REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0380.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Osteoarthritis; pathophysiology; subchondral bone; synovium; inflammation
Online: 22 August 2022 (10:44:18 CEST)
ABSTRACT: Understanding the basis of osteoarthritis (OA) has seen some interesting advancements in recent years. It has been observed that cartilage degeneration is preceded by subchondral bone lesions, suggesting a key role of this mechanism within the pathogenesis and progression of OA, including the formation of ectopic bone and osteophytes. Moreover, low-grade, chronic inflammation of the synovial lining has gained a central role in the definition of OA pathophysiology, and central immunological mechanisms, innate but also adaptive, are now considered crucial in driving inflammation and tissue destruction. In addition, the role of neuroinflammation and central sensitization mechanisms has been characterized as underlying causes of pain chronicity. This has led to a renewed definition of OA, which is now intended as a complex multifactorial joint pathology caused by inflammatory and metabolic factors underlying joint damage. Since this evidence can directly affect the definition of the correct therapeutic approach to OA, an improved understanding of these pathophysiological mechanisms is fundamental. This review provides an overview of the most updated evidence on OA pathogenesis; it presents the most recent insight on the pathophysiology of OA, describing the interplay between immunological and biochemical mechanisms proposed to drive inflammation and tissue destruction, as well as central sensitization mechanisms. Moreover, although the therapeutic implications consequent to the renewed definition of OA are beyond this review scope, some suggestions for intervention have been addressed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0052.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: mucositis; radiotherapy; chemotherapy; pathophysiology; management; melatonin
Online: 9 March 2017 (04:46:30 CET)
The current treatment for cervico-facial cancer involves radio and/or chemotherapy. Unfortunately, cancer therapies can lead to local and systemic complications such as mucositis, which is the most common dose-dependent complication in the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. Mucositis can cause a considerably reduced quality of life in cancer patients already suffering from physical and psychological exhaustion. However, melatonin, whose role in the treatment of mucositis has recently been investigated, offers an effective alternative therapy in the prevention and/or management of radio and/or chemotherapy-induced mucositis. This review focuses on the pathobiology and management of mucositis in order to improve the quality of cancer patients’ lives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0128.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Liver cirrhosis; epidemiology; etiology; risk factors; pathophysiology; diagnosis.
Online: 11 March 2019 (09:44:18 CET)
Liver cirrhosis is a chronic disease that is characterized by the presence of fibrosis and regeneration of nodules in the liver whose consequences are the development of portal hypertension and liver failure. Cirrhosis arises from a wide variety of chronic diseases, which progresses slowly after years or decades. Liver cirrhosis is a public health problem. It is usually associated with viral hepatitis, consumption of alcohol, metabolic syndrome, autoimmune processes, storage diseases, toxic substances, and medications. Cirrhosis is the fourteenth most common cause of death in adults throughout the world, the fourth in Europe and the ninth in the United States. The prevalence of this disease is underestimated because it is symptomatic it is not diagnosed in initial stages, and it usually goes to the decompensated stage at a rate of 5 to 7% per year. We review here the epidemiology, pathophysiology, etiology, and diagnosis of liver cirrhosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0530.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Epidemiolog; Pathophysiology; Clinical manifestations; Vaccines
Online: 23 February 2021 (16:00:05 CET)
During 2019, the number of patients suffering from cough, fever and reduction of WBC’s count increased. At the beginning, this mysterious illness was called “fever with unknown origin”. At the present time, the cause of this pneumonia is known as the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) or the severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The SARS-CoV-2 is one member of great family of coronaviruses. Coronaviruses can cause different kind of illnesses including respiratory, enteric, hepatic, and neurological diseases in animals like cat and bat. Coronaviruses are enveloped positive-stranded RNA viruses. The SARS-CoV-2 has some particular structures for binding to host cells, reproducing itself in cells and damaging human cells. The SARS-CoV-2 can bind angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE‐2) receptors and cause various difficulties for human. The SARS-CoV-2 can cause either not-serious issues like fever and cough or serious concerns such as multi-organ failure. Source(s) of SARS-CoV-2 is under debate. Malayan pangolin and bat are the most suspicious candidate for being sources of the SARS-CoV-2. The SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted by various ways such as transmitting from infected human to healthy human and can make severe pneumonia, which can lead to death. The SARS-CoV-2 can infect different kind of people with different ages, races, and social and economic levels. The SARS‐CoV‐2 infection can cause various sorts of clinical manifestations like cough and fever and intensity of signs and symptoms depends on sufferer conditions. Clinicians use all of available documents and tests like laboratory, histopathological and radiological findings for diagnosing new cases and curing patients with high accuracy. At the present time, there is no particular way for treating SARS-CoV-2 infection; neither antiviral drugs nor palliative agents. It seems that the best way for standing against the SARS-CoV-2 infection is preventing from it by social distancing and vaccination. This review tries to prepare an essential brief update about SARS-CoV-2 infection for clinicians.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0108.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; coronavirus; hypothesis; pathophysiology; drug repurposing
Online: 7 July 2020 (02:50:55 CEST)
During the current COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, clinicians and scientists are working assiduously to unravel its pathophysiology and find effective treatments. An impressive number of papers has been published on SARS-CoV-2, exposing the complexity of the disease, the tendency of scientists to form hypotheses within their area of expertise, and the lack of orchestration of research. Hypotheses and research findings mainly complement each other, though sometimes controversies can be discerned among various theories and study results. Our overview aims to portray the ‘big picture’ of COVID-19, visualising the interwovenness of different pathophysiological pathways, with a focus on cytokine-induced pathology, the sequelae of ACE2 downregulation, and thrombosis associated with microvascular injury. It aids in overseeing the effects of repurposed drugs on intended targets, but also alerts to the (adverse) effects on interacting pathways. The overview shows how comorbidities probably increase susceptibility to (severe) COVID-19 and provides the possible pathophysiological origin of signs, symptoms, and biochemical abnormalities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0077.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: COVID-19; native American Indian; treatment; ACE2 receptor; pathophysiology; virulence
Online: 15 April 2020 (08:08:52 CEST)
Background: On Dec 19, 2019, the public health department of China reported that an outbreak of pneumonia was caused by a novel Coronavirus. The virulence of the new virus COVID-19 was much greater than either the SARs and MERSs viruses and on March 11, 2020, the World Health Department (WHO) declared a worldwide pandemic. Understanding the pathophysiology of virulence of the SARS-COV-2 virus is absolutely necessary for understanding the transmission, virulence factors, reduce risk factors, clinical presentation, predict outcomes of the disease and provide guidance for any current or future treatment protocols. Methodology: A comprehensive PubMed search was performed during December 20, 2019 and April 03, 2020, utilizing the words: Wuhan Virus, COVID-19, SARs coronavirus, ACE2, S-protein, virulence, clinical presentation, epidemiology, genome, treatment, structure, MERs, pathogenesis and/or pathology alone and in combination with other terms. Each paper was evaluated by three content experts for quality, reproducibility, credibility and reputation of the journal. Results: The SARS-COV-2 virus is much more virulent than either the SAR’s or MER’s virus and its ability to cause serious disease inversely corresponds to the person’s ability to produce T-cells which declines linearly with age. The ACE2 receptor binding site does not vary among different ethnic groups but do in ACE-2 expression levels. This variance in expression level may explain for different infectivity rates among men and women and predict and explain different susceptibilities to infection by different ethnic groups. Furthermore, by understanding the underlying pathophysiology one can explain and provide guidance to the clinical effectiveness of any treatment. Conclusions: The underlying pathophysiology of COVID-19 explains not only the virulence, and clinical presentation, but, explains at a molecular level the comorbidity risk factors such as hypertension, sex, and age. Ethnic and anatomic expression patterns of ACE-2 and associated pathophysiology suggests that Native Americans and Asians may be particularly susceptible to this disease.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: creatine; statin; myopathy; muscle; myalgia; prevention; treatment; pathogenesis; pathophysiology; mitochondria
Online: 11 September 2019 (04:43:37 CEST)
Statins prevent cardiovascular diseases, yet their use is limited by the muscle disturbances they cause. Rarely, statin-induced myopathy is autoimmune, but more commonly it is due to direct muscle toxicity. Available evidence suggests that statin-induced creatine deficiency may be a major cause of this toxicity, and that creatine supplementation prevents it. Statins inhibit guanidinoacetate methyl transferase (GAMT), the last enzyme in the synthesis of creatine, thus they decrease its intracellular content. Such decreased content could cause mitochondrial impairment, since creatine is the final acceptor of the phosphate group of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) at the end of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Decreased cellular synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) would follow. Accordingly, ATP synthesis is decreased in statin-treated cells. In vitro, creatine supplementation prevents the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore caused by statins. Clinically, creatine administration prevents statin myopathy in statin-intolerant patients. Additional research is warranted to hopefully confirm these findings. However, creatine is widely used by athletes with no adverse events, and has demonstrated to be safe even in double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of elder individuals. Thus, it should be trialed, under medical supervision, in patients who cannot assume statin due to the occurrence of muscular symptoms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0238.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: CCR6-CCL20 Axis; Colitis; Winnie; Multi-system pathophysiology; Molecular signalling; Immune mechanisms
Online: 13 January 2020 (11:07:04 CET)
The immunomodulatory behaviour of the CCR6/CCL20 axis in multi -system pathophysiology and molecular signalling was investigated at two clinically significant time points, using a Ccr6 - deficient mouse model of spontaneous colitis. Four groups of mice, (C57BL/6J, Ccr6-/- of C57BL/6J, Winnie x Ccr6 -/- and Winnie) were utilized and (I) colonic clinical parameters (2) histology of colon, spleen, kidney and liver (3) T and B lymphocyte distribution in the spleen and MLN by flowcytometry (5) colonic CCL20, phosphorylated PI3K and phosphorylated Akt expression by immunohistochemistry and (6) colonic cytokine expression by RT-PCR were evaluated. CCR6 deficiency was shown to attenuate inflammation in the spleen, liver and gut while renal histology remained unaffected. Marked focal lobular inflammation with reactive nuclear features were observed in hepatocytes and a significant neutrophil infiltration in red pulp with extra medullary hemopoiesis in the spleen existed in Winnie. These changes were considerably reduced in Winnie x Ccr6-/- with elevated goblet cell numbers and mucus production in the colonic epithelium. Results indicate that Ccr6- deficiency in the colitis model contributes towards resolution of disease. Our findings demonstrate an intricate networking role for CCR6 in immune activation, which is downregulated by Ccr6 deficiency, and could provide newer clinical therapies in colitis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0216.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: Bioimpedance; COVID-19; E-health; Health Care Personnel; Pathophysiology; Post-COVID syndrome; Rheography
Online: 23 May 2022 (05:26:58 CEST)
At present, there are no hardware or biochemical systems allow to assess the severity of post-COVID syndrome in vivo. The hardware of the proposed biotechnical system is based on routine transthoracic electrical impedance rheography, which makes it possible to register the frequency characteristics of the patient's bioimpedance response to controlled stress stimulation, thereby simultaneously fixing the characteristics of his productive heart, the state of the hemomicrocirculatory bed, the efficiency of the gas transport function of his blood, and also reliably assess personal reactivity and adaptive potential. Subsequent mathematical approximation of the obtained biometric data by an original neural network makes it possible to rank the results obtained and automatically generate a program of medical rehabilitation for a particular patient, depending on the severity of his post-COVID syndrome. The study results proved two reliable physiological signs confirming the presence of latent post-COVID complications: a decrease in the base impedance value for light exercise and an increase in the length of the systolic arc of the rheocardiogram.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0041.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Multiple myeloma; myeloma bone disease; pathophysiology; osteolysis; imaging; zoledronic acid; denosumab; vertebral augmentation; rehabilitation; exercise
Online: 5 July 2020 (04:19:18 CEST)
The lytic bone disease is a hallmark of multiple myeloma, being present in about 80% of patients with newly diagnosed MM, and in more during the disease course. The myeloma associated bone disease (MBD) severely affects the morbidity and quality of life of the patients. MBD defines treatment demanding MM. In recent years, knowledge of the underlying pathophysiology has increased, and novel imaging technologies, medical and non-pharmaceutical treatments have improved. In this review, we highlight the major achievements in understanding, diagnosing and treating MBD. For diagnosing MBD, low-dose whole-body CT is now recommended over conventional skeletal survey, but also more advanced functional imaging modalities, such as diffusion-weighted MRI and PET/CT are increasingly important in the assessment and monitoring of MBD. Bisphosphonates have, for many years, played a key role in management of MBD, but denosumab is now an alternative to bisphosphonates, especially in patients with renal impairment. Radiotherapy is used for uncontrolled pain, for impeding fractures and in treatment of impeding or symptomatic spinal cord compression. Cement augmentation has been shown to reduce pain from vertebral compression fractures. Cautious exercise programs are safe and feasible and may have the potential to improve the status of patients with MM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0369.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; immunology; nasopharynx; intestines; lungs; mathematical modeling; modular approach; pathophysiology of COVID-19
Online: 28 March 2022 (14:40:14 CEST)
Patients with COVID-19 may develop pneumonia, severe symptoms of acute respiratory distress syndrome, and multiple organ failure. Nevertheless, the variety of forms of this disease, requires further research on the pathogenesis of this disease. Based on the analysis of published data on the concentrations of SARS-CoV-2 in biological fluids of the nasopharynx, lungs and intestines and using a developed modular model of the virus distribution in human tissue and organs, an assessment of the SARS-CoV-2 reproduction in various compartments of the body is presented. Most of viral particles can enter into the esophagus from nasopharynx. Entering viral particles into the gastrointestinal tract will obviously be accompanied by infection of the intestinal epithelium and accumulation of the virus in the intestinal lumen in an amount proportional their secretory and protein-synthetic activities. The relatively low concentration of SARS-CoV-2 in tissues implies an essential role of transport processes and redistribution of the virus from nasopharynx and intestines to lungs. The model simulations also supposes that sanitation of the nasopharynx mucosa at the initial stage of the infectious process considering inhibition of the virus accumulation by means of cellular and humoral responses has prospects for the use in medicine practice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0237.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; cytokines; chemokines; neuroinflammation; neurotrophic factors; pathophysiology; Blood brain barrier; mild cognitive impairment; brain health; therapeutics
Online: 10 August 2021 (15:49:12 CEST)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized mainly by the gradual decay in neuronal function as a consequence of diverse degenerating events primarily including mitochondria dysfunction and cascades of neuro-immune reactions. Besides the acquired harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS), neurotoxins, and amyloid-beta (Aβ) and TAU pathologies in neurons, accumulating evidence with time underlined the roles of cytokines and growth factors in the AD pathogenesis. It may help us in evaluating the propensities and specific mechanism(s) of cytokines and factors impacting neuron upon apoptotic decline. Proinflammatory cytokines often induce inflammation in AD and AD-like pathogenesis in response to the apoptotic scenarios where some growth factors are involved in cytokinetic reactions to activate microglia and causing inflammation in AD. In this report, we comprehensively reviewed role of cytokines and chemokines in immune response to AD and neuropsychiatry. We provided insights into the neuroinflammation and the role of diverse factors including the pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines, APP, TAU phosphorylation, glycation end products, complement system, and the role of glial cells. Also, we discussed the pathogenic and protective role of macrophage migration inhibitory factors, choroid plexus-, neurotrophic- and hematopoietic -related growth factors in AD. We further shed light on the availability and accessibility of the cytokines across the blood-brain barrier in AD pathophysiology. Taken together, the emerging role of these factors in AD pathology emphasized the importance of building novel strategies for an effective therapeutic/neuropsychiatric management of AD in clinics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0517.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: CAR T-cells; chimeric antigen receptor T cells; cytokine release syndrome; central nervous system toxicity; neurotoxicity; adverse events; pathophysiology
Online: 19 April 2021 (21:17:34 CEST)
Anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells represent a novel immunotherapy that has shown remarkable success in the treatment of adult relapsed or refractory (R/R) B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, adult R/R mantle cell lymphoma, and R/R acute paediatric lymphoblastic leukaemia. One barrier to the widespread use of CAR T-cell therapy is toxicity, primarily cytokine release syndrome (CRS) with a variable grade of severity. The main manifestations of CRS are fever, hypotension, cytopenia, organ dysfunction among others. Neurological toxicities vary widely and range from headaches to encephalopathy. In addition, anti-CD19 CAR T-cell therapy provokes an array of less frequent events, such as coagulopathies, delayed cytopenia, and cardiovascular toxicities. In general, toxicities are usually reversible and resolve on their own in most cases, though severe cases may require intensive care and immunosuppressive therapy. Deaths due to CRS, neurologic toxicity and infectious complications have been reported, which highlights the gravity of these syndromes and the critical nature of appropriate intervention. In this paper, we look at all available FDA- and EMA-approved information about the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, risk factor reviews of existing toxicity grading systems, current management strategies, and guidelines for anti-CD19 CAR T-cell toxicities. We also present new approaches, which are under investigation, to mitigate these adverse events.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: acute coronary syndromes; myocardial infarction; STEMI; Covid-19, infectious disease; respiratory infections; pathophysiology; percutaneous coronary intervention; thrombolysis; drug treatment
Online: 7 May 2020 (12:49:39 CEST)
Since association between myocardial infarction (MI) and respiratory infections has been described for influenza-viruses and other respiratory viral agents, understanding possible physiopathological links between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and acute coronary syndromes (ACS) is of the greatest importance. First data suggest an underestimation of ACS cases all over the world, but acute MI still represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and should not be overshadowed during the coronavirus disease (Covid-19) pandemic. No common consensus regarding the most adequate healthcare management policy for ACS is currently available. Indeed, important differences have been reported between the measures employed to treat ACS in China during the first disease outbreak and what currently represents clinical practice across Europe and the USA. This review aims to discuss: pathophysiological links between MI, respiratory infections, and Covid-19; epidemiological data related to ACS at the time of the Covid-19 pandemic; what emerged so far from several catheterization labs and coronary care units all over the world, in order to shed some light on the current strategies for optimal management of ACS patients with confirmed or suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection.