Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

The Tryptophan Catabolite or Kynurenine Pathway in Schizophrenia: Meta-Analysis Reveals Dissociations Between Central, Serum and Plasma Compartments

Version 1 : Received: 16 December 2021 / Approved: 20 December 2021 / Online: 20 December 2021 (09:56:45 CET)

How to cite: Almulla, A.F.; Vasupanrajit, A.; Tunvirachaisakul, C.; Al-Hakeim, H.K.; Solmi, M.; Verkerk, R.; Maes, M. The Tryptophan Catabolite or Kynurenine Pathway in Schizophrenia: Meta-Analysis Reveals Dissociations Between Central, Serum and Plasma Compartments. Preprints 2021, 2021120301 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202112.0301.v1). Almulla, A.F.; Vasupanrajit, A.; Tunvirachaisakul, C.; Al-Hakeim, H.K.; Solmi, M.; Verkerk, R.; Maes, M. The Tryptophan Catabolite or Kynurenine Pathway in Schizophrenia: Meta-Analysis Reveals Dissociations Between Central, Serum and Plasma Compartments. Preprints 2021, 2021120301 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202112.0301.v1).

Abstract

The tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway is implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SCZ) since the rate-limiting enzyme indoleamine-dioxygenase (IDO) may be induced by inflammatory and oxidative stress mediators. This systematic review searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar for papers published from inception until August 2021 and meta-analyzed the association between SCZ and TRYCATs in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral blood. We included 61 studies comprising 2813 patients and 2948 healthy controls. In the CNS we found a significant (p<0.001) increase in the kynurenine/tryptophan (KYN/TRP) (standardized mean difference, SMD=0.769, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.456; 1.082) and kynurenic acid (KA)/KYN+TRP (SMD=0.697, CI:0.478-0.917) ratios, KA (SMD=0.646, CI: 0.422; 0.909) and KYN (SMD=1.238; CI: 0.590; 1.886), while the 3OH-kynurenine (3HK) + KYN-3-monooxygenase (KMO)/KYN ratio was significantly reduced (SMD=-1.089, CI: -1.682; -0.496). There were significant differences between KYN/TRP, (KYN+KA)/TRP, (3HK+KMO)/KYN, KA, and KYN levels among the CNS and peripheral blood, and among serum and plasma KYN. The only useful peripheral marker of CNS TRYCATs findings was the increased KYN/TRP ratio in serum (SMD=0.211, CI: 0.056; 0.366, p=0.007), but not in plasma. There was no significant increase in a neurotoxic composite score based on KYN, 3HK, and picolinic, xanthurenic, and quinolinic acid. SCZ is accompanied by increased IDO activity in the CNS and serum, and reduced KMO activity and a shift towards KA production in the CNS. This CNS TRYCATs profile indicates neuroprotective, negative immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Peripheral blood levels of TRYCATs are dissociated from CNS findings except for a modest increase in serum IDO activity.

Keywords

Schizophrenia; indoleamine-dioxygenase; inflammation; neuro-immune; oxidative and nitrosative stress; biomarkers

Subject

MEDICINE & PHARMACOLOGY, Psychiatry & Mental Health studies

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