ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0432.v1
Subject: Keywords: Oxidative and nitrosative stress; antioxidants; biomarkers; neuro-immune; neurocognition
Online: 23 November 2021 (15:05:47 CET)
This study aims to systematically review and meta-analyze the nitro-oxidative stress (O&NS)/antioxidant (ANTIOX) ratio in the peripheral blood of people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We searched PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science for articles published from inception until July 31, 2021. Forty-six studies on 3.798 MCI individuals and 6.063 healthy controls were included. The O&NS/ANTIOX ratio was significantly higher in MCI than in controls with a Standardized Mean Difference (SMD)=0.378 (95% CI: 0.250; 0.506). MCI individuals showed increased lipid peroxidation (SMD=0.774, 95%CI: 4.416; 1.132) and O&NS-associated toxicity (SMD=0.621, CI: 0.377; 0.865) and reduced glutathione (GSH) defenses (SMD=0.725, 95%CI: 0.269; 1.182) as compared with controls. MCI was also accompanied by significantly increased homocysteine (SMD=0.320, CI: 0.059; 0.581), but not protein oxidation, and lowered non-vitamin (SMD=0.347, CI: 0.168; 0.527) and vitamin (SMD=0.564, CI: 0.129; 0.999) antioxidant defenses. The results show that MCI is at least in part due to increased neuro-oxidative toxicity and suggest that treatments targeting lipid peroxidation and the GSH system may be used to treat or prevent MCI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0258.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: major depression; oxidative and nitrosative stress; antioxidants; inflammation; neuro-immune; biomarkers
Online: 15 May 2020 (16:52:52 CEST)
Background: Hypertension, atherogenicity and insulin resistance are major risk factors of cardiovascular disorder (CVD), which shows a strong comorbidity with major depression (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Activated oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), inflammatory pathways, and increased atherogenicity are shared pathways underpinning CVD and mood disorders. Methods: The current study examined the effects of lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), and malondialdehyde (MDA) on systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure in 96 mood disordered patients and 60 healthy controls. Results: A large part of the variance in SBP (31.6%) was explained by the regression on a z unit-weighted composite score (based on LOOH, AOPP, SOD, NOx) reflecting nitro-oxidative stress toxicity (NOSTOX), coupled with highly sensitive C-reactive protein, body weight and use of antihypertensives. Increased DBP was best predicted (23.8%) by body mass index and NOSTOX. The most important O&NS biomarkers predicting an increased SBP were in descending order of significance: LOOH, AOPP and SOD. Higher levels of the atherogenic index of plasma, HOMA2 insulin resistance index and basal thyroid-stimulating hormone also contributed to increased SBP independently from NOSTOX. Although there were no significant changes in SBP/DBP in mood disorders, the associations between NOSTOX and blood pressure were significant in patients with mood disorders but not in healthy controls. Conclusions: Activated O&NS pathways including increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, which indicates hypochlorous stress, are the most important predictors of an increased BP, especially in patients with mood disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0180.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: oxidative stress; nitrosative stress; immune response; inflammation; antioxidants; LPS
Online: 10 May 2021 (11:43:52 CEST)
An immune-inflammatory response is accompanied by increased nitro-oxidative stress. The aims of this mechanistic review are to review: a) the role of redox sensitive transcription factors and enzymes, ROS/RNS production and the activity of cellular antioxidants on the activation and performance of macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, T cells, B cells and natural killer cells; b) the involvement of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), apolipoprotein (Apo)A1, paraoxonase (PON)-1, and oxidized phospholipids in the regulation of the immune response; and c) the detrimental effects of hypernitrosylation and chronic nitro-oxidative stress on the immune response. The redox changes during immune-inflammatory responses are orchestrated by the actions of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, HIF1alpha, the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTor), the phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase (PI3K) / protein kinase B (AKT) signalling pathway, mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR). The performance and survival of individual immune cells is under redox control and sensitive to intracellular and extracellular levels of ROS/RNS and is heavily influenced by cellular anti-oxidants including the glutathione and thioredoxin systems, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2), and the HDL complex. Chronic nitro-oxidative stress and hypernitrosylation inhibit the activity of those antioxidant systems, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, mitochondrial functions, and the metabolism of immune cells. In conclusion, those redox-associated mechanisms modulate metabolic reprogramming of immune cells, macrophage and T helper cell polarization, phagocytosis, production of pro- versus anti-inflammatory cytokines, immune training and tolerance, chemotaxis, pathogen sensing, antiviral and antibacterial effects, Toll-like receptor activity, and endotoxin tolerance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0159.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: suicide; neuro-immune; inflammation; oxidative and nitrosative stress; depression; mood disorders; schizophrenia; psychiatry
Online: 8 September 2021 (20:03:03 CEST)
A meta-analysis showed a significant association between activated immune-inflammatory and nitro-oxidative (IO&NS) pathways and suicide attempts (SA). There are no data whether suicidal ideation (SI) is accompanied by activated IO&NS pathways and whether there are differences between SA and SI. The current study searched PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science, for articles published from inception until May 10, 2021, and systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed the association between recent SA/SI (< 3 months) and IO&NS biomarkers. We included studies which compared psychiatric patients with and without SA and SI and controls (either healthy controls or patients without SA or SI) and used meta-analysis (random-effect model with restricted maximum-likelihood) to delineate effect sizes with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Our search included 59 studies comprising 4.034 SA/SI cases and 12.377 controls. Patients with SA/SI showed activated IO&NS pathways (SMD: 0.299; CI: 0.200; 0.397) when compared to controls. The immune profiles were more strongly associated with SA than with SI, particularly when compared to healthy controls, as evidenced by activated IO&NS pathways (SMD: 0.796; CI: 0.503; 1.089), an immune-inflammatory response (SMD: 1.409; CI: 0.637; 1.462), inflammation (SMD: 1.200; CI: 0.584; 1.816), and neurotoxicity (SMD: 0.904; CI: 0.431; 1.378). The effects sizes of the IO&NS, immune-inflammatory response and inflammatory profile were significantly greater in SA than in SI. In conclusion: increased neurotoxicity due to inflammation and nitro-oxidative stress and lowered neuroprotection may explain at least in part why psychiatric patients show increased SA and SI. The IO&NS pathways are more pronounced in recent SA than in SI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0136.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: thioredoxin reductase; oxidative stress; nitrosative stress; theta burst stimulation; experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; rats
Online: 7 July 2020 (17:30:22 CEST)
Cortical theta burst stimulation (TBS) structured as intermittent (iTBS) and continuous (cTBS) could prevent the progression of the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The interplay of brain antioxidant defense systems against overproduction of reactive oxygen, nitrogen, and thiol species induced by EAE has not been entirely investigated, just as the effect of iTBS or cTBS on oxidative-nitrogen stress (ONS) in EAE rats. Dark Agouti strain female rats were tested for the effects of EAE and TBS. The rats were randomly divided into the following groups: C - control, EAE - rats immunized for EAE, CFA - rats immunized with Complete Freund's adjuvant; iTBS and cTBS groups, and EAE+iTBS and EAE+cTBS - health and EAE rats exposed to iTBS and cTBS, respectively; EAE+iTBSsh and EAE+cTBSsh - sham stimulated EAE rats with the same noise artifacts of iTBS and cTBS, respectively. Superoxide dismutase activity, levels of superoxide anion (O2•-), lipid peroxidation, glutathione (GSH), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity were analyzed in rat spinal cords homogenates. The severity of EAE clinical coincided with the climax of ONS, based on the increase of superoxide anion and lipid peroxidation; depletion of total thiols, GSH and NADPH; and decrease of SOD activity. The TrxR imposed the most sensitive response against the applied central nervous system (CNS) stressors to rats. We concluded that the TrxR upregulation meritoriously compensates decreased ROS sequestrating and GSH systems in EAE. Both iTBS and cTBS modulate the biochemical environment at a distance from the area of stimulation against ONS, accomplish a similar effect on TrxR activity to EAE and healthy rats, and alleviate symptoms of EAE.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0479.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: suicide; neuro-immune; inflammation; oxidative and nitrosative stress; depression; mood disorders; schizophrenia; psychiatry
Online: 19 April 2021 (12:46:06 CEST)
Background: Suicide attempts (SA) frequently occur in patients with mood disorders and schizophrenia, which are both accompanied by activated immune-inflammatory and nitro-oxidative (IO&NS) pathways. Methods: We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science, for articles published from inception until February 1, 2021. We included studies that compared blood biomarkers in psychiatric patients with (SA+) and without SA (SA-) and heathy controls and we combined different IO&NS biomarkers into immune, inflammatory, and neurotoxic profiles and used meta-analysis (random-effect model with restricted maximum-likelihood) to delineate effect sizes with 95% confidence interval (CI).Findings: Our search included 51 studies comprising 4.945 SA+ patients and 24.148 controls. We stratified the control group into healthy controls and SA- patients. SA+ patients showed significantly (p<0.001) increased immune activation (SMD: 1.044; CI: 0.599-1.489), inflammation (SMD: 1.109; CI: 0.505, 1.714), neurotoxicity (SMD: 0.879; CI: 0.465, 1.293), and lowered neuroprotection (SMD: 0.648; CI: 0.354, 0.941) as compared with healthy controls. When compared with SA- patients, those with SA+ showed significant (p<0.001) immune activation (SMD: 0.290; CI: 0.183, 0.397), inflammation (SMD: 0.311; CI: 0.191, 0.432), and neurotoxicity (SMD: 0.315; CI: 0.198, 0.432), and lowered neuroprotection (SMD: 0.341; CI: 0.167, 0.515). Patients with current, but not lifetime, SA showed significant (p<0.001) levels of inflammation and neurotoxicity as compared with controls. Conclusions: Patients with immune activation are at a higher risk of SA which may be explained by increased neurotoxicity due to inflammation and nitro-oxidative stress. This meta-analysis discovered new biomarkers of SA and therapeutic targets to treat individuals with SA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0623.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: depression; neuroimmune; inflammation; oxidative and nitrosative stress; autoimmune; bacterial translocation
Online: 29 January 2021 (13:17:48 CET)
The approach towards myalgic encephalomyelitis / chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) remains in a permanent state of crisis with fierce competition between the psychosocial school, which attributes ME/CFS to the perception of effort, and the medical approach (Maes and Twisk, BMC Med, 2010,8,35). The aim of this paper is to review how to construct a nomothetic model of ME/CFS using Partial Least Squares (PLS) path analysis and ensembling causome (bacterial translocation as assessed with IgM/IgA responses to LPS), protectome (lowered coenzyme Q10), adverse outcome pathways (AOP) including increased lysozyme, CD38+ T cell activation, cell-mediated immune activation (CMI), and IgM responses to oxidative specific epitopes and NO-adducts (IgM OSENO). Using PLS, we trained, tested and validated this knowledge- and data-driven causal ME/CFS model, which showed adequate convergence, construct and replicability validity. This bottom-up explicit data model of ME/CFS objectivates the descriptive narratives of the ME/CFS phenome, using causome-protectome-AOP data, whereby the abstract concept ME/CFS is translated into pathways, thereby securing the reification of the ME/CFS phenome. We found that 31.6% of the variance in the physiosomatic symptom dimension of ME/CFS was explained by the cumulative effects of CMI and CD38+ activation, IgM OSENO, IgA LPS, lysozyme (all positive) and coenzyme Q10 (inversely). Cluster analysis performed on the PLS-generated latent vector scores of all feature sets exposed three distinct immune groups of ME/CFS, namely one with increased lysozyme, one with increased CMI + CD38 activation + depressive symptoms, and another with increased bacterial translocation + autoimmune responses to OSENO.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0283.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Metabolic Syndrome; Obesity; inflammation; Oxidative Stress; nitrosative stress; biomarkers
Online: 23 June 2020 (11:35:38 CEST)
Purpose: To investigate the alterations in nitro-oxidative stress (OS) and antioxidant status in adolescents with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and whether these alterations occur independently from effects of overweight or obesity.Methods: Blood was collected in 47 adolescents with MetS and 94 adolescents without MetS as assessed with the International Diabetes Federation criteria. The International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria were used to classify the subjects into those with overweight or obesity. We measured nitro-oxidative biomarkers including nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), and malondialdehyde (MDA), and antioxidant biomarkers, i.e. total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP), paraoxonase (PON)-1 activity, thiol (SH-) groups, as well as tumor necrosis factor-α, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, uric acid and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C).Results: Logistic regression analysis showed that increased MDA and NOx and a lowered TRAP/uric acid ratio were associated with MetS. Machine learning including soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) showed that the top-3 most important features of MetS were increased glucose and MDA and lowered HDL-C. Support vector machine using MDA, glucose, insulin, HDL-C, triglycerides and body mass index as input variables yielded a 10-fold cross-validated accuracy of 89.8% when discriminating MetS from controls. The association between MetS and increased MDA was independent from the effects of overweight-obesity. glucose, insulin, triglycerides and HDL-C.Conclusion: In adolescents, increased MDA formation is a key component of MetS, indicating that increased production of reactive oxygen species with consequent lipid peroxidation and aldehyde formation participate in the development of MetS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0108.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: schizophrenia, inflammation, nitrosative stress, tryptophan catabolites, cytokines, oxidative stress
Online: 11 January 2019 (10:37:50 CET)
BACKGROUND: Stable-phase schizophrenia may comprise two distinct nosological entities namely Major Neuro-Cognitive Psychosis (MNP, largely overlapping with the deficit syndrome) and simple NP (SNP), which are defined by neuroimmune and neurocognitive abnormalities. Furthermore, cognitive impairments and PHEM (psychotic, hostility, excitation, mannerism) and negative symptoms load on the same dimension.METHODS: The current study aimed to investigate associations of psychomotor retardation (PMR) and clinical as well as biomarker characteristics of schizophrenia. We recruited 40 healthy controls and 79 schizophrenia patients and measured IgA responses to tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs), IgM to malondialdehyde and nitroso (NO)-cysteinyl, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1), soluble interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist (sIL-1RA), IL-10, CCL-11 as well as PMR items of different rating scales and motor screening task (MOT). RESULTS: PMR differentiated schizophrenia from controls and MNP from SNP. In addition, PMR was strongly associated with executive functions, deficits in episodic and semantic memory, PHEM and negative (PHEMN) symptoms. Around 50% of the variance in PMR was predicted by the cumulative effects of immune activation, CCL-11, TRYCATs and NO-Cysteinyl levels, and lowered natural IgM. PRM may be reliably combined with PHEMN symptoms and memory and executive impairments into one latent vector reflecting overall psychopathology.CONCLUSIONS: Current findings indicate that PMR may be a key psychopathological feature of schizophrenia and mainly MNP. In addition, PMR and associated impairments in memory and executive functions, and PHEMN symptoms may be driven by deficits in the compensatory immune regulatory system (natural IgM) combined with increased production of neurotoxic immune products, namely TRYCATs and IgM to NO-cysteinyl, and an endogenous cognition deteriorating chemokine, namely CCL-11.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0301.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Schizophrenia; indoleamine-dioxygenase; inflammation; neuro-immune; oxidative and nitrosative stress; biomarkers
Online: 20 December 2021 (09:56:45 CET)
The tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway is implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SCZ) since the rate-limiting enzyme indoleamine-dioxygenase (IDO) may be induced by inflammatory and oxidative stress mediators. This systematic review searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar for papers published from inception until August 2021 and meta-analyzed the association between SCZ and TRYCATs in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral blood. We included 61 studies comprising 2813 patients and 2948 healthy controls. In the CNS we found a significant (p<0.001) increase in the kynurenine/tryptophan (KYN/TRP) (standardized mean difference, SMD=0.769, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.456; 1.082) and kynurenic acid (KA)/KYN+TRP (SMD=0.697, CI:0.478-0.917) ratios, KA (SMD=0.646, CI: 0.422; 0.909) and KYN (SMD=1.238; CI: 0.590; 1.886), while the 3OH-kynurenine (3HK) + KYN-3-monooxygenase (KMO)/KYN ratio was significantly reduced (SMD=-1.089, CI: -1.682; -0.496). There were significant differences between KYN/TRP, (KYN+KA)/TRP, (3HK+KMO)/KYN, KA, and KYN levels among the CNS and peripheral blood, and among serum and plasma KYN. The only useful peripheral marker of CNS TRYCATs findings was the increased KYN/TRP ratio in serum (SMD=0.211, CI: 0.056; 0.366, p=0.007), but not in plasma. There was no significant increase in a neurotoxic composite score based on KYN, 3HK, and picolinic, xanthurenic, and quinolinic acid. SCZ is accompanied by increased IDO activity in the CNS and serum, and reduced KMO activity and a shift towards KA production in the CNS. This CNS TRYCATs profile indicates neuroprotective, negative immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Peripheral blood levels of TRYCATs are dissociated from CNS findings except for a modest increase in serum IDO activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0095.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: deficit schizophrenia; antioxidants; bacteria; neuro-immune; inflammation; oxidative and nitrosative stress
Online: 9 September 2019 (09:00:44 CEST)
Background: Primary deficit schizophrenia (DS) is characterized by enduring negative symptoms and represents a qualitatively different disease entity with respect to non-deficit schizophrenia (NDS). No studies investigated the association between the enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and DS and its phenomenology. Methods: In this case-control study, Thai women and men, aged 18-65 years, were divided in DS (n=40) and NDS (n=40) and were compared to controls (n=40). PON1 activities against 4-(chloromethyl)phenyl acetate (CMPA) and phenylacetate were determined. Moreover, subjects were genotyped for their PON1 Q192R polymorphism and IgA levels responses directed to Gram-negative bacteria were measured. Results: DS is significantly associated with the QQ genotype and the Q allele as compared with NDS and controls. PON1 activities are significantly and inversely associated with negative symptoms, formal thought disorders, psychomotor retardation, excitation and DS. The presence of the Q allele is associated with increased IgA responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Morganella morganii, and Pseudomonas putida as compared with RR carriers. Conclusions: The PON1 Q allele and lower PON1 activities especially against CMPA are associated with DS, indicating lowered quorum quenching abilities as well as lowered defenses against lipoperoxidation and immune activation. It is suggested that lowered PON1 activity in DS constitutes an impairment in the innate immune system which together with lowered natural IgM may cause lower immune regulation thereby predisposing towards greater neurotoxic effects of immune-inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative pathways and Gram-negative microbiota.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0105.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: depression, bipolar disorder, oxidative and nitrosative stress, neuro-immune, inflammation, cytokines
Online: 8 March 2019 (09:13:40 CET)
Objective: Major depression (MDD) and a lifetime history of MDD are characterized by increased nitrosylation, while bipolar disorder type 1 (BP1), but not BP2, is accompanied by highly increased levels of oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO) production. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether nitrosylation is involved in BP and whether there are differences in nitrosylation between BP1 and BP2.Methods: Serum IgM antibodies directed against nitroso (NO)-adducts were examined in MDD, BP1, BP2 and healthy controls, namely IgM responses to NO-cysteine, NO-tryptophan (NOW), NO-arginine and NO-albumin (SBA) in association with IgA/IgM responses to Gram-negative bacteria, IgG responses to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and serum peroxides.Results: Serum IgM levels against NO adducts were significantly higher in BP1 and MDD as compared with healthy controls, whereas BP2 patients occupied an intermediate position. IgM responses to NO-albumin were significantly higher in BP1 and MDD than in BP2 patients. There were highly significant associations between the IgM responses to NO-adducts and IgG responses to oxLDL and IgA/IgM responses to Gram-negative bacteria.Conclusions: BP1 and MDD are characterized by an upregulation of the nitrosylome (the proteome of nitrosylated proteins), and increased IgM responses to nitrosylated conjugates. Increased nitrosylation may be driven by increased bacterial translocation and is associated with lipid peroxidation processes. Innate like (B1 and marginal zone) B cells and increased nitrosylation may play a key role in the major affective disorders through activation of immune-inflammatory and oxidative pathways, cardiovascular comorbidity and impairments in antioxidant defenses, neuro-glial interactions, synaptic plasticity, neuroprotection, neurogenesis, etc.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0509.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: depression; mood disorders; inflammation; oxidative stress; nitrosative stress; neuro-immune; antioxidants; psychoneuroimmunology
Online: 21 May 2021 (09:36:47 CEST)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is frequently accompanied by affective disorders with a prevalence of comorbid depression of around 25%. Nevertheless, the biomarkers of affective symptoms including depression and anxiety due to T2DM are not well established.Aims: This study was conducted to delineate the serum biomarkers predicting affective symptoms due to T2DM above and beyond the effects of insulin resistance and atherogenicity. Methods: The present study delineated the effects of serum levels of copper, zinc, β-arrestin-1, FBXW7, lactosylceramide (LacCer), serotonin, albumin, calcium, magnesium, IR and atherogenicity on severity of depression and anxiety in 58 men with T2DM and 30 healthy male controls. Severity of affective symptoms was assessed using the Hamilton Depression and Anxiety rating scales.Results: We found that 61.7% of the variance in affective symptoms was explained by the multivariate regression on copper, β-arrestin-1, calcium, and insulin resistance coupled with atherogenicity, while 44.4% of the variance in the latter was explained by copper, β-arrestin-1, LacCer (all positively) and calcium and FBXW7 (both negatively). Copper and LacCer (positive) and calcium and BXW7 (inverse) had significant specific indirect effects on affective symptoms which were mediated by insulin resistance and atherogenicity. Copper, β-arrestin-1, and calcium were associated with affective symptoms above and beyond the effects of insulin resistance and atherogenicity.Discussion: T2DM and affective symptoms share common pathways namely increased atherogenicity, insulin resistance, copper, and β-arrestin-1, and lowered calcium, whereas copper, β-arrestin-1, calcium, LacCer, and FBXW7 may modulate depression and anxiety symptoms by affecting T2DM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0487.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Major depression; Bipolar disorder; Metabolic syndrome; oxidative and nitrosative stress, antioxidants; biomarkers.
Online: 18 March 2021 (15:56:56 CET)
Background: There is a strong comorbidity between mood disorders and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Increased levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) and nitro-oxidative stress toxicity (NOSTOX) partially underpin this comorbidity.Aims: To examine the associations of RONS/NOSTOX biomarkers with MetS after adjusting for the significant effects of mood disorders (major depression, and bipolar type 1 and 2), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), tobacco use disorder (TUD), and male sex.Methods: The study included subjects with (n=65) and without (n=107) MetS and measured levels of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), malondialdehyde (MDA), and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and computed z unit-weighted composite scores which reflect RONS/NOSTOX. The study included 105 patients with mood disorders, 46 with GAD, and 95 with TUD.Results: MetS was associated with increased levels of MDA and AOPP, independently from mood disorders, TUD, sex and GAD. Atherogenicity and insulin resistance (IR) were significantly associated with a NOSTOX composite score. Mood disorders, TUD, GAD, male sex and MetS independently contribute to increased RONS/NOSTOX. The RONS/NOSTOX profile of MetS was different from that of GAD, which showed increased SOD1 and NOx levels. TUD was accompanied by increased SOD1, LOOH and MDA, and male sex by increased LOOH and AOPP.Conclusions: MetS is characterized by increased lipid peroxidation with aldehyde formation and chlorinative stress, and atherogenicity and IR are strongly mediated by RONS/NOSTOX. Partially shared RONS/NOSTOX pathways underpin the comorbidity of MetS with mood disorders, GAD, and TUD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0610.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: mood disorders; major depression; inflammation; neuro-immune; oxidative stress; nitrosative stress; biomarkers
Online: 25 September 2020 (11:48:43 CEST)
Current diagnoses of mood disorders are not cross validated. The aim of the current paper is to explain how machine learning techniques can be used to a) construct a model which ensembles risk/resilience (R/R), adverse outcome pathways (AOPs), staging, and the phenome of mood disorders, and b) disclose new classes based on these feature sets. This study was conducted using data of 67 healthy controls and 105 mood disordered patients. The R/R ratio, assessed as a combination of the paraoxonase 1 (PON1) gene, PON1 enzymatic activity, and early life time trauma (ELT), predicted the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol – paraoxonase 1 complex (HDL-PON1), reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), nitro-oxidative stress toxicity (NOSTOX), staging (number of depression and hypomanic episodes and suicidal attempts), and phenome (the Hamilton Depression and Anxiety scores and the Clinical Global Impression; current suicidal ideation; quality of life and disability measurements) scores. Partial Least Squares pathway analysis showed that 44.2% of the variance in the phenome was explained by ELT, RONS/NOSTOX, and staging scores. Cluster analysis conducted on all those feature sets discovered two distinct patient clusters, namely 69.5% of the patients were allocated to a class with high R/R, RONS/NOSTOX, staging, and phenome scores, and 30.5% to a class with increased staging and phenome scores. This classification cut across the bipolar (BP1/BP2) and major depression disorder classification and was more distinctive than the latter classifications. We constructed a nomothetic network model which reunited all features of mood disorders into a mechanistically transdiagnostic model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0347.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: mood disorders; depression; nitrosative and oxidative stress; IgM autoimmunity; neuro-immune; inflammation
Online: 16 September 2020 (04:17:25 CEST)
Major depression is accompanied by increased IgM-mediated autoimmune responses to oxidative specific epitopes (OSEs). Nevertheless, these responses have not been examined in bipolar disorder type 1 (BP1) and BP2. IgM responses to malondialdehyde (MDA), phosphatidinylinositol, oleic acid, and azelaic acid were determined in 35 healthy controls, and 101 mood disorder patients, namely 47 major depressed (MDD), 29 BP1, and 25 BP2 patients. We also measured serum total peroxides, IgG to oxidized LDL (oxLDL), IgM to nitroso-adducts, and IgM/IgA directed to lipopolysaccharides (LPS). IgM responses to OSEs were significantly higher in MDD and BP1 as compared with controls and higher in MDD than in BP2. Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis showed that 57.7% of the variance in the clinical phenome of mood disorders was explained by number of episodes, IgM directed to OSEs and nitroso-adducts, IgG to oxLDL, and peroxides. There were significant specific indirect effects of IgA/IgM to LPS on the clinical phenome, which were mediated by peroxides, IgM OSEs, and IgG oxLDL. Using PLS we have constructed a data-driven nomothetic network which ensembled causome (increased plasma LPS load), adverse outcome pathways (namely neuro-affective toxicity), and clinical phenome features of mood disorders in a data-driven model. Based on those feature sets, cluster analysis discovered a new diagnostic class characterized by increased plasma LPS load, peroxides, autoimmune responses to OSEs and nitroso-adducts, and increased phenome scores. Using the new nomothetic network approach, we constructed a mechanistically transdiagnostic diagnostic class indicating neuro-affective toxicity in 74.3% of the mood disorder patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0201.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: chronic fatigue syndrome; Myalgic Encephalomyelitis; inflammation; neuro-immune; oxidative and nitrosative stress; antioxidants
Online: 13 September 2021 (10:57:26 CEST)
There is evidence that chronic fatigue spectrum disorders (CFAS-D) including Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and chronic fatigue with physiosomatic symptoms including when due to comorbid medical disease are characterized by neuroimmune and neuro-oxidative biomarkers. The present study was performed to delineate the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of CFAS-D and to discover the pathways, molecular patterns and domains enriched in their PPI network. We performed network, enrichment and annotation analysis using differentially expressed proteins and metabolics, which we established in CFAS-D patients. PPI network analysis revealed that the backbone of the highly connective CFAS-D network comprises NFKB1, CTNNB1, ALB, peroxides, NOS2, TNF, and IL6, and that the network comprises interconnected immune-oxidative-nitrosative and Wnt/catenin subnetworks. MultiOmics enrichment analysis shows that the CFAS-D network is highly significantly associated with cellular (antioxidant) detoxification, hydrogen peroxide metabolic process, peroxidase and oxidoreductase activity, IL10 anti-inflammatory signaling, and neurodegenerative, canonical Wnt, the catenin complex, cadherin domains, cell-cell junctions and TLR2/4 pathways; and the transcription factors NF-κB and RELA. The top-10 DOID annotations of the CFAS-D network include four intestinal, three immune system disorders, cancer and infectious disease. Custom GO term annotation analysis revealed that the CFAS-D network is associated with a response to a toxic substance, lipopolysaccharides, bacterium or virus. In conclusion, CFAS-D may be triggered by a variety of stimuli and their effects are mediated by aberrations in the cross-talks between redox, NF-κB, and Wnt/catenin signaling pathways leading to dysfunctions in multicellular organismal homeostatic processes.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: gut microbiota; Entamoeba histolytica; resistance to oxidative stress; resistance to nitrosative stress; virulence
Online: 24 February 2021 (16:26:55 CET)
Amebiasis is a disease caused by the unicellular parasite Entamoeba histolytica. In most cases, the infection is asymptomatic but when symptomatic, the infection can cause dysentery and invasive extraintestinal complications. In the gut, E.histolytica feeds on bacteria. Increasing evidences support the role of the gut microbiota in the development of the disease. In this review we will discuss the consequences of E.histolytica infection on the gut microbiota. We will also discuss new evidences about the role of the gut microbiota in regulating the resistance of the parasite to oxi-dative stress and its virulence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0457.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: deficit schizophrenia; neuro-immune; inflammation; oxidative and nitrosative stress; antioxidants; biomarkers; IgM; autoimmune
Online: 18 December 2020 (11:50:42 CET)
Recently, a breakdown of paracellular and vascular pathways and activated neuroimmune and oxidative pathways were established in (deficit) schizophrenia. The aim of the current study was to delineate a) the differences in these pathways between stable phase, first (FES) and multiple (MES) episode schizophrenia, and b) the pathways that determine the behavioral-cognitive-physical-psychosocial (BCPS)-worsening in FES/MES. This study included 21 FES and 58 FES patients and 40 healthy controls and measured indicants of serum IgA to C1q, and leaky gut, immune activation, and oxidative stress toxicity (OSTOX) biomarkers. We constructed a BCPS-worsening index by extracting a latent vector from symptomatic, neurocognitive, and quality of life data. FES patients showed significantly higher IgA to C1q, cadherin, catenin, plasmalemma vesicle-associated protein, and IgA/IgM to Gram-negative bacteria than FES patients and controls. In FES patients, the BCPS-worsening score was predicted (48.7%) by IgA to Klebsiella pneumoniae and lowered paraoxonase 1 activity. In MES patients, the BCPS-worsening score was explained (42.7%) by increased tumor necrosis factor-α, OSTOX, and number of episodes. In schizophrenia, 34.0% of the variance in the BCPS-worsening score was explained by IgA to K. pneumoniae, OSTOX, and number of episodes. Increased IgA to K. pneumoniae was the single best predictor of residual psychotic symptoms in FES and MES. This study delineated different mechanistic processes in FES, including breakdown of adherens junctions, bacterial translocation, and C1q circulating immune complexes; and FES, including immune and oxidative stress neurotoxic pathways. FES and MES comprise different staging subtypes, i.e., FES and MES with and without worsening.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0484.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: Chronic alcohol; Thiamine Deficiency; Disinhibition; Wernicke´s Encephalopathy; Recognition memory; Nitrosative stress; Lipid peroxidation; Apoptosis; Cell damage; Nutritional deficit
Online: 25 November 2021 (16:03:13 CET)
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) is induced by thiamine deficiency (TD) and mainly related to alcohol consumption. Frontal cortex dysfunction has been associated to impulsivity and disinhibition in WKS patients. The pathophysiology involves oxidative stress, excitotoxicity and inflammatory responses leading to neuronal death, but the relative contributions of each factor (alcohol and TD, isolate or in interaction) to these phenomena are still poorly understood. A rat model was used by forced consumption of 20% (w/v) alcohol for 9 months (CA), TD hit (TD diet + pyrithiamine 0.25 mg/kg, i.p. daily injections the last 12 days of experimentation; TDD), and both combined treatments (CA+TDD). Motor and cognitive performance and cortical damage were examined. CA caused hyperlocomotion as a possible sensitization of ethanol-induced excitatory effects and recognition memory deficits. In addition, CA+TDD animals showed a disinhibited-like behavior, which appears to be dependent on TDD. Also, combined treatment led to more pronounced alterations in nitrosative stress, lipid peroxidation, apoptosis and cell damage markers. Correlations between injury signals and disinhibition suggest that CA+TDD disrupts behaviors dependent on the frontal cortex. Our study sheds light on the potential disease-specific mechanisms, reinforcing the need for neuroprotective therapeutic approaches along with preventive treatments for the nutritional deficiency in WKS.