: Received: 8 October 2021 / Approved: 11 October 2021 / Online: 11 October 2021 (14:11:14 CEST)
: Received: 11 October 2021 / Approved: 13 October 2021 / Online: 13 October 2021 (15:37:51 CEST)
Kanfra, X.; Obawolu, T.; Wrede, A.; Strolka, B.; Winkelmann, T.; Hardeweg, B.; Heuer, H. Alleviation of Nematode-Mediated Apple Replant Disease by Pre-Cultivation of Tagetes. Horticulturae2021, 7, 433.
Kanfra, X.; Obawolu, T.; Wrede, A.; Strolka, B.; Winkelmann, T.; Hardeweg, B.; Heuer, H. Alleviation of Nematode-Mediated Apple Replant Disease by Pre-Cultivation of Tagetes. Horticulturae 2021, 7, 433.
Apple replant disease (ARD) is a severe problem in orchards and tree nurseries caused by yet unknown soil biota that accumulate over replanting cycles. This study tested the contribution of nematodes to ARD, and cultivation of Tagetes as a control option. In a pot experiment, Tagetes patula or Tagetes tenuifolia were grown in ARD soil, incorporated or removed. Nematodes extracted from untreated ARD soil and washed on 20 µm-sieves induced ARD symptoms when inoculated to apple saplings growing in a sterile substrate. In contrast, nematodes from Tagetes treated ARD soil did not reduce root growth compared to uninoculated plants, irrespective of Tagetes species and incorporation. In plots of five apple tree nurseries or orchards, either Tagetes or grass was grown on ARD soil. Nematodes extracted from the grass plots and inoculated to apple saplings significantly reduced plant growth compared to nematodes from Tagetes plots for all five farms. Apple rootstocks showed overall a significantly higher increase in shoot base diameter when grown on Tagetes-treated plots compared to grass plots, while this effect differed among farms. Plant-parasitic nematodes were too low in abundance to explain plant damage. In conclusion, the free-living nematodes involved in ARD can be controlled by Tagetes.
Tagetes; marigold; apple replant disease; nematodes; pest control; soil biome management; Malus
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.