Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Upregulation of the Nitrosylome in Bipolar Disorder Type 1 (BP1), but not BP2, and Major Depression: Increased IgM Antibodies to Nitrosylated Conjugates are Associated with Indicants of Leaky Gut

Version 1 : Received: 7 March 2019 / Approved: 8 March 2019 / Online: 8 March 2019 (09:13:40 CET)

How to cite: Maes, M.; Simeonova, D.; Stoyanov, D.; Leunis, J. Upregulation of the Nitrosylome in Bipolar Disorder Type 1 (BP1), but not BP2, and Major Depression: Increased IgM Antibodies to Nitrosylated Conjugates are Associated with Indicants of Leaky Gut. Preprints 2019, 2019030105 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201903.0105.v1). Maes, M.; Simeonova, D.; Stoyanov, D.; Leunis, J. Upregulation of the Nitrosylome in Bipolar Disorder Type 1 (BP1), but not BP2, and Major Depression: Increased IgM Antibodies to Nitrosylated Conjugates are Associated with Indicants of Leaky Gut. Preprints 2019, 2019030105 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201903.0105.v1).

Abstract

Objective: Major depression (MDD) and a lifetime history of MDD are characterized by increased nitrosylation, while bipolar disorder type 1 (BP1), but not BP2, is accompanied by highly increased levels of oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO) production. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether nitrosylation is involved in BP and whether there are differences in nitrosylation between BP1 and BP2.Methods: Serum IgM antibodies directed against nitroso (NO)-adducts were examined in MDD, BP1, BP2 and healthy controls, namely IgM responses to NO-cysteine, NO-tryptophan (NOW), NO-arginine and NO-albumin (SBA) in association with IgA/IgM responses to Gram-negative bacteria, IgG responses to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and serum peroxides.Results: Serum IgM levels against NO adducts were significantly higher in BP1 and MDD as compared with healthy controls, whereas BP2 patients occupied an intermediate position. IgM responses to NO-albumin were significantly higher in BP1 and MDD than in BP2 patients. There were highly significant associations between the IgM responses to NO-adducts and IgG responses to oxLDL and IgA/IgM responses to Gram-negative bacteria.Conclusions: BP1 and MDD are characterized by an upregulation of the nitrosylome (the proteome of nitrosylated proteins), and increased IgM responses to nitrosylated conjugates. Increased nitrosylation may be driven by increased bacterial translocation and is associated with lipid peroxidation processes. Innate like (B1 and marginal zone) B cells and increased nitrosylation may play a key role in the major affective disorders through activation of immune-inflammatory and oxidative pathways, cardiovascular comorbidity and impairments in antioxidant defenses, neuro-glial interactions, synaptic plasticity, neuroprotection, neurogenesis, etc.

Subject Areas

depression, bipolar disorder, oxidative and nitrosative stress, neuro-immune, inflammation, cytokines

Comments (0)

We encourage comments and feedback from a broad range of readers. See criteria for comments and our diversity statement.

Leave a public comment
Send a private comment to the author(s)
Views 0
Downloads 0
Comments 0
Metrics 0


×
Alerts
Notify me about updates to this article or when a peer-reviewed version is published.