Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Increased Nitro-Oxidative Toxicity in Association With Metabolic Syndrome, Atherogenicity and Insulin Resistance in Patients With Affective Disorders

Version 1 : Received: 17 March 2021 / Approved: 18 March 2021 / Online: 18 March 2021 (15:56:56 CET)

How to cite: Morelli, N.; Maes, M.; Bonifacio, K.; Vargas, H.; Nunes, S.; Barbosa, D. Increased Nitro-Oxidative Toxicity in Association With Metabolic Syndrome, Atherogenicity and Insulin Resistance in Patients With Affective Disorders. Preprints 2021, 2021030487 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202103.0487.v1). Morelli, N.; Maes, M.; Bonifacio, K.; Vargas, H.; Nunes, S.; Barbosa, D. Increased Nitro-Oxidative Toxicity in Association With Metabolic Syndrome, Atherogenicity and Insulin Resistance in Patients With Affective Disorders. Preprints 2021, 2021030487 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202103.0487.v1).

Abstract

Background: There is a strong comorbidity between mood disorders and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Increased levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) and nitro-oxidative stress toxicity (NOSTOX) partially underpin this comorbidity.Aims: To examine the associations of RONS/NOSTOX biomarkers with MetS after adjusting for the significant effects of mood disorders (major depression, and bipolar type 1 and 2), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), tobacco use disorder (TUD), and male sex.Methods: The study included subjects with (n=65) and without (n=107) MetS and measured levels of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), malondialdehyde (MDA), and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and computed z unit-weighted composite scores which reflect RONS/NOSTOX. The study included 105 patients with mood disorders, 46 with GAD, and 95 with TUD.Results: MetS was associated with increased levels of MDA and AOPP, independently from mood disorders, TUD, sex and GAD. Atherogenicity and insulin resistance (IR) were significantly associated with a NOSTOX composite score. Mood disorders, TUD, GAD, male sex and MetS independently contribute to increased RONS/NOSTOX. The RONS/NOSTOX profile of MetS was different from that of GAD, which showed increased SOD1 and NOx levels. TUD was accompanied by increased SOD1, LOOH and MDA, and male sex by increased LOOH and AOPP.Conclusions: MetS is characterized by increased lipid peroxidation with aldehyde formation and chlorinative stress, and atherogenicity and IR are strongly mediated by RONS/NOSTOX. Partially shared RONS/NOSTOX pathways underpin the comorbidity of MetS with mood disorders, GAD, and TUD.

Keywords

Major depression; Bipolar disorder; Metabolic syndrome; oxidative and nitrosative stress, antioxidants; biomarkers.

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