Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Increased Autoimmune Responses to Oxidative Specific Epitopes in Bipolar Disorder Type 1 and Major Depression: Towards A Data-Driven, Mechanistic Model of Mood Disorders

Version 1 : Received: 15 September 2020 / Approved: 16 September 2020 / Online: 16 September 2020 (04:17:25 CEST)

How to cite: Stoyanov, D.; Leunis, J.; Murdjeva, M.; Maes, M. Increased Autoimmune Responses to Oxidative Specific Epitopes in Bipolar Disorder Type 1 and Major Depression: Towards A Data-Driven, Mechanistic Model of Mood Disorders. Preprints 2020, 2020090347 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202009.0347.v1). Stoyanov, D.; Leunis, J.; Murdjeva, M.; Maes, M. Increased Autoimmune Responses to Oxidative Specific Epitopes in Bipolar Disorder Type 1 and Major Depression: Towards A Data-Driven, Mechanistic Model of Mood Disorders. Preprints 2020, 2020090347 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202009.0347.v1).

Abstract

Major depression is accompanied by increased IgM-mediated autoimmune responses to oxidative specific epitopes (OSEs). Nevertheless, these responses have not been examined in bipolar disorder type 1 (BP1) and BP2. IgM responses to malondialdehyde (MDA), phosphatidinylinositol, oleic acid, and azelaic acid were determined in 35 healthy controls, and 101 mood disorder patients, namely 47 major depressed (MDD), 29 BP1, and 25 BP2 patients. We also measured serum total peroxides, IgG to oxidized LDL (oxLDL), IgM to nitroso-adducts, and IgM/IgA directed to lipopolysaccharides (LPS). IgM responses to OSEs were significantly higher in MDD and BP1 as compared with controls and higher in MDD than in BP2. Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis showed that 57.7% of the variance in the clinical phenome of mood disorders was explained by number of episodes, IgM directed to OSEs and nitroso-adducts, IgG to oxLDL, and peroxides. There were significant specific indirect effects of IgA/IgM to LPS on the clinical phenome, which were mediated by peroxides, IgM OSEs, and IgG oxLDL. Using PLS we have constructed a data-driven nomothetic network which ensembled causome (increased plasma LPS load), adverse outcome pathways (namely neuro-affective toxicity), and clinical phenome features of mood disorders in a data-driven model. Based on those feature sets, cluster analysis discovered a new diagnostic class characterized by increased plasma LPS load, peroxides, autoimmune responses to OSEs and nitroso-adducts, and increased phenome scores. Using the new nomothetic network approach, we constructed a mechanistically transdiagnostic diagnostic class indicating neuro-affective toxicity in 74.3% of the mood disorder patients.

Subject Areas

mood disorders; depression; nitrosative and oxidative stress; IgM autoimmunity; neuro-immune; inflammation

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