 CET)
Road Safety Education (RSE) is widely known as a reliable determinant of future results for what concerns health and welfare, and as an undisputable factor which contributes to the social behavior of individuals and to their mid and long-term road safety outcomes. However, its development has been relatively scarce in most countries, fact which has contributed to letting matters as delicate as traffic crashes produced by road misbehaviors continue to be a prevalent problem, thus affecting the health of the community. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between demographic and RSE-related variables and the self-reported road risky behavior of Spanish students. Methods: For this cross-sectional study, a representative sample of 4,062 (51.5 males and 48.5% females) participants attending primary (47.5%), secondary (40.7%) and high school (11.7%) was gathered through a national survey on RSE and road behaviors. Results: A set of significant associations between demographic factors, RSE variables and self-reported road behaviors was found. Furthermore, the SEM modelling allowed us to establish that age, observed misbehaviors, attitudes towards road safety and risk perception keep a direct link with the road risky behavior of children and young people. The knowledge of traffic rules was not a significant predictor of road behavior. Conclusions: The results of this study show that, together with demographic factors such as age, RSE-related variables have an effect on the road behavior of children and young people. They also suggest the need of strengthening actions to be implemented in road safety (Road Safety Education), into scholar and community levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0537.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: blockchain; fresh produce; supply chain; food safety; traceability; internet of things; smart contract
Online: 22 November 2018 (05:19:37 CET)
Blockchain is a data management innovation that allows the linkage of successive records regarding a digital entity, and to store them into a shared, decentralized, distributed and retroactively unchangeable data structure. Each bit of information related to the recorded events contains the public key of the owner, therefore, the whole record is formed by a chain of transactions with blocks of information identifying where the transaction was generated from and its current destination (Nakamoto, 2008). Blockchain is the technology behind Bitcoin, an online currency that was first introduced in 2009. The technology makes it possible to conduct business between members within the network without relying on third parties as guarantors to prove transaction integrity, thus increasing speed and reducing cost of transaction. Moreover, the transparency posed by the technology makes it possible to trace goods and services through all stages, making the technology a unique tool that can be assimilated by, for example, the Agro-food supply chain systems. Specifically, Blockchain is being tested in a pilot project in the UK meat (Beef) industry by the FSA (Food Standards Agency) and the slaughterhouses, with IBM Blockchain platform to ensure full transparency and compliance with regulations, (Evenstad, 2018). However, the uptake of Blockchain in the fresh produce (fresh and fresh, short-life processed fruit, vegetables, salads) supply chain is lagging, in the United Kingdom, and remains untested and limited to literature, models and specific case studies in the United States of America and France. The study aims at understanding how prepared stakeholders are in adopting Blockchain for their operations. An inductive qualitative method was employed through non-structured interviews with three companies and one consumer focus group. The interviews were guided by seven (7) open-ended questions, which were unstructured. The collected data was analyzed with axial coding through constant comparative methods. Seven (7) themes were identified as factors influencing the adoption of Blockchain in the fresh produce supply chain in the UK. These are, novelty of the technology, complexity of the fresh produce supply chain in UK, level of product transformation, technological compatibility with operations, cost and value, Customer (retailer) push for adoption, and public/consumers opinion. The adaptation of Blockchain by the current fresh produce supply chain in the UK and the EU at large will come about when concerns on Novelty, and complexity of supply chain systems are fully addressed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0285.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: common framework for digital competence of teachers; digital competence; digital communication; digital content creation; informational literacy; problem solving; safety; teacher training
Online: 20 July 2018 (05:43:03 CEST)
Digital competence is one of the 8 key competences for life-long learning developed by the European Commission, and is requisite for personal fulfilment and development, active citizenship, social inclusion and employment in the knowledge society. To accompany young learners in the development of the competence, and to guarantee optimal implementation of ICTs, it is necessary that teachers are, in turn, literate. We had 43 Secondary School teachers in initial training to assess their own level of competence in the 21 sub-competences in 5 areas identified by the DIGCOMP project, using the rubrics provided in the Common Framework for Digital Competence of Teachers (Spanish Ministry of Education). Overall, pre-service teachers' conceptions about their level of Digital Competence was low (Initial). Students scored highest in Information, which refers mostly to the operations they performed while being students. Secondly, in Safety and Communication, excluding Protection of Digital Data and Preservation of the Digital Identity. Lowest values were achieved in Content Creation and Problem Solving, the dimensions most closely related with the inclusion of ICTs to transform teaching-learning processes. The knowledge or skills they exhibit are largely self-taught and, so, we perceive an urgent need to purposefully incorporate relational and didactic aspects of ICT integration.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0041.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: uncertainty management; risk management; safety; ISO 31000:2009; ISO 31010:2009; risk management framework; risk-sentience; safety culture; risk culture; enterprise risk management
Online: 19 June 2018 (12:58:28 CEST)
The aim of this study was to develop, implement, and evaluate a new auxiliary enterprise risk management framework and process to serve as an enabler to the global ISO 31000 risk framework and ISO 31010 processes. This framework has been designed particularly for use within high-risk environments and those characterized by volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity (VUCA). This paper proposes a methodology for optimization of structured sharing and grass-roots management of all available risk-sentience information with the assessed potential to develop into an identifiable risk in the future. The author introduces new risk terminology including risk-sentience, risk-sentience information, and risk-sentience management. The process involved the development of the Theory of Risk-Sentience (ToRS), Risk-Sentience Auxiliary Framework (RSAF) and a risk-sentience management process referred to as LUOMEAR (Learning from Uncertainties, Others Mistakes, Experiences and Anecdotal Reporting). Manchester Patient Safety Framework (MaPSaF), SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis, and a newly developed Risk-Sentience Fertility Checklist were used to conduct pre and post-trial evaluations. The findings include positive adjustments in safety culture, components of commitment to quality, communication and team-working around safety issues, access to evolving risk-information, and efficient sharing and management of recorded risk-information. Recommendations are made for more extensive application of both the proposed auxiliary risk framework and process within high-risk sectors to further explore its effectiveness and scope.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0262.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: wildfire; prescribed fire; smoke; particulate matter; public health; exposure
Online: 30 March 2018 (09:36:54 CEST)
Prescribed fire, intentionally ignited low-intensity fires, and managed wildfires, wildfires that are allowed to burn for land management benefit, could be used as a land management tool to create forests that are resilient to wildland fire. This could lead to fewer large catastrophic wildfires in the future. However, we must consider the public health impacts of the smoke that is emitted from wildland and prescribed fire. The objective of this synthesis is to examine the differences in ambient community-level exposures to particulate matter (PM2.5) from smoke in the United States from two smoke exposure scenarios – wildfire fire and prescribed fire. A systematic search was conducted to identify scientific papers to be included in this review. Web of Science Core Collection and PubMed for scientific papers, and Google Scholar were used to identify any grey literature or reports to be included in this review. Sixteen studies that examined particulate matter exposure from smoke were identified for this synthesis – nine wildland fire studies and seven prescribed fire studies. PM2.5 concentrations from wildfire smoke were found to be significantly lower than reported PM2.5 concentrations from prescribed fire smoke. Wildfire studies focused on assessing air quality impacts to communities that were nearby fires and urban centers that were far from wildfires. However, the prescribed fire studies used air monitoring methods that focused on characterizing exposures and emissions directly from and next to the burns. This review highlights a need for a better understanding of wildfire smoke impact over the landscape. It is essential for properly assessing population exposure to smoke from different fire types.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0167.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: CBD; planning and design policies; sense of safety
Online: 26 February 2018 (12:07:42 CET)
Planning, development and design policies influence sense of safety of people touse the City centre or Central Business District (CBD) and therefore city centres can becomeactive and vibrant during the day and night. This paper reviews past and present planningpolicies relevant for feeling of personal safety in the context of housing, retail, amenities,street infrastructure, building design and transportation aspects. The past development trendsshow that insignificant attention has been paid to people's sense of safety when using publicspaces, particularly at night, a factor identified important in creating attractive city centressince 1960s. Local plans primarily refer to safety in relation to roads, accessibility andworkability. Local policies also show the dominance of CCTV since the 1990s has becomeubiquitous, but changes to sense of safety in urban spaces now may actually be a betterreflection of planning and design decisions made over the past 20 years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0282.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: environmental cues; fear of crime spots; sense of safety; social cues
Online: 1 February 2018 (07:59:02 CET)
Streets are primary elements through which the character of urban neighborhoods are experienced and expressed. The “sense of safety” in neighborhood streets is paramount to social and psychological wellbeing of its residents and visitors. The intention of this study was to explore environmental and social cues of a neighborhood, which evoke fear of crime, which will help designers to prevent the generation of such negative feelings and promote more safe and comfortable spaces in our cities. This study used interviews, group discussions and observations to identify fear-generating factors with a sample of participants in the multi ethnic neighborhood of Kotahena in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Field data was analyzed through visual documentation and photographic surveys. Moreover, group discussions, interviews and personal observations were used to synergize the study objectives. The findings inform that fear of crime on streets is influenced by both environmental and social cues to varying degrees. Feelings of fear were associated with gender, ethnicity and less familiarity with the place as participants were from an ethnic minority within the community. Literature has emphasized that fear of crime has a connection to actual crime locations. The research findings, however, indicate that fear of crime spots identified by the residents do not have a direct relationship to the actual crime locations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0010.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: serial killer; criminal profiling; victims; criminal psychology
Online: 2 January 2018 (10:10:51 CET)
Although the phenomenon of serial killers has received great attention from media, governments, and public, very little information is known about them and very few theories are presented by researchers specifically their definition and motives for killing. Through cross tabulation analysis of top ninety-eight serial killers, this present study poses six questions that investigate the correlations between, offender's gender, offender's level of education, time span of killing, killing severity, number of victims, killer's type of abuse, motives for killing, and victim's profile. Findings show that males kill more than females and for longer time, less educated serial killers kill more horribly, female serial killers consider their family members easy target, and finally males kill most for enjoyment and sex and females kill for financial gains.