Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Inflammation and Nitro-Oxidative Stress in Current Suicidal Attempts and Current Suicidal Ideation: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Version 1 : Received: 7 September 2021 / Approved: 8 September 2021 / Online: 8 September 2021 (20:03:03 CEST)

How to cite: Vasupanrajit, A.; Jirakran, K.; Tunvirachaisakul, C.; Solmi, M.; Maes, M. Inflammation and Nitro-Oxidative Stress in Current Suicidal Attempts and Current Suicidal Ideation: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Preprints 2021, 2021090159 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202109.0159.v1). Vasupanrajit, A.; Jirakran, K.; Tunvirachaisakul, C.; Solmi, M.; Maes, M. Inflammation and Nitro-Oxidative Stress in Current Suicidal Attempts and Current Suicidal Ideation: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Preprints 2021, 2021090159 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202109.0159.v1).

Abstract

A meta-analysis showed a significant association between activated immune-inflammatory and nitro-oxidative (IO&NS) pathways and suicide attempts (SA). There are no data whether suicidal ideation (SI) is accompanied by activated IO&NS pathways and whether there are differences between SA and SI. The current study searched PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science, for articles published from inception until May 10, 2021, and systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed the association between recent SA/SI (< 3 months) and IO&NS biomarkers. We included studies which compared psychiatric patients with and without SA and SI and controls (either healthy controls or patients without SA or SI) and used meta-analysis (random-effect model with restricted maximum-likelihood) to delineate effect sizes with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Our search included 59 studies comprising 4.034 SA/SI cases and 12.377 controls. Patients with SA/SI showed activated IO&NS pathways (SMD: 0.299; CI: 0.200; 0.397) when compared to controls. The immune profiles were more strongly associated with SA than with SI, particularly when compared to healthy controls, as evidenced by activated IO&NS pathways (SMD: 0.796; CI: 0.503; 1.089), an immune-inflammatory response (SMD: 1.409; CI: 0.637; 1.462), inflammation (SMD: 1.200; CI: 0.584; 1.816), and neurotoxicity (SMD: 0.904; CI: 0.431; 1.378). The effects sizes of the IO&NS, immune-inflammatory response and inflammatory profile were significantly greater in SA than in SI. In conclusion: increased neurotoxicity due to inflammation and nitro-oxidative stress and lowered neuroprotection may explain at least in part why psychiatric patients show increased SA and SI. The IO&NS pathways are more pronounced in recent SA than in SI.

Keywords

suicide; neuro-immune; inflammation; oxidative and nitrosative stress; depression; mood disorders; schizophrenia; psychiatry

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