ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0198.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Postharvest storage; fruit firmness; total soluble solids; apple cultivars; apple packaging; apple maturity
Online: 8 June 2021 (09:15:30 CEST)
This research was conducted to understand changes of physicochemical properties of fruits of three apple cultivars as influenced by stage of maturity and packaging types over storage period of three weeks. The research was designed to replicate practices by the producers and along the value chains and to assess the fruit quality under the conditions of the major markets in the region. All the measured physicochemical parameters significantly varied with the cultivars, maturity stage at harvest and packaging types. Higher firmness was recorded for the samples harvested about two weeks before the optimal maturity, usually practiced by significant number of producers to gain market advantage. Lower total soluble solids corresponded to the early harvested samples regardless of cultivars and packaging types. The firmness was observed decreasing over the storage periods whereas the total soluble solids increased, which is associated to improving sensorial quality for the early harvested cultivars as the soluble solids are mainly sugars. The early harvesting resulted in fruits of inferior desirability including extreme hardness, firmness and low total soluble solids that may have high sourness and less sweet taste. Awareness creation for the producers on the quality and advantages of harvesting their produces at optimal maturity and practicing good postharvest management is required.
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: reflectance; hyperspectral imaging; pigments; damages; apple fruit
Online: 2 February 2021 (12:58:42 CET)
Reflected light carries ample information about biochemical composition, tissue architecture, and physiological condition of plants. Recent technical progress brought about affordable imaging hyperspectrometers (IH) providing spatially resolved spectral data on plants. The extraction of sensible information from hyperspectral reflectance images is difficult due to inherent complexity of plant tissue and canopy optics, especially when recorded by IH under ambient sunlight. We aimed at obtaining a deeper insight into plant optics as perceived by IH since there is a high demand for algorithms for fruit harvesting and grading systems equipped with computer vision and robotic systems capable of working in orchard. We report on the characteristic changes in hyperspectral reflectance accompanying the accumulation of anthocyanins in healthy fruit, pigment breakdown during sunscald and phytopathogen attacks. The measurements made outdoors with a snapshot IH were compared with traditional “point” reflectance measured with a conventional spectrophotometer under controlled illumination conditions. Most of the spectral features and patterns of plant reflectance were evident in the IH-derived reflectance images. As a step forward, a novel index for highlighting tissue damages on the background of the anthocyanin absorption, BRI-M = (1/Rorange – 1/Rred + 1/RNIR), is suggested. Difficulties of the interpretation of fruit hyperspectral reflectance images recorded in situ are discussed with possible implications for plant physiology and precision horticulture practices.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0271.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Annonaceae; Annona; custard apple; phytochemistry; bioactivity; pharmacological activity
Online: 28 April 2022 (04:16:02 CEST)
In 1789, the Annonaceae family was cataloged by de Jussieu. It encompasses tropical and subtropical plants which are widespread in distribution across various continents such as Asia, South and Central America, Australia and Africa. The genus of Annona is one of the 120 genera of the Annonaceae family and contains more than 119 species of trees and shrubs. The majority of these species are found in tropical America with more than 105 species (26 of them are endemic). Due to its edible fruits and medicinal properties, Annona is the most important genus of Annonaceae family. Despite Annona having many species, only limited species of this family are economically important such as A. squamosa L. (sugar apple), A. cherimola Mill. (Cherimoya), A. muricata L. (guanabana or soursop), A. atemoya Mabb. (atemoya), a hybrid between A. cherimola and A. squamosa, A. reticulata L. (custard apple), A. glabra L. (pond-apple) and A. macroprophyllata Donn. Sm. (ilama). Phytochemically, several classes of secondary metabolites such as acetogenins, essential oils, alkaloids, terpenoids and flavonoids have been described in this genus. A variety of pharmacological activities have been reported from various parts of Annona species specially leaves and seeds including applications against antibacterial, anticancer, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0597.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Vis/NIR; repeated longitudinal measurements; apple maturation; precision horticulture
Online: 28 January 2021 (22:24:35 CET)
Optical sensor data can be used to determine changes in anthocyanins, chlorophyll and soluble solids content (SSC) in apple production. In this study, visible and near-infrared spectra (729 to 975 nm) were transformed to SSC values by advanced multivariate calibration models i.e. partial least square regression (PLSR) in order to test the substitution of destructive chemical analyses through non-destructive optical measurements. Spectral field scans were carried out from 2016 to 2018 on marked ’Braeburn’ apples in Southwest Germany. The study combines an in-depth statistical analyses of longitudinal SSC values with horticultural knowledge to set guidelines for further applied use of SSC predictions in the orchard to gain insights into apple carbohydrate physiology. The PLSR models were investigated with respect to sample size, seasonal variation, laboratory errors and the explanatory power of PLSR models when applied to independent samples. As a result of Monte Carlo simulations, PLSR modelled SSC only depended to a minor extent on the absolute number and accuracy of the wet chemistry laboratory calibration measurements. The comparison between non-destructive SSC determinations in the orchard with standard destructive lab testing at harvest on an independent sample showed mean differences of 0.5 % SSC over all study years. SSC modelling with longitudinal linear mixed-effect (LME) models linked high crop loads to lower SSC values at harvest and higher SSC values for fruit from the top part of a tree.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0336.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: apple; fruit size; fruit development; cell division; cell expansion; ripening
Online: 24 June 2022 (09:46:09 CEST)
Apple (Malus x domestica) fruit size is dependent on cell division and cell expansion, processes which are subsequently regulated by plant hormones such as auxins, gibberellins, and cytokinins. In this study, we investigated the role of cell division and cell expansion in apple growth and identified which of the two was more deterministic to final fruit size. Three cultivars of different sizes were selected, namely, ‘Twenty Ounce’ (large-sized), ‘Royal Gala’ (medium-sized), and ‘Crabapple’ (small-sized). Gene expression and cell size analyses were conducted over the course of two consecutive seasons. The expression patterns of three classes of genes were markedly similar across all cultivars. Two cell division markers, namely, MdCDKB2;2 and MdANT2, were discovered to be correlatively expressed as both displayed initially high expression levels, which gradually declined from the early to late stages of growth time course. For cell expansion markers, MdEXP3 was upregulated as the cells expanded, while MdARF106 was expressed in both the cell division and expansion stages. Meanwhile, the ripening related gene MdACO1 was expectedly expressed only during the ending stages associated with ripening. Interestingly, the cell measurements taken regularly from each cultivar throughout the same eperimental timespan showed that cell sizes were unaltered and remained constant from initial pollination at the zeroth Days After Pollination (DAP), to ripening at 120 Days After Full Bloom (DAFB).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0387.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: ice cream; sheep's milk; probiotics; apple fiber; inulin; Bifidobacterium; Lactobacillus
Online: 17 February 2021 (12:19:50 CET)
The aim of the study was to assess the effect of the addition of inulin and the replacement of part of inulin with apple fiber on the physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Moreover, the survival of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. Lactis Bb-12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus was studied in sheep milk ice cream. There was no effect of apple fiber and the type of bacteria on the number of bacteria of the probiotics after fermentation. As a result of freezing, mixture containing Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. Lactis Bb-12, there was a significant reduction in the bacterial from 0.39 log cfu g −1 to 0.46 log cfu g −1. In all ice cream on the 21st day of storage, it exceeded 10 log cfu g –1, which means that the ice cream retained the status of probiotic products. The Lactobacillus rhamnosus ice cream showed a lower yellow colour compared to the Bifidobacterium Bb-12 ice cream. The overrun of sheep's milk ice cream was within a range from 78.50% to 80.41%. The appearance of sheep's milk ice cream is influenced considerably by the addition of fiber and the type of bacteria and the interaction between the type of bacteria and the addition of fiber and storage time and fiber.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0066.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Raman spectra; mixed pesticides; apple; correction method; rapid; real-time
Online: 5 April 2019 (15:17:24 CEST)
In the study, a new correction method was applied to reduce error during detection on mixed pesticide residue in apples by using Raman spectra. Combined with self-built pesticide residues detection system by Raman spectroscopy and the application of surface enhancement technology, rapid real-time qualitative and quantitative analysis of deltamethrin and acetamiprid residues in apples can be applied effectively. In quantitative analysis, compared with the intensity value of characteristic peaks of single pesticide with same concentration, the intensity value of characteristic peaks of the two pesticides decreased after mixing the pesticides, which interferes the results severely. By comparing the difference in the intensity of characteristic peaks of single and mixed pesticides, a correction method is proposed to eliminate the influence of pesticides mixture. Characteristic peak intensity values of gradient concentration pesticide from 10-1 g•kg-1 to 10-6 g•kg-1 and Lagrangian interpolation are applied in the correction method. And a smooth surface is applied to describe the correction ratio of characteristic peak intensity. Through detecting the characteristic peak intensity values of the mixed pesticide, correction ratio will be obtained. Then real values of the peak intensity of pesticides and the content of each component of the mixed pesticide will be acquired by the correction method. Correlation coefficient of model validation exceeds 0.88 generally and Root Mean Square Error also decreases obviously after correction, which proved the reliability of the method.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0329.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Apple Watch; wearable sensor; pulse rate; arrhythmia; atrial fibrillation; case report
Online: 24 May 2022 (09:49:08 CEST)
Consumer rhythm-monitoring devices, such as the Apple Watch, are becoming more readily available. Irregular pulses can be detected using an optical sensor built into the wearable device. The Apple Watch (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA, USA) is a class II medical device with pulse rate and electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring capabilities. Here we report a case in which an arrhythmia that was conventionally perceived but undiagnosed was identified as atrial fibrillation by self-acquisition of ECG data using an Apple Watch.
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: Electronic nose; apple; mildew; pattern recognition; artificial neural network; nondestructive examination
Online: 21 March 2019 (09:54:00 CET)
In this paper, PEN3 electronic nose was used to detect and recognize fresh and moldy apples (inoculated with Penicillium expansum and Aspergillusniger) taken Golden Delicious apples as model subject. Firstly, the apples were divided into two groups: apples only inoculated with different molds (Group A) and mixed apples of inoculated apples with fresh apples (Group B). Then the characteristic gas sensors of the PEN3 electronic nose that were most closely correlated with the flavor information of the moldy apples were optimized and determined, which can simplify the analysis process and improve the accuracy of results. Four pattern recognition methods, including linear discriminant analysis (LDA), backpropagation neural network (BPNN), support vector machines (SVM) and radial basis function neural network (RBFNN), were then applied to analyze the data obtained from the characteristic sensors, respectively, aiming at establishing the prediction model of flavor information and fresh/moldy apples. The results showed that only the gas sensors of W1S, W2S, W5S, W1W and W2W in the PEN3 electronic nose exhibited strong signal response to the flavor information, indicating were most closely correlated with the characteristic flavor of apples and thus the data obtained from these characteristic sensors was used for modeling. The results of the four pattern recognition methods showed that BPNN presented the best prediction performance for the training and validation sets for both the Group A and Group B, with prediction accuracies of 96.29% and 90.00% (Group A), 77.70% and 72.00% (Group B), respectively. Therefore, it first demonstrated that PEN3 electronic nose can not only effectively detect and recognize the fresh and moldy apples, but also can distinguish apples inoculated with different molds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0236.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: apple vinegar; sodium diacetate; high moisture maize grain; aerobic stability; infrared thermography
Online: 17 January 2022 (15:21:36 CET)
This study was carried out to determine the effects of apple vinegar and sodium diacetate addition on the aerobic stability of fermented high moisture maize grain (HMM) silage after opening. In the study, the effect of three different levels (0, 0.5, 1.0%) of apple vinegar (AV) and sodium diacetate (SDA) supplementation to fermented HMM at two different storage conditions (27-29°C, 48% Humidity; 35-37°C, 26% Humidity) were investigated. The material of the study was fermented rolled maize grain with 62% moisture content stored for about 120 days. Silage samples were subjected to aerobic stability test with 3 replicates for each treatment group. Wendee and microbiological analyses were made at 0, 2, 4, 7, and 12 days. Meanwhile, samples were displayed in the T200 IR brand thermal camera. According to the thermogram results, 1% SDA addition positively affected HMM silages at the second and fourth days of aerobic stability at both storage conditions (p<0.05). Aerobic stability and infrared thermography analysis indicated that 1% AV, 0.5%, and 1% SDA additions to HMM silages had promising effects. Due to our results, we concluded that thermal camera images might be used as an alternative quality indicator for silages in laboratory conditions.
Subject: Biology, Horticulture Keywords: Tagetes; marigold; apple replant disease; nematodes; pest control; soil biome management; Malus
Online: 13 October 2021 (15:37:51 CEST)
Apple replant disease (ARD) is a severe problem in orchards and tree nurseries caused by yet unknown soil biota that accumulate over replanting cycles. This study tested the contribution of nematodes to ARD, and cultivation of Tagetes as a control option. In a pot experiment, Tagetes patula or Tagetes tenuifolia were grown in ARD soil, incorporated or removed. Nematodes extracted from untreated ARD soil and washed on 20 µm-sieves induced ARD symptoms when inoculated to apple saplings growing in a sterile substrate. In contrast, nematodes from Tagetes treated ARD soil did not reduce root growth compared to uninoculated plants, irrespective of Tagetes species and incorporation. In plots of five apple tree nurseries or orchards, either Tagetes or grass was grown on ARD soil. Nematodes extracted from the grass plots and inoculated to apple saplings significantly reduced plant growth compared to nematodes from Tagetes plots for all five farms. Apple rootstocks showed overall a significantly higher increase in shoot base diameter when grown on Tagetes-treated plots compared to grass plots, while this effect differed among farms. Plant-parasitic nematodes were too low in abundance to explain plant damage. In conclusion, the free-living nematodes involved in ARD can be controlled by Tagetes.