Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Intersections between Copper, β-Arrestin-1, Calcium, FBXW7, CD17, Insulin Resistance and Atherogenicity Mediate Depression and Anxiety Due to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Nomothetic Network Approach

Version 1 : Received: 20 May 2021 / Approved: 21 May 2021 / Online: 21 May 2021 (09:36:47 CEST)

How to cite: Al-Hakeim, H.; Hadi, H.; Jawad, G.; Maes, M. Intersections between Copper, β-Arrestin-1, Calcium, FBXW7, CD17, Insulin Resistance and Atherogenicity Mediate Depression and Anxiety Due to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Nomothetic Network Approach. Preprints 2021, 2021050509 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202105.0509.v1). Al-Hakeim, H.; Hadi, H.; Jawad, G.; Maes, M. Intersections between Copper, β-Arrestin-1, Calcium, FBXW7, CD17, Insulin Resistance and Atherogenicity Mediate Depression and Anxiety Due to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Nomothetic Network Approach. Preprints 2021, 2021050509 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202105.0509.v1).

Abstract

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is frequently accompanied by affective disorders with a prevalence of comorbid depression of around 25%. Nevertheless, the biomarkers of affective symptoms including depression and anxiety due to T2DM are not well established.Aims: This study was conducted to delineate the serum biomarkers predicting affective symptoms due to T2DM above and beyond the effects of insulin resistance and atherogenicity. Methods: The present study delineated the effects of serum levels of copper, zinc, β-arrestin-1, FBXW7, lactosylceramide (LacCer), serotonin, albumin, calcium, magnesium, IR and atherogenicity on severity of depression and anxiety in 58 men with T2DM and 30 healthy male controls. Severity of affective symptoms was assessed using the Hamilton Depression and Anxiety rating scales.Results: We found that 61.7% of the variance in affective symptoms was explained by the multivariate regression on copper, β-arrestin-1, calcium, and insulin resistance coupled with atherogenicity, while 44.4% of the variance in the latter was explained by copper, β-arrestin-1, LacCer (all positively) and calcium and FBXW7 (both negatively). Copper and LacCer (positive) and calcium and BXW7 (inverse) had significant specific indirect effects on affective symptoms which were mediated by insulin resistance and atherogenicity. Copper, β-arrestin-1, and calcium were associated with affective symptoms above and beyond the effects of insulin resistance and atherogenicity.Discussion: T2DM and affective symptoms share common pathways namely increased atherogenicity, insulin resistance, copper, and β-arrestin-1, and lowered calcium, whereas copper, β-arrestin-1, calcium, LacCer, and FBXW7 may modulate depression and anxiety symptoms by affecting T2DM.

Keywords

depression; mood disorders; inflammation; oxidative stress; nitrosative stress; neuro-immune; antioxidants; psychoneuroimmunology

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